Chinese: 振藩 李
|Also Known As:||"Lee Jun Fan", "Lee Yun Gaam", "Lee Siu Lung"|
|Birthplace:||San Francisco, CA, USA|
|Death:||Died in Hong Kong|
|Cause of death:||Cerebral edema|
|Place of Burial:||Seattle, WA, USA|
Son of 李海泉 LEE Hoi Chuen and <private> Lee (Ho 何愛瑜)
|Managed by:||Christine Marcella DeVillier - ...|
Historical records matching Bruce Lee 李小龍
<private> Cadwell (Emery)spouse
<private> Keasler (Lee 李香凝)child
<private> Lee Cadwell (Emery)spouse
<private> Keasler (Lee)child
<private> Lee (Ho 何愛瑜)parent
<private> Lee 李秋源sibling
<private> Lee 李秋鳳sibling
About Bruce Lee 李小龍
At the time of his sudden and mysterious death in 1973, actor and martial arts expert Bruce Lee was on the verge of international super-stardom. Rooted strongly in both Oriental and Western cultures, Lee brought to the ancient Chinese fighting art of kung fu the grace of a ballet dancer. He was an actor as well, and infused his performances with humor and a dramatic sensibility that assured a place for king fu films as a new form of cinematic art.
Raised in San Francisco, California, Hong Kong, and Seattle, Washington, Lee had gained his first American audience with a groundbreaking role on the 1966-67 television series The Green Hornet. Eager to challenge Hollywood's stereotypical images of Asian Americans, he returned to Hong Kong and ultimately developed his own style of kung fu. On the strength of his film, Enter the Dragon (1973), Lee returned to the attention of American audiences and posthumously ushered in a new era of cinematic art. Stars such as David Carradine, Chuck Norris, Jean-Claude Van Damme, Steven Seagal, and fellow Hong Kong martial artist Jackie Chan would follow his example, making Lee the father of an enduring style of action hero.
In 1939 Lee's father, a popular Chinese opera star, brought his wife and three children with him from Hong Kong to San Francisco while he toured the United States as a performer. At the end of the following year, on November 27, 1940, another son was born to the Lees. In accordance with Chinese tradition, they had not named him, as his father was away in New York; therefore the mother took the advice of her physician and called the boy Bruce because it meant "strong one" in Gaelic. Lee reportedly had a number of Chinese names, but it would be by the name of Bruce that he would become famous.
Stardom began early, with his first film appearance at age three months in a movie called Golden Gate Girl. By then it was 1941, and though their native Hong Kong was occupied by Japanese troops, the Lees decided to return home. According to Chinese superstition, demons sometimes try to steal male children. Out of fear for the young boy's safety, they dressed him as a girl, and even made him attend a girl's school for a while. Meanwhile Lee grew up around the cinema, and appeared in a Hong Kong movie when he was four. Two years later, a director recognized his star quality and put him in another film. By the time he graduated from high school, Lee had appeared in some twenty films.
As a teenager, he became involved in two seemingly contradictory activities: gang warfare and dance. As a dancer he won a cha-cha championship, and as a gang member he risked death on the streets of Hong Kong. Out of fear that he might be caught at some point without his gang, helpless before a group of rivals, Lee began to study the Chinese martial arts of kung fu. The style that attracted his attention was called wing chun, which according to legend was developed by a woman named Yim Wing Chun, who improved on the techniques of a Shaolin Buddhist nun. Lee absorbed the style, and began adding his own improvements. This proved too much for the wing chun masters, who excommunicated him from the school.
Lee's film career continued, and he was becoming a popular actor in the Hong Kong film scene. Producer Run Run Shaw offered the high schooler a lucrative contract, and Lee wanted to take it. But when he got into trouble with the police for fighting, his mother sent him to the United States to live with friends of the family.
Lee finished high school in Edison, Washington, near Seattle. He then enrolled as a philosophy major at the University of Washington, where he supported himself by giving dance lessons and waiting tables at a Chinese restaurant. As a kung fu teacher instructing fellow university students, he met Linda Emery, whom he married in 1964.
The newlyweds moved to California, and Lee-who had begun developing a new fighting style called jeet kune do-ultimately opened three schools in Los Angeles, Oakland, California, and Seattle. He also began to pursue his acting more seriously, and landed a part in the TV series The Green Hornet. The show was based on a 1930s radio program, and Lee played the role of the Hornet's Asian assistant, Kato. He virtually created the role, imbuing Kato with a theatrical fighting style quite unlike that which Lee taught in his schools. The show would be cancelled after one season, but fans would long remember Lee's role.
After the end of The Green Hornet, Lee made guest appearances on TV shows such as Longstreet and Ironside. His most notable role during this time was in the film Marlowe (1969) with James Garner, when he played a memorable part as a high-kicking villain. Clearly Lee had the qualities of a star; but it was just as clear that an Asian American faced limitations within the Hollywood system, which tended to cast Oriental actors in stereotypical roles. Therefore in 1971, the Lees, including son Brandon (born 1965), and daughter Shannon (born 1967) moved to Hong Kong.
Back in Hong Kong, Lee soon signed a two-film contract, and released the movie known to U.S. audiences as Fists of Fury late in 1971. The story, which featured Lee as a fighter seeking revenge on those who had killed his kung fu master, was not original in itself; but the presentation of it was, and the crucial element was Lee. He combined the smooth, flowing style of jeet kune do that he taught in his schools with the loud, aggressive, and highly theatrical methods he had employed as Kato. With the graceful, choreographic qualities of his movements; his good looks and charm; his sense of humor and his acting ability, Lee was one of a kind-a star in the making.
Fists of Fury set box-office records in Hong Kong which were broken only by his next picture, The Chinese Connection, in 1972. Lee established his own film company, Concord Pictures, and began directing movies. The first of these would appear in the U.S. as Way of the Dragon. Lee was enthusiastic about his future, not merely as a performer, but as an artist: "With any luck, " he told a journalist shortly before his death, "I hope to make … the kind of movie where you can just watch the surface story, if you like, or can look deeper into it." Unfortunately, Lee would not live to explore his full potential as a filmmaker: on July 20, 1973, three weeks before his fourth film, Enter the Dragon, was released in the United States, he died suddenly.
Lee's death became a source of controversy. Officially the cause of death was brain swelling as a reaction to aspirin he had taken for a back injury. But the suddenness of his passing, combined with his youth, his good health, and the bizarre timing on the verge of his explosion as an international superstar, spawned rumors that he had been killed by hit men. Some speculated he had run afoul of the Chinese mafia and other powerful interests in the Hong Kong film industry, and had been poisoned. Throughout his life, Lee had been obsessed by fears of his early death, and some believed that the brilliant young star had some sort of bizarre "curse" on him.
According to legend and rumor, when Lee bought a house in Hong Kong shortly before his death, he incurred the wrath of the neighborhood's resident demons. The curse is said to last for three generation. Tragically, the notion of a curse gained eerie credence on June 18, 1993-a month and two days before the 20th anniversary of Lee's death-when Brandon Lee died under equally strange circumstances. While filming a scene for the movie The Crow, he was shot by a gun that supposedly contained blanks but in fact had a live round lodged in its chamber. Like his father, Brandon Lee was on the verge of stardom.
Lee gave the world an enormous artistic legacy, in the process virtually creating a new cinematic art form. By the 1990s, Enter the Dragon alone had grossed more than $100 million, and Lee's influence could be found in the work of numerous Hollywood action heroes. In 1993, Jason Scott Lee (no relation) appeared in Dragon: The Bruce Lee Story, directed by Rob Cohen. Actress Lauren Holly played Lee's wife Linda, and Holly became friends with Lee's daughter Shannon.
Shannon Lee once told People that she had not inherited any of her father's or brother's fighting abilities. Although she became host of a TV show featuring martial arts competitions, she has said in most respects she was quite unlike her father.
Bruce Lee From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other uses, see Bruce Lee (disambiguation). This is a Chinese name; the family name is Lee. Bruce Lee Bruce Lee as Kato 1967.jpg Lee in 1967 Chinese name 李小龍 (traditional) Chinese name 李小龙 (simplified) Pinyin Lǐ Xiǎolóng (Mandarin) Jyutping Lei5 Siu2 Lung4 (Cantonese) Birth name Lee Jun-fan 李振藩 (Traditional) 李振藩 (Simplified) Lǐ Zhènfān (Mandarin) Lei5 Zan3 Faan4 (Cantonese) Ancestry Shunde, Guangdong, China Origin Hong Kong Born November 27, 1940 Chinatown, San Francisco, California, U.S. Died July 20, 1973 (aged 32) Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Resting place Lakeview Cemetery Occupation Martial artist, martial arts instructor, actor, film director, screenwriter, producer Years active 1941–73 Spouse(s) Linda Emery (1964–73) Children Brandon Lee (1965–93) Shannon Lee (born 1969) Parents Lee Hoi-chuen (1901–65) Grace Ho (1907–96) Alma mater University of Washington, Seattle Official Website Bruce Lee Foundation Bruce Lee official website Awards[hide] Hong Kong Film Awards Lifetime Achievement Award 1994 Golden Horse Awards Best Mandarin Film 1972 Fist of Fury Special Jury Award 1972 Fist of Fury This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters. Bruce Lee (Chinese: 李小龍; born Lee Jun-fan, Chinese: 李振藩; November 27, 1940 – July 20, 1973) was a Hong Kong American martial artist, Hong Kong action film actor, martial arts instructor, philosopher, filmmaker, and the founder of Jeet Kune Do. Lee was the son of Cantonese opera star Lee Hoi-Chuen. He is widely considered by commentators, critics, media and other martial artists to be one of the most influential martial artists of all time, and a pop culture icon of the 20th century. He is often credited with helping to change the way Asians were presented in American films.
Lee was born in Chinatown, San Francisco on November 27, 1940 to parents from Hong Kong and was raised in Kowloon with his family until his late teens. He was introduced to the film industry by his father and appeared in several films as a child actor. Lee moved to the United States at the age of 18 to receive his higher education, at the University of Washington, at Seattle and it was during this time that he began teaching martial arts. His Hong Kong and Hollywood-produced films elevated the traditional Hong Kong martial arts film to a new level of popularity and acclaim, sparking a surge of interest in Chinese martial arts in the West in the 1970s. The direction and tone of his films changed and influenced martial arts and martial arts films in the United States, Hong Kong and the rest of the world.
He is noted for his roles in five feature-length films: Lo Wei's The Big Boss (1971) and Fist of Fury (1972); Golden Harvest's Way of the Dragon (1972), directed and written by Lee; Golden Harvest and Warner Brothers' Enter the Dragon (1973) and The Game of Death (1978), both directed by Robert Clouse. Lee became an iconic figure known throughout the world, particularly among the Chinese, as he portrayed Chinese nationalism in his films. He trained in the art of Wing Chun and later combined his other influences from various sources, in the spirit of his personal martial arts philosophy, which he dubbed Jeet Kune Do (The Way of the Intercepting Fist). Lee held dual nationality of Hong Kong and the United States. He died in Kowloon Tong on July 20, 1973 at the age of 32.
Contents [hide] 1 Early life 1.1 Names 1.2 Family 1.3 Wing Chun 1.4 Leaving Hong Kong 1.5 New life in America 2 Martial arts career 2.1 Jun Fan Gung Fu 2.2 Long Beach International Karate Championships 2.3 Fight with Wong Jack Man 2.4 Jeet Kune Do 2.5 Fitness and nutrition 3 Acting career 4 Artistry 4.1 Philosophy 4.2 Poetry 5 Death 5.1 Controversy surrounding Lee's death 6 Legacy 6.1 Certified instructors 6.2 Hong Kong legacy 7 Awards and honours 8 Martial arts lineage 9 Filmography 9.1 Film 9.2 Television 10 Bibliography 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links Early life Part of a series on Chinese martial arts (Wushu) Shi DeRu and Shi DeYang.jpg Styles of Chinese martial arts —————
List of Chinese martial arts Terms[hide] Kung fu (功夫) Shifu (師傅) Waijia (外家) Chin Na (擒拿) Fa jin (發勁) Neigong (內功) Neijia (內家) Qi (氣) Qigong (氣功) Yin and yang
Wushu in the world Historical locations[hide] Chen Village (陳家溝) Kunlun Mountains (崑崙山) Mount Emei (峨嵋山) Mount Hua (華山) Shaolin Monastery (少林寺) Wudang Mountains (武當山)
Wushu athletes/practitioners Legendary figures[hide] Bodhidharma (菩提達摩) Eight Immortals (八仙) Five Elders (五祖) Fong Sai-yuk (方世玉) Yim Wing-chun (嚴詠春) Zhang Sanfeng (張三丰) Li Ching-Yuen (李清雲)
Historical individuals[hide] Yue Fei (岳飛; 1103—1142) Hung Hei-gun (洪熙官; 1745—1825) Dong Haichuan (董海川; 1797/1813—1882) Yang Lu-ch'an (楊露禪; 1799—1872) Chan Heung (陳享; 1806—1875) Wu Quanyou (吳全佑; 1834—1902) Wong Fei-hung (黃飛鴻; 1847—1924) Sun Lu-t'ang (孫祿堂; 1860—1933) Huo Yuanjia (霍元甲; 1868—1910) Wang Zi-Ping (王子平; 1881—1973) Chen Fake (陳發科; 1887—1957) Yip Man (葉問; 1893—1972) Ten Tigers of Canton (廣東十虎)
Modern celebrities[hide] Bruce Lee (李小龍 1940—1973) Bolo Yeung (楊斯; b.1946) Sammo Hung (洪金寶; b.1952) Jackie Chan(成龍; b.1954) Yuen Biao (元彪; b.1957) Jet Li (李連杰; b.1963) Donnie Yen (甄子丹; b.1963) Vincent Zhao (趙文卓 b.1972)
Wushu influence Related[hide] Hong Kong action cinema Kung fu film Wushu (sport) Wuxia (武俠)
v t e
Bruce Lee as a baby. Bruce Lee was born on November 27, 1940, at the Chinese Hospital, in San Francisco's Chinatown. According to the Chinese zodiac, Lee was born in both the hour and the year of the Dragon, which according to tradition is a strong and fortuitous omen.
Bruce's father, Lee Hoi-chuen, (李海泉) was Han Chinese, and his mother, Grace Ho (何愛瑜), was half-Chinese and half-Caucasian. Specifically, Grace Ho was purportedly a half-German Catholic. Grace Ho was the daughter of Ho Kom-tong (Ho Gumtong, 何甘棠) and the niece of Sir Robert Ho-tung, both notable Hong Kong businessmen and philanthropists. Bruce was the fourth child of five children: Phoebe Lee (李秋源), Agnes Lee (李秋鳳), Peter Lee (李忠琛), and Robert Lee (李振輝). Lee and his parents returned to Hong Kong when he was three months old.
Bruce Lee and his family, when he was a child. Lee's Cantonese birth name was Lee Jun-fan (李振藩). The name homophonically means "return again", and was given to Lee by his mother, who felt he would return to the United States once he came of age. Because of his mother's superstitious nature, she had originally named him Sai-fon (細鳳), which is a feminine name meaning "small phoenix". The English name "Bruce" is thought to have been given by the hospital attending physician, Dr. Mary Glover.
Lee had three other Chinese names: Li Yuanxin (李源鑫), a family/clan name; Li Yuanjian (李元鑒), which he used as a student name while he was attending La Salle College, and his Chinese screen name Li Xiaolong (李小龍; Xiaolong means "little dragon"). Lee's given name Jun-fan was originally written in Chinese as 震藩, however, the Jun (震) Chinese character was identical to part of his grandfather's name, Lee Jun-biu (李震彪). Hence, the Chinese character for Jun in Lee's name was changed to the homonym 振 instead, to avoid naming taboo in Chinese tradition.
Family Lee's father, Lee Hoi-chuen, was one of the leading Cantonese opera and film actors at the time, and was embarking on a year-long opera tour with his family on the eve of the Japanese invasion of Hong Kong. Lee Hoi-chuen had been touring the United States for many years and performing at numerous Chinese communities there.
Although many of his peers decided to stay in the United States, Lee Hoi-chuen returned to Hong Kong after Bruce's birth. Within months, Hong Kong was invaded and the Lees lived for three years and eight months under Japanese occupation. After the war ended, Lee Hoi-chuen resumed his acting career and became a more popular actor during Hong Kong's rebuilding years.
Lee's mother, Grace Ho, was from one of the wealthiest and most powerful clans in Hong Kong, the Ho-tungs. She was the niece of Sir Robert Ho-tung, the Eurasian patriarch of the clan. As such, the young Bruce Lee grew up in an affluent and privileged environment. Despite the advantage of his family's status, the neighborhood in which Lee grew up became overcrowded, dangerous, and full of gang rivalries due to an influx of refugees fleeing communist China for Hong Kong, at that time a British Crown colony.
After Lee was involved in several street fights, his parents decided that he needed to be trained in the martial arts. Lee's first introduction to martial arts was through his father, from whom he learned the fundamentals of Wu-style t'ai chi ch'uan.
Wing Chun See also: History of Wing Chun
Lee, before the age of 18. The largest influence on Lee's martial arts development was his study of Wing Chun. Lee began training in Wing Chun when he was 16 years old under the Wing Chun teacher Yip Man in 1957, after losing several fights with rival gang members. Yip's regular classes generally consisted of the forms practice, chi sao (sticking hands) drills, wooden dummy techniques, and free-sparring. There was no set pattern to the classes. Yip tried to keep his students from fighting in the street gangs of Hong Kong by encouraging them to fight in organized competitions.
After a year into his Wing Chun training, most of Yip Man's other students refused to train with Lee after they learned of his mixed ancestry, as the Chinese were generally against teaching their martial arts techniques to non-Asians. Lee's sparring partner, Hawkins Cheung states, "Probably fewer than six people in the whole Wing Chun clan were personally taught, or even partly taught, by Yip Man". However, Lee showed a keen interest in Wing Chun, and continued to train privately with Yip Man and Wong Shun Leung in 1955. Wan Kam Leung, a student of Wong's, witnessed a sparring bout between Wong and Lee, and noted the speed and precision with which Lee was able to deliver his kicks. Lee continued to train with Wong Shun Leung after later returning to Hong Kong from America.
Leaving Hong Kong
Lee and his teacher Yip Man. After attending Tak Sun School (德信學校) (several blocks from his home at 218 Nathan Road, Kowloon), Lee entered the primary school division of La Salle College at the age of 12. In around 1956, due to poor academic performance (or possibly poor conduct as well), he was transferred to St. Francis Xavier's College (high school) where he would be mentored by Brother Edward, a teacher and coach of the school boxing team.
Lee in 1958, dancing Cha-cha. In the spring of 1959, Lee got into yet another street fight and the police were called. Until his late teens, Lee's street fights became more frequent and included beating the son of a feared triad family. Eventually, Lee's father decided his son should leave Hong Kong to pursue a safer and healthier avenue in the United States. His parents confirmed the police's fear that this time Lee's opponent had an organised crime background, and there was the possibility that a contract was out for his life.
The police detective came and he says "Excuse me Mr. Lee, your son is really fighting bad in school. If he gets into just one more fight I might have to put him in jail".
— Robert Lee In April 1959, Lee's parents decided to send him to the United States to stay with his older sister, Agnes Lee (李秋鳳), who was already living with family friends in San Francisco.
New life in America
With son Brandon in 1966 At the age of 18, Lee returned to the United States with $100 in his pocket. After living in San Francisco for several months, he moved to Seattle in 1959, to continue his high school education, where he also worked for Ruby Chow as a live-in waiter at her restaurant.
Chow's husband was a co-worker and friend of Lee's father. Lee's elder brother Peter Lee (李忠琛) would also join him in Seattle for a short stay before moving on to Minnesota to attend college. In December 1960, Lee completed his high school education and received his diploma from Edison Technical School (now Seattle Central Community College, located on Capitol Hill in Seattle).
In March 1961, Lee enrolled at the University of Washington, majoring in drama according to a 1999 article in the university's alumni magazine, not in philosophy as stated by Lee himself and many others. Lee also studied philosophy, psychology, and various other subjects. It was at the University of Washington that he met his future wife Linda Emery, a fellow student studying to become a teacher, whom he married in August 1964.
Lee had two children with Linda Emery, Brandon Lee (1965–93) and Shannon Lee (born 1969).
Martial arts career Jun Fan Gung Fu Lee began teaching martial arts in the United States in 1959. He called what he taught Jun Fan Gung Fu (literally Bruce Lee's Kung Fu). It was basically his approach to Wing Chun. Lee taught friends he met in Seattle, starting with Judo practitioner Jesse Glover, who continued to teach some of Lee's early techniques. Taky Kimura became Lee's first Assistant Instructor and continued to teach his art and philosophy after Lee's death. Lee opened his first martial arts school, named the Lee Jun Fan Gung Fu Institute, in Seattle.
Lee dropped out of college in the spring of 1964 and moved to Oakland to live with James Yimm Lee (嚴鏡海). James Lee was twenty years senior to Bruce Lee and a well known Chinese martial artist in the area. Together, they founded the second Jun Fan martial art studio in Oakland. James Lee was also responsible for introducing Bruce Lee to Ed Parker, American martial artist, and organizer of the Long Beach International Karate Championships at which Bruce Lee was later "discovered" by Hollywood.
Long Beach International Karate Championships At the invitation of Ed Parker, Lee appeared in the 1964 Long Beach International Karate Championships and performed repetitions of two-finger push-ups (using the thumb and the index finger of one hand) with feet at approximately a shoulder-width apart. In the same Long Beach event he also performed the "One inch punch." Lee stood upright, his right foot forward with knees bent slightly, in front of a standing, stationary partner. Lee's right arm was partly extended and his right fist approximately one inch (2.5 cm) away from the partner's chest. Without retracting his right arm, Lee then forcibly delivered the punch to his partner while largely maintaining his posture, sending the partner backwards and falling into a chair said to be placed behind the partner to prevent injury, though his partner's momentum soon caused him to fall to the floor. His volunteer was Bob Baker of Stockton, California. "I told Bruce not to do this type of demonstration again", Baker recalled. "When he punched me that last time, I had to stay home from work because the pain in my chest was unbearable".
It was at the 1964 championships where Lee first met Taekwondo master Jhoon Goo Rhee. The two developed a friendship – a relationship from which they benefited as martial artists. Rhee taught Lee the side kick in detail, and Lee taught Rhee the "non-telegraphic" punch.
Lee appeared at the 1967 Long Beach International Karate Championships and performed various demonstrations, including the famous "unstoppable punch" against USKA world Karate champion Vic Moore. Lee told Moore that he was going to throw a straight punch to the face, and all he had to do was to try to block it. Lee took several steps back and asked if Moore was ready. When Moore nodded in affirmation, Lee glided towards him until he was within striking range. He then threw a straight punch directly at Moore's face, and stopped before impact. In eight attempts, Moore failed to block any of the punches.
Fight with Wong Jack Man In Oakland, California in 1964 at Chinatown, Lee had a controversial private match with Wong Jack Man, a direct student of Ma Kin Fung known for his mastery of Xingyiquan, Northern Shaolin, and T'ai chi ch'uan. According to Lee, the Chinese community issued an ultimatum to him to stop teaching non-Chinese. When he refused to comply, he was challenged to a combat match with Wong. The arrangement was that if Lee lost, he would have to shut down his school; while if he won, then Lee would be free to teach Caucasians or anyone else. Wong denied this, stating that he requested to fight Lee after Lee issued an open challenge during one of Lee's demonstrations at a Chinatown theatre, and that Wong himself did not discriminate against Caucasians or other non-Chinese. Lee commented, "That paper had all the names of the sifu from Chinatown, but they don't scare me".
Individuals known to have witnessed the match included Cadwell, James Lee (Bruce Lee's associate, no relation), and William Chen, a teacher of T'ai chi ch'uan. Wong and witness William Chen stated that the fight lasted an unusually long 20–25 minutes. According to Bruce Lee, Linda Lee Cadwell, and James Yimm Lee, the fight lasted 3 minutes with a decisive victory for Lee. "The fight ensued, it was a no-holds-barred fight, it took three minutes. Bruce got this guy down to the ground and said 'do you give up?' and the man said he gave up" – Linda Lee Cadwell.
Wong Jack Man published his own account of the battle in the Chinese Pacific Weekly, a Chinese-language newspaper in San Francisco, which contained another challenge to Lee for a public rematch. Lee had no reciprocation to Wong's article, nor were there any further public announcements by either, but Lee had continued to teach Caucasians.
Jeet Kune Do
The Jeet Kune Do emblem is a registered trademark held by the Bruce Lee Estate. The Chinese characters around the Taijitu symbol read: "Using no way as way" and "Having no limitation as limitation" The arrows represent the endless interaction between yang and yin. Main article: Jeet Kune Do Jeet Kune Do originated in 1967. After filming one season of The Green Hornet, Lee found himself out of work and opened The Jun Fan Institute of Gung Fu. The controversial match with Wong Jack Man influenced Lee's philosophy about martial arts. Lee concluded that the fight had lasted too long and that he had failed to live up to his potential using his Wing Chun techniques. He took the view that traditional martial arts techniques were too rigid and formalistic to be practical in scenarios of chaotic street fighting. Lee decided to develop a system with an emphasis on "practicality, flexibility, speed, and efficiency". He started to use different methods of training such as weight training for strength, running for endurance, stretching for flexibility, and many others which he constantly adapted, including fencing and basic boxing techniques.
Lee emphasised what he called "the style of no style". This consisted of getting rid of the formalised approach which Lee claimed was indicative of traditional styles. Lee felt the system he now called Jun Fan Gung Fu was even too restrictive, and eventually evolved into a philosophy and martial art he would come to call Jeet Kune Do or the Way of the Intercepting Fist. It is a term he would later regret, because Jeet Kune Do implied specific parameters that styles connote; whereas the idea of his martial art was to exist outside of parameters and limitations.
Fitness and nutrition At 173 cm (5 ft 8 in) and 64 kg (141 lb), Lee was renowned for his physical fitness and vigor, achieved by using a dedicated fitness regimen to become as strong as possible. After his match with Wong Jack Man in 1965, Lee changed his approach toward martial arts training. Lee felt that many martial artists of his time did not spend enough time on physical conditioning. Lee included all elements of total fitness—muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility. He used traditional bodybuilding techniques to build some muscle mass, not overdone that could decrease speed or flexibility. At the same time in balance, Lee was careful to admonish that mental and spiritual preparation are fundamental to the success of physical training in martial arts skills. In Tao of Jeet Kune Do he wrote,
Training is one of the most neglected phases of athletics. Too much time is given to the development of skill and too little to the development of the individual for participation. ... JKD, ultimately is not a matter of petty techniques but of highly developed spirituality and physique.
According to Linda Lee Cadwell, soon after he moved to the United States, Lee started to take nutrition seriously and developed an interest in health foods, high-protein drinks and vitamin and mineral supplements. He later concluded that in order to achieve a high-performance body, one could not fuel it with a diet of junk food, and with "the wrong fuel" one's body would perform sluggishly or sloppily. Lee also avoided baked goods and refined flour, describing them as providing calories which did nothing for his body.
Acting career Main article: Bruce Lee filmography
Bruce Lee in The Kid. Lee's father Lee Hoi-chuen was a famous Cantonese opera star. Because of this, Lee was introduced into films at a very young age and appeared in several films as a child. Lee had his first role as a baby who was carried onto the stage in the film Golden Gate Girl. By the time he was 18, he had appeared in twenty films.
While in the United States from 1959 to 1964, Lee abandoned thoughts of a film career in favour of pursuing martial arts. However, a martial arts exhibition on Long Beach in 1964 eventually led to the invitation by William Dozier for an audition for a part in the pilot for "Number One Son". The show never aired, but Lee was invited for the role of Kato alongside Van Williams in the TV series The Green Hornet. The show lasted just one season, from 1966 to 1967. Lee also played Kato in three crossover episodes of Batman. This was followed by guest appearances in three television series: Ironside (1967), Here Come the Brides (1969), and Blondie (1969).
At the time, two of Lee's martial arts students were Hollywood script writer Stirling Silliphant and actor James Coburn. In 1969 the three worked on a script for a film called The Silent Flute, and went together on a location hunt to India. The project was not realised at the time; but the 1978 film Circle of Iron, starring David Carradine, was based on the same plot. In 2010, producer Paul Maslansky was reported to plan and receive fundings for a film based on the original script for The Silent Flute. In 1969, Lee made a brief appearance in the Silliphant-penned film Marlowe where he played a henchman hired to intimidate private detective Philip Marlowe, (played by James Garner), by smashing up his office with leaping kicks and flashing punches, only to later accidentally jump off a tall building while trying to kick Marlowe off. The same year he also choreographed fight scenes for The Wrecking Crew starring Dean Martin, Sharon Tate, and featuring Chuck Norris in his first role. In 1970, he was responsible for fight choreography for A Walk in the Spring Rain starring Ingrid Bergman and Anthony Quinn, again written by Silliphant. In 1971, Lee appeared in four episodes of the television series Longstreet, written by Silliphant. Lee played the martial arts instructor of the title character Mike Longstreet (played by James Franciscus), and important aspects of his martial arts philosophy were written into the script.
Publicity photo of Williams and Lee for The Green Hornet. According to statements made by Lee, and also by Linda Lee Cadwell after Lee's death, in 1971 Lee pitched a television series of his own tentatively titled The Warrior, discussions which were also confirmed by Warner Bros. In a December 9, 1971 television interview on The Pierre Berton Show, Lee stated that both Paramount and Warner Brothers wanted him "to be in a modernized type of a thing, and that they think the Western idea is out, whereas I want to do the Western". According to Cadwell, however, Lee's concept was retooled and renamed Kung Fu, but Warner Bros. gave Lee no credit. Warner Brothers states that they had for some time been developing an identical concept, created by two writers and producers, Ed Spielman and Howard Friedlander. According to these sources, the reason Lee was not cast was in part because of his ethnicity, but more so because he had a thick accent. The role of the Shaolin monk in the Wild West, was eventually awarded to then-non-martial-artist David Carradine. In The Pierre Berton Show interview, Lee stated he understood Warner Brothers' attitudes towards casting in the series: "They think that business wise it is a risk. I don't blame them. If the situation were reversed, and an American star were to come to Hong Kong, and I was the man with the money, I would have my own concerns as to whether the acceptance would be there".
Producer Fred Weintraub had advised Lee to return to Hong Kong and make a feature film which he could showcase to executives in Hollywood. Not happy with his supporting roles in the United States, Lee returned to Hong Kong. Unaware that The Green Hornet had been played to success in Hong Kong and was unofficially referred to as "The Kato Show", he was surprised to be recognised on the street as the star of the show. After negotiating with both Shaw Brothers Studio and Golden Harvest, Lee signed a film contract to star in two films produced by Golden Harvest. Lee played his first leading role in The Big Boss (1971) which proved to be an enormous box office success across Asia and catapulted him to stardom. He soon followed up with Fist of Fury (1972) which broke the box office records set previously by The Big Boss. Having finished his initial two-year contract, Lee negotiated a new deal with Golden Harvest. Lee later formed his own company, Concord Production Inc. (協和電影公司), with Chow. For his third film, Way of the Dragon (1972), he was given complete control of the film's production as the writer, director, star, and choreographer of the fight scenes.
In 1964, at a demonstration in Long Beach, California, Lee had met Karate champion Chuck Norris. In Way of the Dragon Lee introduced Norris to movie-goers as his opponent in the final death fight at the Colosseum in Rome, today considered one of Lee's most legendary fight scenes and one of the most memorable fight scenes in martial arts film history. The role was originally offered to American Karate champion Joe Lewis.
Bruce Lee's star at the Avenue of Stars, Hong Kong. In late 1972, Lee began work on his fourth Golden Harvest Film, Game of Death. He began filming some scenes including his fight sequence with 7 ft 2 in (218 cm) American Basketball star Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, a former student. Production was stopped when Warner Brothers offered Lee the opportunity to star in Enter the Dragon, the first film to be produced jointly by Golden Harvest and Warner Bros. Filming commenced in Hong Kong in February 1973. One month into the filming, another production company, Starseas Motion Pictures, promoted Bruce Lee as a leading actor in Fist of Unicorn, although he had merely agreed to choreograph the fight sequences in the film as a favour to his long-time friend Unicorn Chan. Lee planned to sue the production company, but retained his friendship with Chan. However, only a few months after the completion of Enter the Dragon, and six days before its July 26, 1973 release, Lee died. Enter the Dragon would go on to become one of the year's highest grossing films and cement Lee as a martial arts legend. It was made for US$850,000 in 1973 (equivalent to $4 million adjusted for inflation as of 2007). To date, Enter the Dragon has grossed over $200 million worldwide. The film sparked a brief fad in martial arts, epitomised in songs such as "Kung Fu Fighting" and TV shows like Kung Fu.
Robert Clouse, the director of Enter the Dragon and Golden Harvest revived Lee's unfinished film Game of Death. Lee had shot over 100 minutes of footage, including out-takes, for Game of Death before shooting was stopped to allow him to work on Enter the Dragon. In addition to Abdul-Jabbar, George Lazenby, Hapkido master Ji Han-Jae and another of Lee's students, Dan Inosanto, were also to appear in the film, which was to culminate in Lee's character, Hai Tien (clad in the now-famous yellow track suit) taking on a series of different challengers on each floor as they make their way through a five-level pagoda. In a controversial move, Robert Clouse finished the film using a look-alike and archive footage of Lee from his other films with a new storyline and cast, which was released in 1978. However, the cobbled-together film contained only fifteen minutes of actual footage of Lee (he had printed many unsuccessful takes) while the rest had a Lee look-alike, Kim Tai Chung, and Yuen Biao as stunt double. The unused footage Lee had filmed was recovered 22 years later and included in the documentary Bruce Lee: A Warrior's Journey.
Bruce Lee's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame Apart from Game of Death, other future film projects were planned to feature Lee at the time. In 1972, after the success of The Big Boss and Fist of Fury, a third film was planned by Raymond Chow at Golden Harvest to be directed by Lo Wei, titled Yellow-Faced Tiger. However, at the time, Lee decided to direct and produce his own script for Way of the Dragon instead. Although Lee had formed a production company with Raymond Chow, a period film was also planned from September–November 1973 with the competing Shaw Brothers Studio, to be directed by either Chor Yuen or Cheng Kang, and written by Yi Kang and Chang Cheh, titled The Seven Sons of the Jade Dragon. Lee had also worked on several scripts himself. A tape containing a recording of Lee narrating the basic storyline to a film tentatively titled Southern Fist/Northern Leg exists, showing some similarities with the canned script for The Silent Flute (Circle of Iron). Another script had the title Green Bamboo Warrior, set in San Francisco, planned to co-star Bolo Yeung and to be produced by Andrew Vajna who later went on to produce First Blood. Photo shoot costume tests were also organized for some of these planned film projects.
Artistry Philosophy Lee is best known as a martial artist, but he also studied drama and philosophy while a student at the University of Washington. He was well-read and had an extensive library. His own books on martial arts and fighting philosophy are known for their philosophical assertions, both inside and outside of martial arts circles. His eclectic philosophy often mirrored his fighting beliefs, though he was quick to claim that his martial arts were solely a metaphor for such teachings. He believed that any knowledge ultimately led to self-knowledge, and said that his chosen method of self-expression was martial arts. His influences include Taoism, Jiddu Krishnamurti, and Buddhism. On the other hand, Lee's philosophy was very much in opposition to the conservative worldview advocated by Confucianism. John Little states that Lee was an atheist. When asked in 1972 about his religious affiliation, he replied, "none whatsoever". In 1972, he was asked if he believed in God, and responded, "To be perfectly frank, I really do not".
Poetry Aside from martial arts and philosophy which focus on the physical aspect and self-consciousness for truths and principles, Lee also wrote poetry that reflected his emotion and a stage in his life collectively. Many forms of art remain concordant with the artist creating them. Lee's principal of self-expression was applied to his poetry as well. His daughter Shannon Lee said "He did write poetry, he was really the consummate artist". His poetic works originally handwritten on paper, later on edited and published. John Little being the major author (editor), for Bruce Lee's works. Linda Lee Cadwell (Bruce Lee's wife) shared her husbands notes, poems and experiences with followers. She mentioned "Lee's poems are, by American standards, rather dark-reflecting the deeper, less exposed recesses of the human psyche". Most of Bruce Lee's poems are categorized as anti-poetry or fall into a paradox. The mood in his poems show the side of the man that can be compared with other poets such as Robert Frost, one of many well-known poets expressing himself with dark poetic works. The paradox taken from the Yin and Yang symbol in martial arts, also integrated in his poetry. His martial arts, and philosophy contribute a great part to his poetry. The free verse form of Lee's poetry reflect his famous quote "Be formless ... shapeless, like water."
Bruce Lee is buried next to his son Brandon in Lakeview Cemetery, Seattle. On May 10, 1973, Lee collapsed during an ADR session for Enter the Dragon at Golden Harvest in Hong Kong. Suffering from seizures and headaches, he was immediately rushed to Hong Kong Baptist Hospital where doctors diagnosed cerebral edema. They were able to reduce the swelling through the administration of mannitol. The headache and cerebral edema that occurred in his first collapse were later repeated on the day of his death.
On July 20, 1973, Lee was in Hong Kong, to have dinner with James Bond star George Lazenby, with whom he intended to make a film. According to Lee's wife Linda, Lee met producer Raymond Chow at 2 p.m. at home to discuss the making of the film Game of Death. They worked until 4 p.m. and then drove together to the home of Lee's colleague Betty Ting Pei, a Taiwanese actress. The three went over the script at Ting's home, and then Chow left to attend a dinner meeting.
Later Lee complained of a headache, and Ting gave him an analgesic (painkiller), Equagesic, which contained both aspirin and the tranquilizer meprobamate. Around 7:30 p.m., he went to lie down for a nap. When Lee did not turn up for dinner, producer Raymond Chow came to the apartment, but was unable to wake Lee up. A doctor was summoned, who spent ten minutes attempting to revive Lee before sending him by ambulance to Queen Elizabeth Hospital. By the time the ambulance reached the hospital he was dead. He was 32 years old.
There was no visible external injury; however, according to autopsy reports, Lee's brain had swollen considerably, from 1,400 to 1,575 grams (a 13% increase). The autopsy found Equagesic in his system. On October 15, 2005, Chow stated in an interview that Lee died from an allergic reaction to the tranquilizer meprobamate, the main ingredient in Equagesic, which Chow described as an ingredient commonly used in painkillers. When the doctors announced Lee's death officially, it was ruled a "death by misadventure".
Lee's wife Linda returned to her hometown of Seattle, and had him buried at lot 276 of Lakeview Cemetery. Pallbearers at his funeral on July 31, 1973 included Taky Kimura, Steve McQueen, James Coburn, Chuck Norris, George Lazenby, Dan Inosanto, Peter Chin, and Lee's brother Robert.
Controversy surrounding Lee's death Around the time of Lee's death, numerous rumors appeared in the media. Lee's iconic status and untimely demise fed many wild rumors and theories. These included murder involving the Triads and a supposed curse on him and his family.
Donald Teare, a forensic scientist recommended by Scotland Yard who had overseen over 1,000 autopsies, was assigned to the Lee case. His conclusion was "death by misadventure" caused by an acute cerebral edema due to a reaction to compounds present in the combination medication Equagesic.
Dr. Donald Langford, a Baptist missionary and Lee’s doctor in Hong Kong, has said, "Nobody dies from one tablet of Equagesic. No analgesic killed Bruce." He added: "[P]eople weren't about to step up and say Bruce Lee had died from eating cannabis [which was found in his stomach, and which he had consumed regularly for some time due to the stress of his fame] or some related product. At the beginning of the inquest proceedings, Dr. Wu and a couple of other doctors and I were pulled to the side and asked to play down the role of cannabis in Bruce’s death."
The preliminary opinion of Dr. Peter Wu, the neurosurgeon who treated Lee during his first seizure in May 1973, was that the cause of death should have been attributed to either a reaction to cannabis or Equagesic. He has stated that "We removed quite a lot of hashish from his stomach [in May]. In Nepal there have been all kinds of neurological problems associated with hashish, especially cerebral edema." However, Wu officially backed off from his position, officially stating that:
Professor Teare was a forensic scientist recommended by Scotland Yard; he was brought in as an expert on cannabis and we can't contradict his testimony. The dosage of cannabis is neither precise nor predictable, but I've never known of anyone dying simply from taking it.
At the 1975 San Diego Comic-Con convention, Bruce Lee's friend Chuck Norris attributed his death to a reaction between the muscle-relaxant medication he had been taking since 1968 for a ruptured disk in his back, and an "antibiotic" he was given for his headache on the night of his death.
The book The Death of Bruce Lee: A Clinical Investigation presents the belief that Bruce Lee was already "sensitized" to the use of Equagesic by the time of his first "acute hypersensitivity reaction" on May 10, 1973. Lee refrained from using the drug again until that fateful evening of July 20, 1973, when he took Equagesic and later died of cerebral edema.
Legacy Certified instructors Bruce Lee personally certified only three instructors: Taky Kimura, James Yimm Lee, and Dan Inosanto. Inosanto holds the 3rd rank (Instructor) directly from Bruce Lee in Jeet Kune Do, Jun Fan Gung Fu, and Bruce Lee's Tao of Chinese Gung Fu. Taky Kimura holds a 5th rank in Jun Fan Gung Fu. James Yimm Lee held a 3rd rank in Jun Fan Gung Fu. Ted Wong holds 2nd rank in Jeet Kune Do certified directly by Bruce Lee and was later promoted to Instructor under Dan Inosanto, who felt that Bruce would have wanted to promote him. Other Jeet Kune Do instructors since Lee's death have been certified directly by Dan Inosanto, some with remaining Bruce Lee signed certificates.
James Yimm Lee, a close friend of Lee, certified a few students including Gary Dill who studied Jeet Kune Do under James and received permission via a personal letter from him in 1972 to pass on his learning of Jun Fan Gung Fu to others. Taky Kimura, to date, has certified only one person in Jun Fan Gung Fu: his son Andy Kimura. Dan Inosanto continued to teach and certify select students in Jeet Kune Do for over 30 years, making it possible for thousands of martial arts practitioners to trace their training lineage back to Bruce Lee. Prior to his death, Lee told his then only two living instructors Kimura and Inosanto (James Yimm Lee had died in 1972) to dismantle his schools.
Both Taky Kimura and Dan Inosanto were allowed to teach small classes thereafter, under the guideline "keep the numbers low, but the quality high". Bruce also instructed several World Karate Champions including Chuck Norris, Joe Lewis, and Mike Stone. Between the three of them, during their training with Bruce, they won every karate championship in the United States.
In Japan, Junichi Okada is a certified Japanese instructor in Jeet Kune Do.
Hong Kong legacy
Bruce Lee statue in Hong Kong There are a number of stories (perhaps apocryphal) surrounding Lee that are still repeated in Hong Kong culture. One is that his early 1970s interview on the TVB show Enjoy Yourself Tonight cleared the busy streets of Hong Kong as everyone was watching the interview at home.
On January 6, 2009, it was announced that Bruce's Hong Kong home (41 Cumberland Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong) will be preserved and transformed into a tourist site by philanthropist Yu Pang-lin.
Awards and honours Main article: List of awards and honors received by Bruce Lee Bruce Lee was named by Time Magazine as one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century.
In April 2013, he was posthumously awarded the prestigious Founders Award at The Asian Awards.
A Bruce Lee statue was unveiled in Los Angeles' Chinatown on June 15, 2013. It stands at 7-foot (210 cm) tall and was made in Guangzhou, China.
In April 2014, it was announced that Lee would be a featured character in the video game EA Sports UFC, and will be playable in multiple weight classes.
Bruce Lee was voted as the Greatest Movie Fighter Ever in 2014 by the Houston Boxing Hall Of Fame. The HBHOF is a combat sports voting body composed exclusively of current and former fighters and Martial Artists.
Martial arts lineage Lee was trained in Wu Tai Chi Chuan (also known as Ng-ga) and Jing Mo Tam Tui for the twelve sets. Lee was trained in the martial arts Choy Li Fut, Western Boxing, Épée fencing, Judo, Praying Mantis kung fu, Hsing-I, and Jujitsu.
When Bruce arrived in the US he (already) had training in Wu Style Tai Chi, sometimes in Hong Kong called Ng-ga. And he had of course training in western boxing. He had training in fencing from his brother, that's Epee, that goes from toe to head. He had training obviously in Wing Chun. And the other area was the training he had received in Buk Pie, or Tam Toi, he was twelve sets in Tam Toi. And I believe he had traded with a Choy Li Fut man.
— Danny Inosanto Lineage in Wing Chun Ng Mui Yim Wing Chun Leung Bok-chau Leung Lan-kwai Wong Wah-bo Leung Yee-tai Leung Jan Chan Wah-shun Yip Man (葉問) Bruce Lee
Bruce Lee (李小龍) Founder of Jeet Kune Do
Certified by Bruce Lee as instructors of Jeet Kune Do Taky Kimura James Yimm Lee Dan Inosanto Notable students of Jun Fan/Gung Fu/Jeet Kune Do Brandon Lee Jesse Glover Dan Inosanto Yorinaga Nakamura Taky Kimura Richard Bustillo Jerry Poteet Ted Wong James Yimm Lee Rusty Stevens Chuck Norris Kareem Abdul-Jabbar James Coburn Joe Lewis Roman Polanski Lee Marvin Stirling Silliphant Mike Stone Filmography Main article: Bruce Lee filmography Film Year Title Role Notes 1969 Marlowe Winslow Wong 1971 The Big Boss Cheng Chao-an Also known as Fists of Fury 1972 Fist of Fury Chen Zhen Also known as The Chinese Connection 1972 Way of the Dragon Tang Lung Also known as Return of the Dragon 1973 Enter the Dragon Lee Posthumous release 1979 The Real Bruce Lee Bruce Lee before his death A post death film about him 2010 Bruce Lee, My Brother Young to adult age Bruce Lee A semi biographical film about him 2015 Ip Man 3 Himself Bruce Lee will be recreated using CGI Television Year Title Role Notes 1966–1967 The Green Hornet Kato 26 episodes 1966–1967 Batman Kato 3 episodes 1967 Ironside Leon Soo Episode: "Tagged for Murder" 1969 Blondie Karate Instructor Episode: "Pick on Someone Your Own Size" 1969 Here Come the Brides Lin Episode: "Marriage Chinese Style" 1970–1972 Enjoy Yourself Tonight Himself 2 episodes 1971 Longstreet Li Tsung 4 episodes 1971 The Pierre Berton Show Himself Bibliography Chinese Gung-Fu: The Philosophical Art of Self Defense (Bruce Lee's first book) – 1963 Tao of Jeet Kune Do (Published posthumously) – 1973 Bruce Lee's Fighting Method (Published posthumously) – 1978 See also Bruce Lee Library Bruceploitation Dragon: The Bruce Lee Story the semi-biographic motion picture played by Jason Scott Lee Mostar Bruce Lee statue Notes Jump up ^ Chu, Karen (June 26, 2011). "Proposed Bruce Lee Museum Shelved in Hong Kong". The Hollywood Reporter. ^ Jump up to: a b "Awards, Honors, Achievements, and Activities". Los Angeles: Bruce Lee Foundation. Retrieved June 7, 2010. Jump up ^ "Jun Fan Jeet Kune Do". Bruce Lee Foundation. Jump up ^ "Bruce Lee Lives Documentary". Jump up ^ "From Icon to Lifestyle, the Marketing of Bruce Lee". The New York Times. December 11, 2009. Retrieved June 3, 2011. Jump up ^ "Bruce Lee's 70th birth anniversary celebrated". The Hindu (India). November 30, 2010. Retrieved June 3, 2011. ^ Jump up to: a b Stein, Joel (June 14, 1999). "Bruce Lee: With nothing but his hands, feet and a lot of attitude, he turned the little guy into a tough guy". The Time 100. New York. Retrieved June 7, 2010. Jump up ^ Lee 1989, p. 41 Jump up ^ "Bruce Lee inspired Dev for martial arts". The Times of India. July 1, 2010. Retrieved June 3, 2011.[dead link] Jump up ^ "How Bruce Lee changed the world-Series". The Hindu (India). May 29, 2011. Retrieved June 3, 2011. Jump up ^ Dennis 1974 Jump up ^ Bruce Lee at Hong Kong Cinemagic. (look under the 'nationality' section) ^ Jump up to: a b "Biography". Bruce Lee Foundation. Retrieved June 7, 2010. Jump up ^ Description of the parent's racial makeup as described by Robert Lee at minute mark 3:35 in the cable television documentary, First Families: Bruce Lee, which premiered on Fox Family on October 26, 1999. ^ Jump up to: a b Lee 1989, p. 20 ^ Jump up to: a b "Kom Tong Hall at 7 Castle Road, Mid-levels, Hong Kong" (PDF). People's Republic of China. Retrieved September 12, 2010. Jump up ^ "Bruce Lee: Biography". Bruce-lee.ws. Retrieved January 22, 2010. Jump up ^ 振藩; Mandarin Pinyin: Zhènfán)Lee 1989 ^ Jump up to: a b c Bruce Lee: the immortal Dragon, January 29, 2002, A&E Television Networks Jump up ^ Lee, Grace (1980). Bruce Lee The Untold Story. United States: CFW Enterprise. Jump up ^ "Kom Tong Hall and the Dr Sun Yat-sen Museum". People's Republic of China. January 10, 2005. Retrieved September 12, 2010. Jump up ^ Thomas 1994, p. 14 ^ Jump up to: a b Black Belt: Bruce Lee Collector's Edition Summer 1993 Jump up ^ Black Belt: Bruce Lee Collector's Edition Summer 1993, p. 18 Jump up ^ Thomas 1994, p. 26 Jump up ^ Sharif 2009, p. 56 Jump up ^ Black Belt: Bruce Lee Collector's Edition Summer 1993 p. 19 Jump up ^ Campbell 2006, p. 172 Jump up ^ Burrows, Alyssa (2002). "Bruce Lee". HistoryLink. Retrieved May 30, 2008. Jump up ^ "U. of Washington alumni records". Washington.edu. Retrieved January 22, 2010. Jump up ^ Little 2001, p. 32 Jump up ^ Thomas 1994, p. 42 Jump up ^ "WING CHUN GUNG FU". Hardcore JKD. Retrieved May 30, 2008. Jump up ^ "Bruce Lee Biography". Bruce Lee Foundation. Retrieved September 4, 2012. ^ Jump up to: a b "2007 Long Beach International Karate Championship". Long Beach International Karate Championship. Retrieved May 30, 2008. Jump up ^ "Two Finger Pushup". Maniac World. Retrieved May 30, 2008. Jump up ^ Vaughn 1986, p. 21 Jump up ^ Nilsson, Thomas (May 1996). "With Bruce Lee: Taekwondo Pioneer Jhoon Rhee Recounts His 10-Year Friendship With the "Dragon"". Black Belt Magazine 34 (5): 39–43. Retrieved November 19, 2009. Jump up ^ Uyehara 1993, p. 27 Jump up ^ "Bruce Lee Victor Moore unblockable closing Long Beach International Tournament 60s". YouTube. June 11, 2009. Retrieved February 24, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Bruce Lee: The Immortal Dragon, January 29, 2002, A&E Television Networks ^ Jump up to: a b c Dorgan 1980 Jump up ^ Black Belt: Bruce Lee Collector's Edition, Summer 1993 Rainbow Publications Inc, p. 117 Jump up ^ Bishop 2004, p. 23 Jump up ^ Thomas 1994, p. 81 Jump up ^ "Bruce Lee". china.org.cn. Retrieved July 2, 2014. Jump up ^ "Martial Art Disciplines at Hybrid Martial Arts Academy". Hybrid Martial Art. Archived from the original on April 30, 2008. Retrieved May 30, 2008. Jump up ^ Little 1998, p. 162 Jump up ^ Little 1998, p. 163 Jump up ^ McNary, Dave (April 15, 2010). "Bruce Lee's 'Flute' heads to bigscreen – Entertainment News, Film News, Media". Variety. Retrieved February 22, 2011. Jump up ^ From The Pierre Berton Show on YouTube December 9, 1971 (comments at 7:10 of part 2) Jump up ^ Lee 1975a Jump up ^ Bleecker, Tom (1996). Unsettled Matters. The Life & Death of Bruce Lee. Gilderoy Publications Jump up ^ "From Grasshopper to Caine" on YouTube Jump up ^ From The Pierre Berton Show on YouTube December 9, 1971 (comments near end of part 2 & early in part 3) Jump up ^ Tale of the Dragon (Channel 4), directed by Jess Search Jump up ^ Lee 1989 Jump up ^ Thomas, B. (1994) Bruce Lee Fighting Spirit. Berkeley: Frog Ltd. ^ Jump up to: a b Thomas, B. (2003) Bruce Lee Fighting Words. Berkeley: Frog Ltd. Jump up ^ Enter the Dragon at the Internet Movie Database Jump up ^ "Inflation Calculator". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved May 30, 2008. Jump up ^ Stein, Joel (June 14, 1999). "The Gladiator BRUCE LEE". TIME. 3. Retrieved August 29, 2010. Jump up ^ Bruce Lee, the Legend, 1977, Paragon Films, Ltd., 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment Jump up ^ Bruce Lee: A Warrior's Journey at the Internet Movie Database Jump up ^ "Shaw Brothers Film Project". Retrieved January 6, 2011. Jump up ^ Bruce Lee The Man & The Legend (Documentary, Golden Harvest, 1973) ^ Jump up to: a b Little 1996, p. 122 Jump up ^ Bruce Lee: A Warrior's Journey at 31m45s Jump up ^ Bolelli 2008, p. 161 Jump up ^ Little 1996, p. 128 Jump up ^ Lee, Bruce (1996). John Little, ed. The Warrior Within. Martial arts-Philosophy: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-8092-3194-8. Jump up ^ Lee, Bruce; Linda Lee Cadwell (1999). John Little, ed. Bruce Lee Artist of Life (Book). Tuttle. 93–116. ISBN 978-0-8048-3263-2. Jump up ^ Lee, Shannon. "Bruce Lee's Poetry: Shannon Lee reads one of her father's handwritten poems". Poetry. Retrieved April 17, 2012. Jump up ^ Lee, Bruce; Linda Lee Cadwell (1999). "Part 4 Poetry". In John Little. Bruce Lee Artist of Life (Book). Martial Arts: Tuttle. 92. ISBN 978-0-8048-3263-2. Jump up ^ John Little (1996). "Five: The Running Water". In John Little. The Warrior Within (Book). Martial arts-Philosophy: McGraw-Hill. 43. ISBN 0-8092-3194-8. Jump up ^ Thomas 1994 Jump up ^ Campbell 2006, p. 205 Jump up ^ Lee 1989, pp. 156–157 Jump up ^ Campbell 2006, p. 206 Jump up ^ "Bruce Lee died of seizure?". The Hindu (India). February 26, 2006. Retrieved June 3, 2011. Jump up ^ Lakeview Cemetery website. Search for Lee. Only use last name. ^ Jump up to: a b c d SHIH, LEE HAN. "The Life of the Dragon" (*Special to asia!). Lee Han Shih is the founder, publisher and editor of asia! Magazine. asia! Magazine. Retrieved Jun 1, 2009. Jump up ^ Bishop 2004, p. 157 Jump up ^ Thomas 1994, p. 209 Jump up ^ Thomas 1994, p. 228 Jump up ^ Chuck Norris Explains What Really Killed Bruce Lee At The 1975 San Diego Comic-Con Convention Jump up ^ McKenzie R.N., Duncan Alexander (2012). The Death of Bruce Lee: A Clinical Investigation. Lulu.com. 42–45; 100–105. ISBN 9781300108863. Jump up ^ Little 2001, p. 211 Jump up ^ "V6 Okada Junichi now a martial arts instructor". Tokyo Hive. September 10, 2010. Retrieved January 15, 2012. Jump up ^ "Bruce Lee's home to become a museum". The Hollywood Reporter. January 6, 2009. Archived from the original on August 7, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010. Jump up ^ "Bruce Lee 35th anniversary". The Hindu (India). July 19, 2008. Retrieved June 3, 2011. Jump up ^ Winners at the Asian Awards Jump up ^ Bruce Lee statue unveiled in L.A.'s Chinatown, Los Angeles Times, June 16, 2013 Jump up ^ Jason Nawara (April 6, 2014). 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Bruce Lee Between Win Chun and Jeet Kune Do. Unspecified vendor. ISBN 0-9602328-0-X. Lee, Bruce (1975). Tao of Jeet Kune Do (reprint ed.). Ohara Publications. ISBN 0-89750-048-2. Lee, Bruce (2008). M. Uyehara, ed. Bruce Lee's Fighting Method: The Complete Edition (illustrated ed.). Black Belt Communications. ISBN 0-89750-170-5. Lee, Linda (1975a). Bruce Lee: the man only I knew. Warner Paperback Library. ISBN 0-446-78774-4. Lee, Linda (1989). The Bruce Lee Story. United States: Ohara Publications. ISBN 0-89750-121-7. Little, John (2001). Bruce Lee: Artist of Life. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3263-3. Little, John (1996). The Warrior Within – The philosophies of Bruce Lee to better understand the world around you and achieve a rewarding life (illustrated ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-8092-3194-8. Little, John (1997). Words of the Dragon: Interviews 1958–1973 (Bruce Lee). Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3133-5. Little, John (1997a). Jeet Kune Do: Bruce Lee's Commentaries on the Martial Way (illustrated ed.). Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3132-7. Little, John (1997b). The tao of gung fu: a study in the way of Chinese martial art. Bruce Lee Library 2 (illustrated ed.). Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3110-6. Little, John (1998). Bruce Lee: The Art of Expressing the Human Body. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8048-3129-1. Little, John (2002). Striking Thoughts: Bruce Lee's Wisdom for Daily Living (illustrated ed.). Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3471-7. Sharif, Sulaiman (2009). 50 Martial Arts Myths. new media entertainment ltd. ISBN 0-9677546-2-3. Thomas, Bruce (1994). Bruce Lee: Fighting Spirit: a Biography. Berkeley, California: Frog, Ltd. ISBN 1-883319-25-0. Thomas, Bruce (2006). Immortal Combat: Portrait of a True Warrior (illustrated ed.). Blue Snake Books. ISBN 1-58394-173-8. Uyehara, Mitoshi (1993). Bruce Lee: the incomparable fighter (illustrated ed.). Black Belt Communications. ISBN 0-89750-120-9. Vaughn, Jack (1986). The Legendary Bruce Lee. Black Belt Communications. ISBN 0-89750-106-3. Yılmaz, Yüksel (2000). Dövüş Sanatlarının Temel İlkeleri, İstanbul, Turkey: Beyaz Yayınları, ISBN 975-8261-87-8. Yılmaz, Yüksel (2008). Jeet Kune Do'nun Felsefesi, İstanbul, Turkey: Yalın Yayıncılık, ISBN 978-9944-313-67-4. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bruce Lee. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Bruce Lee Bruce Lee Foundation Bruce Lee at the Internet Movie Database Bruce Lee at the Hong Kong Movie DataBase Bruce Lee at AllMovie Bruce Lee at Rotten Tomatoes Article on Bruce Lee and bodybuilding [hide] v t e Bruce Lee Filmography Awards and honors Media about Films directed Way of the Dragon Game of Death Books written Chinese Gung-Fu: The Philosophical Art of Self Defense Tao of Jeet Kune Do Bruce Lee's Fighting Method Bruce Lee Library Techniques Jeet Kune Do One-inch punch Straight blast Works about Bruce Lee: The Man, The Myth Bruce Lee: The Man Only I Knew Spirit of the Dragon Dragon: The Bruce Lee Story Bruce Lee Bruce Lee: A Warrior's Journey The Legend of Bruce Lee Bruce Lee, My Brother I Am Bruce Lee Video games Bruce Lee Bruce Lee Lives Dragon: The Bruce Lee Story Bruce Lee: Quest of the Dragon Bruce Lee: Return of the Legend Family Lee Hoi-chuen (father) Robert Lee (brother) Linda Emery Lee (wife) Brandon Lee (son) Shannon Lee (daughter) Related topics Bruceploitation Bruce Li Statue in Hong Kong Statue in Mostar Yip Man Authority control WorldCat VIAF: 51692172 LCCN: n79068505 ISNI: 0000 0003 6855 300X GND: 118570803 SUDOC: 026978148 BNF: cb11912061r (data) NDL: 00447176 Categories: Bruce Lee1940 births1973 deaths20th-century American male actorsAmerican atheistsAmerican male film actorsAmerican martial artistsAmerican people of Chinese descentAmerican people of European descentAmerican male television actorsCantonese peopleHong Kong philosophersGreen HornetHong Kong male film actorsHong Kong male television actorsHong Kong film directorsHong Kong film producersHong Kong kung fu practitionersHong Kong people of European descentHong Kong screenwritersHong Kong wushu practitionersHong Kong stunt performersMartial arts school foundersMale actors from San Francisco, CaliforniaUniversity of Washington alumniUnsolved deathsWing Chun practitioners from Hong Kong
Bruce Lee Biography Showing all 98 items Jump to: Overview (4) | Mini Bio (1) | Spouse (1) | Trade Mark (7) | Trivia (57) | Personal Quotes (24) | Salary (4) Overview (4) Date of Birth 27 November 1940, San Francisco, California, USA Date of Death 20 July 1973, Kowloon, Hong Kong (cerebral edema) Birth Name Lee Jun Fan Height 5' 7½" (1.71 m) Mini Bio (1) Bruce Lee remains the greatest icon of martial arts cinema and a key figure of modern popular media. Had it not been for Bruce Lee and his movies in the early 1970s, it's arguable whether or not the martial arts film genre would have ever penetrated and influenced mainstream North American and European cinema and audiences the way it has over the past four decades.
The influence of East Asian martial arts cinema can be seen today in so many other film genres including comedies, action, drama, science fiction, horror and animation.....and they all have their roots in the phenomenon that was Bruce Lee.
Lee was born "Lee Jun Fan" November twenty-seventh 1940 in San Francisco, the son of Lee Hoi Chuen, a singer with the Cantonese Opera. Approximately one year later the family returned to Kowloon in Hong Kong and at the age of five years, a young Bruce begins appearing in children's roles in minor films including The Birth of Mankind (1946) and Fu gui fu yun (1948). At the age of 12 Bruce commenced attending La Salle College. Bruce was later beaten up by a street gang, which inspired him to take up martial arts training under the tutelage of "Sifu Yip Man" who schooled Bruce in wing chun kung fu for a period of approximately five years. This was the only formalized martial arts training ever undertaken by Lee. The talented & athletic Bruce also took up cha-cha dancing and at the age of 18 won a major dance championship in Hong Kong.
However his temper and quick fists got him in trouble with the Hong Kong police on numerous occasions. His parents suggested that he head off to the United States. Lee landed in San Francisco's Chinatown in 1959 and worked in a close relative's restaurant. He eventually made his way to Seattle, Washington where he enrolled at university to study philosophy and found the time to practice his beloved kung fu techniques. In 1963 Lee met Linda Emery (later his wife) and also opened his first kung fu school at 4750 University Way. During the early half of the 1960s Lee became associated with many key martial arts figures in the USA including kenpo karate expert Ed Parker and tae kwon do master Jhoon Rhee. He made guest appearances at notable martial arts events including the Long Beach Nationals. Through one of these tournaments Bruce met Hollywood hair-stylist Jay Sebring who introduced him to T.V. producer William Dozier. Based on the runaway success of "Batman" Dozier was keen to bring the cartoon character of "The Green Hornet" to T.V. and was on the lookout for an East Asian actor to play the Green Hornet's sidekick, "Kato". Around this time Bruce also opened a second kung fu school in Oakland, California and relocated to Oakland to be closer to Hollywood.
Bruce's screen test was successful, and "The Green Hornet" starring Van Williams aired in 1966 with mixed success. His fight scenes were sometimes obscured by unrevealing camera angles, but his dedication was such that he insisted his character behave like a perfect bodyguard, keeping his eyes on whoever might be a threat to his employer except when the script made this impossible. The show was surprisingly terminated after only one season (twenty-six episodes), but by this time Lee was receiving more fan mail than the show's nominal star. He then opened a third branch of his kung fu school in Los Angeles and began providing personalized martial arts training to celebrities including film stars Steve McQueen and James Coburn as well as screenwriter Stirling Silliphant. In addition he refined his prior knowledge of wing chun and incorporated aspects of other fighting styles such as traditional boxing and Okinawan karate. He also developed his own unique style "Jeet Kune Do" (Way of the Intercepting Fist). Another film opportunity then came his way as he landed the small role of a stand over man named "Winslow Wong" who intimidates private eye James Garner in Marlowe (1969). Wong pays a visit to Garner and proceeds to demolish the investigator's office with his fists and feet, finishing off with a spectacular high kick that shatters the light fixture. With this further exposure of his talents, Bruce then scored several guest appearances as a martial arts instructor to blind private eye James Franciscus on the TV series Longstreet (1971).
With his minor success in Hollywood and money in his pocket, Bruce returned for a visit to Hong Kong and was approached by film producer Raymond Chow who had recently started "Golden Harvest" productions. Chow was keen to utilize Lee's strong popularity amongst young Chinese fans, and offered him the lead role in _Tang sha da xiong (1971)_ (A.K.A. "The Big Boss"). The film was directed by Wei Lo, shot in Thailand on a very low budget and in terrible living conditions for cast and crew. However, when it opened in Hong Kong the film was an enormous hit. Chow knew he had struck box office gold with Lee and quickly assembled another script entitled Jing wu men (1972) (A.K.A. "The Chinese Connection", A.K.A. "Fist of Fury"). The second film (with a slightly bigger budget) was again directed by Wei Lo and was set in Shanghai in the year 1900, with Lee returning to his school to find that his beloved master has been poisoned by the local Japanese karate school. Once again he uncovers the evil-doers and sets about seeking revenge on those responsible for murdering his teacher. The film features several superb fight sequences and, at the film's conclusion, Lee refuses to surrender to the Japanese law and seemingly leaps to his death in a hail of police bullets.
Once more Hong Kong streets were jammed with thousands of fervent Chinese movie fans who could not get enough of the fearless Bruce Lee, and his second film went on to break the box office records set by the first! Lee then set up his own production company, Concord Productions, and set about guiding his film career personally by writing, directing and acting in his next film, _Meng long guojiang (1972)_ (A.K.A. "Way of the Dragon", A.K.A. "Return of The Dragon"). A bigger budget meant better locations and opponents, with the new film set in Rome, Italy and additionally starring hapkido expert Ing-Sik Whang, karate legend Robert Wall and seven-time U.S. karate champion Chuck Norris. Bruce plays a seemingly simple country boy sent to assist at a cousin's restaurant in Rome and finds his cousins are being bullied by local thugs for protection.
By now Lee's remarkable success in East Asia had come to the attention of Hollywood film executives and a script was hastily written pitching him as a secret agent penetrating an island fortress. Warner Bros. financed the film and also insisted on B-movie tough guy John Saxon starring alongside Lee to give the film wider appeal. The film culminates with another show-stopping fight sequence between Lee and the key villain, Han, in a maze of mirrors. Shooting was completed in and around Hong Kong in early 1973 and in the subsequent weeks Bruce was involved in completing over dubs and looping for the final cut. Various reports from friends and coworkers cite that he was not feeling well during this period and on July twentieth 1973 he lay down at the apartment of actress Betty Ting Pei after taking a head-ache tablet and was later unable to be revived. A doctor was called and Lee was taken to hospital by ambulance and pronounced dead that evening. The official finding was death due to a cerebral edema, caused by a reaction to the head-ache tablet.
Fans world-wide were shattered that their virile idol had passed at such a young age, and nearly thirty thousand fans filed past his coffin in Hong Kong. A second, much smaller ceremony was held in Seattle, Washington and Bruce was laid to rest at Lake View Cemetary in Seattle with pall bearers including Steve McQueen, James Coburn and Dan Inosanto. Enter the Dragon (1973) was later released in the mainland United States, and was a huge hit with audiences there, which then prompted National General films to actively distribute his three prior movies to U.S. theatres... each was a box office smash.
Fans throughout the world were still hungry for more Bruce Lee films and thus remaining footage (completed before his death) of Lee fighting several opponents including Dan Inosanto, Hugh O'Brian and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar was crafted into another film titled Game of Death (1978). The film used a look-alike and shadowy camera work to be substituted for the real Lee in numerous scenes. The film is a poor addition to the line-up and is only saved by the final twenty minutes and the footage of the real Bruce Lee battling his way up the tower. Amazingly this same shoddy process was used to create Si wang ta (1981) (A.K.A. "Game of Death II"), with a look-alike and more stunt doubles interwoven with a few brief minutes of footage of the real Bruce Lee.
Tragically his son Brandon Lee, an actor and martial artist like his father, was killed in a freak accident on the set of Ha-Orev (1994).
Bruce Lee was not only an amazing athlete and martial artist but he possessed genuine superstar charisma and through a handful of films he left behind an indelible impression on the tapestry of modern cinema. - IMDb Mini Biography By: firstname.lastname@example.org
Spouse (1) Linda Lee Cadwell (17 August 1964 - 20 July 1973) (his death) (2 children) Trade Mark (7) Often had a scene in his films where in a fight, he gets wounded. Standing stunned, he tastes his own blood and then he goes berserk wiping out any opponent in his path. Made animal sounds when he fought to unnerve his foes and focus his strength. His characters were often proudly Chinese and battled foes who racially oppressed his people as in when he smashed a "No dogs or Chinese allowed" sign with a flying kick Use of Jeet Kun Do, a form of martial arts he invented himself in which freedom of reaction was far more important than rigid form Bowl haircut Lightning fast moves and reflexes Extremely well defined body and muscles Fighting shirtless Trivia (57) Ranked #100 in Empire (UK) magazine's "The Top 100 Movie Stars of All Time" list. [October 1997] Father of Brandon Lee and Shannon Lee. Died of brain edema in Hong Kong at age 32. He is considered the greatest martial artist of the 20th century. Developed his martial art style called Jeet Kune Do (Way of the Intercepting Fist) which is more of an idea of being flexible and practical with learning martial arts Interred at Lake View Cemetery, Seattle, Washington, USA. While The Green Hornet (1966) TV series was in production, Bruce made several promotional appearances as Kato but made a point to never do the standard martial art stunts like breaking boards, which he felt had nothing to do with what martial arts are about. Bruce Lee Jun Fan Yuen Kam (Bruce Lee's full birth name) was born in the year of the dragon (1940), at the hour of the dragon (between 6:00AM- 8:00AM). Was an accomplished dancer and Hong Kong cha cha cha champion. A noted brawler in Hong Kong, Lee received formal training in wing chun under legendary sifu Yip Man. He later trained in a variety of arts but eventually found classical style limiting and, counter-productive. He developed Jeet Kune Do which, he stressed, is not a style but a way of approaching martial arts beyond style. It is the forerunner to mix martial arts. Weighed only 128 pounds at the time of his death. Suffered a serious back injury while attempting a good-morning (involves holding a barbell across the shoulders and bending forward, keeping legs and back straight). During his recuperation he wrote several books on the martial arts. His students in Jeet Kune Do martial arts included Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Steve McQueen, and James Coburn. His father, Lee Hoi-chuen, was Chinese. His mother, Grace Ho, is described as being of mixed Chinese and European (usually stated as German) descent. His development of Jeet Kune Do came partially out of an incident with his school. A rival martial artist challenged him to a duel over his decision to teach non-Chinese students. Lee accepted the challenge and won the duel but later thought that the fight took too long because his martial art technique was too rigid and formalistic. Thus he decided to develop a better system with an emphasis on practicality and flexibility. Was constantly challenged by movie extras and other men seeking to gain fame by beating him in a fight. Left for Seattle in 1958 with $100. Gave cha cha cha lessons to first-class passengers to earn extra money during ship ride to US. Was sought after for instruction by established martial artists such as Joe Lewis and Chuck Norris. Faced discrimination from other Chinese kung fu masters when trying to learn other martial arts styles. Would usually go to the number 3 or 4 man in a certain system to learn it in exchange for teaching what he knew. Demand for his private lessons grew so high that his hourly rate soared to $275 per hour. His last movie, Game of Death (1978), was his first film to be shot with sound, unlike most of his earlier films which were filmed without sound and later dubbed in by the actors. Some of the lost footage was later shown in Bruce Lee: A Warrior's Journey (2000). You can hear his own voice speaking English and Cantonese. Had he not died, his character's name in this movie would have been Hai Tien. Spoke English, Cantonese, Mandarin, and Japanese. Was able to name every single karate term and performed them with dead accuracy. Adopted his legendary nunchaku routine in his movies from the legendary karate master Hidehiko "Hidy" Ochiai. The two met at the Los Angeles YMCA in the mid 1960s. Earned $30,000 for his first two feature films. Developed a trick for showing off his speed: a person held a coin and closed his hand and, as he closed it, Lee would take it and could even swap the coin for another. His death was considered to be under 'extraordinarily bizarre' circumstances by many experts. Many people claimed that it was the work of 'Oni' (Japanese for Demons or evil spirits), while others claimed he was cursed. The theory of the 'Curse of Bruce Lee' carried over to the extremely bizarre death of his son, Brandon Lee, who was shot and killed during the filming of Ha-Orev (1994) in 1993. Before hitting it big as a movie star he often trained with the martial arts world's biggest stars, many of whom would latter become celebrities in their own right, such as world karate champion Chuck Norris. Despite rumors and reports to the contrary, Lee was never Norris's instructor. They trained together, often trading techniques and ideas, but never had a student-teacher relationship. One of his martial arts students was James Bond star George Lazenby. In his first and only meeting with Enter the Dragon (1973) composer Lalo Schifrin, Bruce told him that he often trains to the Mission: Impossible (1966) theme. Mastered a technique called "The One-Inch Punch", in which he could deliver a devastating blow yet have his fist travel the distance of one mere inch (2.54 cm) before striking an opponent. His first major U.S. project was the role of Kato in the television series The Green Hornet (1966). He joked that he got this role because he was the only Oriental actor who could properly pronounce the lead character's name: "Britt Reid". Mortal Kombat character "Liu Kang" was inspired by him, complete with the characteristic animal noises. When Elvis Presley's and Ed Parker's unfinished martial arts film "New Gladiators" was found in 2003, there was 20 minutes of Lee's demonstration at a martial arts display in the mid-'60s found along with it. Is often honored in video games. In "Mortal Kombat" games, the character Liu Kang was an obvious tribute to Lee. Then, in Super Street Fighter II: The New Challengers (1993), a character named Fei Long was introduced bearing an uncanny resemblance in both looks and fighting style to Lee. A lesser game, World Heroes (1992), also copied Lee as Kim Dragon. Lastly, the "Tekken" games did the tribute to him not once, but twice. First with Marshall Law, then with his son Forrest Law for the third installment of Tekken. Along with this, his fighting style was honored in Virtua Fighter (1993) with Jacky Bryant, in Dead or Alive (1997) with Jann Lee and in the "Soul Calibur" series as Maxi. (2004 September) Has a statue placed in the country Bosnia. After many years of war and religious splits, Lee's figure is to commend his work, to successfully bridge culture gaps in the world. His father, Hoi-Chuen Lee (b. February 1901, died February 8, 1965) was a popular stage actor and died 8 days after Brandon Lee was born. Lee was trained by Yip Man from 1954-1957 & Wong Shun-Leung from 1957-1958. Defeated British boxer Gary Elms by knockout in the third round in the 1958 Hong Kong amateur boxing championships by using Wing Chun traps and high/low-level straight punches. Before he met Elms in the finals, he knocked out three boxers in the first round. Hawkings Cheung, his fellow Wing Chun street fighter, witnessed the event. Lee knocked out Wong Jack-Man in Oakland, CA, in a 1965 no-holds-barred challenge match. It was Lee's last official fight. It lasted three minutes. Lee knocked-out Chung, a Choy Li Fut fighter, in Hong Kong in a 1958 Full-Contact match. The match was refereed by Sheun-Leung Wong. Lee knocked out Uechi in 10 seconds in a 1962 Full-Contact match in Seattle. It was refereed by Jesse Glover. Had four siblings, two sisters and two brothers: Phoebe Lee (b. 1938), Agnes Lee, older brother and fencing champion Peter Lee, and younger brother and musician Robert Lee. Some sources claim he also had a brother James who died of Black Lung in 1972 but James Yimm Lee was in fact his training partner and not his brother. Son of Hoi-Chuen Lee He was a gang leader in his teenage years. The name of his group was known as "The Tigers of Junction Street". UFC President Dana White considers Bruce Lee as "the father of Mixed Martial Arts". Alongside Muhammad Ali, Lee is cited as a major influence by many K-1 and MMA champions: Bas Rutten, Jose "Pele' Landi-Jons, Wanderlei Silva, 'Emilianenko Fedor', Norifumi "Kid' Yamamoto, Rob Kaman, Ramon Dekkers, Frank Shamrock, Murilo Rua, Maurício Shogun, 'Jerome Le Banner', 'Carlos Newton', Remy Bonjasky, Jeremy Horn, David Loiseau and Tito Ortiz, among others. To mark the occasion of what would have been Lee's 65th birthday (27 November 2005), a bronze statue of a topless Bruce adopting a martial arts stance was unveiled in Hong Kong, effectively kicking off a week-long Bruce Lee festival. In the popular Nintendo game series, Pokémon, the fighting type monster Hitmonlee is based on Lee. According to Hong Kong stuntman Phillip Ko, Lee was challenged by a tiger/crane kung fu stylist, an extra on Enter the Dragon (1973), who claimed Lee was a phony. Lee, who was furious at the claim, accepted the challenge to prove that his martial arts were indeed the real deal. The fight, which took place on the film set, only lasted 30 seconds, with Bruce pummeling his challenger with a series of straight punches to the face, low-line kicks to his shins/knees/thighs and finally ended with the guy being smashed to the wall with his hair pulled and his arms trapped by Bruce. After Lee forced the kung fu stylist to submit, he showed some class by telling him to go back to work instead of firing him. This fight was witnessed by the film's producer, Fred Weintraub, and Robert Wall. There is a character in the anime and manga Shaman King that is very heavily based on him. Also a character inspired by a Lee-like character appeared in the Yugioh manga. Chosen by Goldsea Asian American Daily as one of the "100 Most Inspiring Asian Americans of All Time". (ranked #2). Once performed a kick so fast it had be slowed down by editors for fear it would look like it was sped up. Was capable of doing push ups with a 250-pound man on his back and could do push-ups with only one finger. Was only 160 pounds at his heaviest. Bollywood made a song for him as a tribute: "Lets dance for the great guy Bruce Lee", composed by Bappi Lahiri and from the movie Morchha (1980). Bruce Lee was voted as the Greatest Movie Fighter Ever in 2014 by the Houston Boxing Hall Of Fame. The HBHOF is a combat sports voting body composed exclusively of current and former fighters and Martial Artists. Personal Quotes (24) Absorb what is useful, Discard what is not, Add what is uniquely your own. Simplicity is the last step of art. A teacher is never a giver of truth - he is a guide, a pointer to the truth that each student must find for himself. A good teacher is merely a catalyst. When an opportunity in a fight presents itself, "I" don't hit, "it" hits all by itself. Empty your mind. Become formless and shapeless like water. When water is poured into a cup, it becomes the cup. When water is poured into a teapot, it becomes the teapot. Be water, my friend. To know oneself is to study oneself in action with another person. If you want to understand the truth in martial arts, to see any opponent clearly, you must throw away the notion of styles or schools, prejudices, likes and dislikes, and so forth. Then, your mind will cease all conflict and come to rest. In this silence, you will see totally and freshly. I fear not the man who has practiced 10,000 kicks once, but I fear the man who has practiced one kick 10,000 times. The key to immortality is first living a life worth remembering. Don't think, feel! It is like a finger pointing away to the moon. Don't concentrate on the finger or you will miss all that heavenly glory. A quick temper will make a fool of you soon enough. I don't believe in different ways of fighting now. I mean, unless human beings have 3 arms and 3 legs, then we will have a different way of fighting. But basically we all have two arms and two legs so that is why I believe there should be only one way of fighting and that is no way. If you always put limits on what you can do, physical or anything else, it'll spread over into the rest of your life. It'll spread over into your work, into your mortality, into your entire being. There are no limits. There are plateaus, but you must not stay there, you must go beyond them. If it kills you, it kills you. There's no challenge in breaking a board. Boards don't hit back. Ever since I was a child I have had this instinctive urge for expansion and growth. To me, the function and duty of a quality human being is the sincere and honest development of one's potential. Love is like a friendship caught on fire. In the beginning a flame, very pretty, often hot and fierce, but still only light and flickering. As love grows older, our hearts mature and our love becomes as coals, deep-burning and unquenchable. Notice that the stiffest tree is most easily cracked, while the bamboo or willow survives by bending with the wind. Martial art is ultimately an athletic expression of the dynamic human body. More important yet, is the person who is expressing his own soul. I have always been a martial artist by choice, an actor by profession, but above all, am actualising myself to be an artist of life. A goal is not always meant to be reached; it often serves simply as something to aim at. The martial arts are ultimately self-knowledge. A punch or a kick is not to knock the hell out of the guy in front, but to knock the hell out of your ego, your fear, or your hang-ups. I'm not in this world to live up to your expectations and you're not in this world to live up to mine. You know what I want to think of myself? As a human being. Because, I mean I don't want to sound like ask Confucius, sayyyyyy--(joking) but under the sky, under the heaven, man, there is but one family. It just so happens that people are different. First of all, the word superstar really turns me off--and I'll tell you why. The word "star" man, it's an illusion. it's something what the public calls you. You should look upon oneself as an actor, man. I mean you would be very pleased if somebody said (punches his fist into his open hand) "man, you are a super actor!" it is much better than, you know, superstar. Ever since The Big Boss there seems to be a wave, a hot wave in fact, of finding "another Bruce Lee" among all types of people, particularly martial artists. Ranging from karate men, hapkido men, judo men, etcetera, etcetera. Forgetting about whether or not they possess the ability to act, just so long as they can halfway decent kick or punch and know a few tricks or gimmicks, the producers will make them a "star." Now, let's stop about here. Is it that simple to become a star? Well, I can assure you it's not that simple. Also, I can tell you that as more (of) Bruce Lee's films are shown, the audience will soon realize-not only in acting ability but in physical skill as well-they will see the difference. Of course, "It is only moviemaking," people will say, but certainly the audiences are not so insensitive as to not be able to see and judge for themselves. Salary (4) The Green Hornet (1966) $400 /episode Longstreet (1971) $2,000 /episode Tang shan da xiong (1971) $7,500 Jing wu men (1972) $7,500
Bruce Lee filmography From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Two of Bruce Lee's films (Enter the Dragon and Game of Death) premiered after his death.
Contents [hide] 1 Filmography 2 Documentaries 3 Television appearances 4 Video games 5 External links Filmography Year Title Chinese Title Role Notes 1941 Golden Gate Girl 金門女 As an infant 1946 The Birth of Mankind 人类的诞生 1948 Wealth is Like a Dream 富貴浮雲 1949 Sai See in the Dream 夢裡西施 "Yam Lee" 1950 The Kid 細路祥 "Kid Cheung" aka My Son, Ah Chung 1951 Infancy 人之初 "Ngau" 1953 A Myriad Homes 千萬人家 Blame it on Father 父之過 aka Father's Fault The Guiding Light 苦海明燈 "Son as teenager" A Mother's Tears 慈母淚 In the Face of Demolition 危樓春曉 1955 An Orphan's Tragedy 孤星血淚 "Frank Wong (child)" Orphan's Song 孤兒行 Love 愛 Love Part 2 愛(下集) We Owe It to Our Children 兒女債 1956 The Wise Guys Who Fool Around 詐痲納福 Too Late For Divorce 早知當初我唔嫁 1957 The Thunderstorm 雷雨 "Chow Chung" based on play Lei Yu by Cao Yu Darling Girl 甜姐兒 "Student friend" / "Dancing partner" 1960 The Orphan 人海孤鴻 "Sam" 1969 Marlowe 醜聞喋血 "Winslow Wong" Action Director The Wrecking Crew 風流特務勇破迷魂陣 Action Director 1970 A Walk in the Spring Rain 春雨漫步 Action Director 1971 The Big Boss 唐山大兄 "Cheng Chao-an" Action Director Fights against a drug lord in Thailand. aka Fists of Fury 1972 Fist of Fury 精武門 "Chen Zhen" Action Director Fights against Japanese tyrants to avenge his master in Shanghai. aka The Chinese Connection Fist of Unicorn 麒麟掌 "Martial Artist" Action Director Fight Choreographer and unintended cameo appearance Bruce Lee (Unintended cameo), Bruce Lee only make brief appearance at the behind-the-scene where he rehearsing the actors and stuntman. aka The Unicorn Palm Bruce Lee wasn't actually meant to be in Fist of Unicorn. He was only on set doing action choreography as a favor to long-time friend, Unicorn Chan. The producers filmed Bruce Lee working, and edited the footage into the film. Lee was reportedly less than impressed.
The Way of the Dragon 猛龍過江 "Tang Lung" Director Action Director Producer Screenwriter Fights crime in Rome, Italy. Released after 'Enter the Dragon' in the U.S.; hence the title Return of the Dragon The Game of Death 死亡的遊戲 "Hai Tien" Director Action Director Producer Screenwriter Lee died before he finished his film. It was later pieced together with a different plot in 1978. 1973 Enter the Dragon 龍爭虎鬥 "Mr. Lee" Action Director Sent as a spy into a tournament, hosted by a rogue-monk-turned-drug lord. 1978 Game of Death 死亡遊戲 "Billy Lo" Stock Footage 1981 Game of Death II 死亡塔 "Billy Lo"/"Lee Chen Chiang" Stock Footage aka Tower of Death Note: The title The Chinese Connection (a play on the then-recently released The French Connection) was originally intended for The Big Boss due to the drugs theme of the story and Fists of Fury was intended for Fist of Fury. When it was exported, the titles somehow got switched.
Documentaries Year Documentary Title Chinese Title Notes 1973 Bruce Lee, the Man and the Legend 李小龍的生與死 Updated in 1984 and retitled Bruce Lee, the Legend. The Last Days of Bruce Lee 1974 Kung Fu Killers 1976 Bruce Lee, The Legend 李小龍的生與死(下) Golden Harvest tribute, focused on their films starring him. Featured on the Hong Kong Legends Bruce Lee, the Man and the Legend DVD. 1977 The Real Bruce Lee 1990 The Best of the Martial Arts Films 金裝武術電影大全 Bruce Lee - Best of the Best 1992 Bruce Lee and Kung Fu Mania 1993 Top Fighter The Life of Bruce Lee Bruce Lee: The Curse of the Dragon Included on Enter the Dragon DVDs and Blu-rays. Death by Misadventure 1994 Bruce Lee: The Lost Interview Cinema of Vengeance History of martial arts cinema, with clips of Bruce. Bruce Lee: The Immortal Dragon Biography episode, available on DVD. 1998 Bruce Lee: The Path of the Dragon Bruce Lee: In His Own Words Featurette on Enter the Dragon DVDs and Blu-rays. Mystic Origins of the Martial Arts The Immortal Masters Jackie Chan: My Story 成龍的傳奇 1999 Century Hero Hollywood Screen Tests: Take 2 2000 Bruce Lee: A Warrior's Journey 李小龍：勇士的旅程 Found as special feature on the 2004 DVD release of Enter the Dragon. Also on HD DVD and Blu-ray. Bruce Lee in G.O.D.: Shibōteki Yūgi 死亡的遊戲 2001 The Unbeatable Bruce Lee 2002 Bruce Lee: The Legend Lives On The Art of Action: Martial Arts in Motion Picture 功夫片歲月 Jackie Chan: Fast, Funny and Furious Modern Warriors 2003 Cinema Hong Kong: Kung Fu 電影香江：功夫世家 2004 Dragon: Since 1973 龍：一九七三以後 2009 Sebring 2011 I Am Bruce Lee 2013 Fighter of Death Note: All the documentaries listed here were produced after Lee's death, therefore all the Lee footage are composed of archive footage and some never-before-seen footage.
Television appearances Year Title Chinese Title Role Country & Channel Notes 1966 The Green Hornet 青蜂侠 "Kato" USA - ABC aka The Kato Show (Hong Kong title) 1966-1967 Where the Action Is Himself USA - ABC 1967 Batman 蝙蝠俠 "Kato" USA - ABC Visiting Hero Episodes The Spell of Tut, A Piece of the Action and Batman's Satisfaction Ironside 無敵鐵探長 "Leon Soo" USA - NBC Guest star Episode Tagged for Murder 1968 Blondie "Martial Arts Instructor" USA - CBS Guest star Episode Pick on Someone Your Own Size 1969 Here Come the Brides 新娘駕到 "Lin" USA - ABC Guest star Episode Marriage, Chinese Style 1970 Enjoy Yourself Tonight 歡樂今宵 Himself Hong Kong - TVB 1971 Longstreet 血灑長街 "Li Tsung" Fight choreographer USA - ABC Appeared in 4 episodes: The Way of the Intercepting Fist, Spell Legacy Like Death, Wednesday's Child and I See, Said the Blind Man, The Pierre Berton Show Himself Canada - Screen Gems 1972 Enjoy Yourself Tonight 歡樂今宵 Himself Hong Kong - TVB 1993 Fame in the Twentieth Century Himself UK - BBC 1999 Famous Families Himself USA - FOX Episode The Lees: Action Speaks Louder 2003 I Love the '70s "Lee" USA - MTV 2007 La Rentadora Himself Spain - TV3 Episode Be Water My Friend Note: All the series produced after Lee's death (1973) feature archival footage of Lee.
Video games Year Video Game Title Role Notes 1984 Bruce Lee Himself 1989 Bruce Lee Lives Himself 1993 Dragon: The Bruce Lee Story 2002 Bruce Lee: Quest of the Dragon Himself 2003 Bruce Lee: Return of the Legend Himself 2010 Bruce Lee: Dragon Warrior Himself Smartphone game; Limited release 2011 KungFu Warrior Himself Smartphone game 2014 EA Sports UFC Himself PS4 and Xbox One game 2014 Bruce Lee: Enter The Game Himself Smartphone game External links Bruce Lee at the Internet Movie Database Bruce Lee at the Hong Kong Movie DataBase Bruce Lee at Hong Kong Cinemagic [hide] v t e Bruce Lee Filmography Awards and honors Media about Films directed Way of the Dragon Game of Death Books written Chinese Gung-Fu: The Philosophical Art of Self Defense Tao of Jeet Kune Do Bruce Lee's Fighting Method Bruce Lee Library Techniques Jeet Kune Do One-inch punch Straight blast Works about Bruce Lee: The Man, The Myth Bruce Lee: The Man Only I Knew Spirit of the Dragon Dragon: The Bruce Lee Story Bruce Lee Bruce Lee: A Warrior's Journey The Legend of Bruce Lee Bruce Lee, My Brother I Am Bruce Lee Video games Bruce Lee Bruce Lee Lives Dragon: The Bruce Lee Story Bruce Lee: Quest of the Dragon Bruce Lee: Return of the Legend Family Lee Hoi-chuen (father) Robert Lee (brother) Linda Emery Lee (wife) Brandon Lee (son) Shannon Lee (daughter) Related topics Bruceploitation Bruce Li Statue in Hong Kong Statue in Mostar Yip Man Categories: Bruce LeeMartial arts filmsChinese filmographies