Alain "Rufus" de Bretagne, lord of Richmond

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Count Alain III "le Roux" Rufus (de Bretagne), comte de Penthievre

French: Alain Fitz Eudo, comte de Penthievre, Latin: Alanus Rufus, comte de Penthievre
Also Known As: "Alain de Richmond"
Birthplace: Brittany, France
Death: August 04, 1093 (44-53)
Plouigneau, Bretagne, France
Place of Burial: Suffolk, England
Immediate Family:

Son of Odo / Eudes, comte de Penthièvre and Agnès de Cornouaille
Partner of Gunhild Haraldsdatter
Father of Matilda
Brother of Brien Tihern de Bretagne; Matilda Penthievre; Geoffroi I Botterel de Penthievre, comte de Penthievre; Etienne de Penthièvre, Count of Tréguier; Alan Niger Fitz Eudo and 3 others
Half brother of Ribald FitzOdo de Penthièvre, 1st Lord Middleham and Spennithorne; Bardolf, Lord of Ravensworth and Bodin Fitz Eudo

Occupation: Vicomte de RICHMOND
Managed by: Private User
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About Alain "Rufus" de Bretagne, lord of Richmond

Alan Rufus (alternatively Alanus Rufus (Latin), Alan ar Rouz (Breton), Alain le Roux (French) or Alan the Red (c. 1040 – 1093)), 1st Lord of Richmond, was a Breton nobleman and companion of William the Conqueror (Duke William II of Normandy) during the Norman Conquest of England. He was the second son of Eozen Penteur (also known as Eudon, Eudo or Odo, Count of Penthièvre) by Orguen Kernev (also known as Agnes of Cornouaille).[b] William the Conqueror granted Alan Rufus a significant English fief, later known as the Honour of Richmond, in about 1071.[1]

Alan Rufus or Alain le Roux ("Alan the Red"; c. 1040-1089), was was a relative and companion of William the Conqueror in the Norman Conquest and especially during Harrying of the North, in which he built Richmond Castle. He was the second son of Eudes, Comte de Penthièvre, by Agnes, daughter of Alain Cagnart, Comte de Cornouaille. He later became Earl of Richmond, followed by his brother, Alain Le Noir (Niger), who was in turn followed by [brother] Stephen, Count of Tréguier. His other brother Brian was Earl (Lord) of Cornwall, but relinquished his own estates for a Breton wife and her dowry.

At the time of his death, his wealth was noted as £11,000, 7% of the net national income of England. In 2007, that would account for over £81 billion or 103 billion Euros.[1] According to Forbes magazine's most wealthy historical figures as of 2008, his net worth in 2007 dollars is roughly US$166.9 billion, placing him 9th in the list of most wealthy historical figures.


  1. ^ Alan the Red, the Brit who makes Bill Gates a pauper The Sunday Times - 9 October, 2007

External links

Alan Rufus (the Red), the third child of Eudon, accompanied the Conqueror in his conquest of England. Alan was commander of the Breton contingent at the Battle of Hastings and later played a major role in the brutal suppression of the North 1069-1070. For his loyalty and his relationship to William (he was a second cousin) he was made one of the largest landowners in England. Alan Count of Brittany was granted lands and manors that formerly had been in the possession of Earl Edwin in Yorkshire. This extensive holding, one of the three largest granted by William, was created for military purposes. The estates were formed into the Honour of Brittany (they would not be called the Honour of Richmond until about 1203).

Alan Rufus in 1071 began construction of Richmond Castle on the lofty hill overlooking the River Swale. Alan became the first Count of Richmond. Alan also built the first castle in Middleham in Wensleydale, Northern Yorkshire, which belonged his brother Ribald. When Alan Rufus died without issue in 1089, his brother Alan Niger (the Black) claimed the Honour of Brittany (Richmond). Alan Niger also died without issue in 1093. Stephen, Count of Penthievre and younger brother of the two proceeding Counts of Richmond succeeded Alan Niger. Alan Niger III, son of Stephen, claimed the Honour of Brittany (Richmond) upon his father's death (1137) and was the first to use the title "Earl of Richmond."


  • Nottingham Medieval Studies 36: 42–78. Sharpe, Richard (2007). "King Harold's Daughter". Haskins Society Journal: Studies in Medieval History 19: 1–27 GoogleBooks
  • MATILDA, daughter of ---. An undated charter of King Henry II confirms the possessions of York St Mary and lists donations including the donations made by "Walterus de Daincourt" and the donation of “unam carucatam terræ quæ fuit Brutinæ in Corby et silvam…decimam de domino de Abbingtuna et de Lins et de Thudesham et decimam Ribaldi de Pikenham de altera Lins, et decimam de Herinthorp, decimam Normanni de Fliccaburh, decimam Gerrardi in Apelby et Gamesthorp et terram…Northuuda juxta Burtunam in Lincolschira” made by “Matildis uxor eius”[7]. Richard Sharp suggests that she was Mathilde, [illegitimate] daughter of Alain "Rufus" de Bretagne Lord of Richmond & his mistress Gunhild ---[8]. ...
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Alain "Rufus" de Bretagne, lord of Richmond's Timeline

Brittany, France
August 4, 1093
Age 49
Plouigneau, Bretagne, France
Abbey of St. Edmunds - Bury, Suffolk, England (United Kingdom)