Alfonso XII, Rey de España

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Alfonso Francisco de Asís Fernando Pío Juan María de la Concepción Gregorio Pelayo 'el Pacificador' of Bourbon and Habsburg, King of Spain

Spanish: Alfonso Francisco de Asís Fernando Pío Juan María de la Concepción Gregorio Pelayo de Borbón, rey de España
Also Known As: "Alfonso XII Francisco de Asis Fernando Pio Juan Maria de la Concepcion Gregorio Pelayo de Borbón", "rey de España"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Madrid, España
Death: November 25, 1885 (27)
El Pardo, Madrid, España (Tuberculose)
Place of Burial: Madrid, España
Immediate Family:

Son of Francis of Assisi of Bourbon and Isabel II, Reina de España
Husband of María de las Mercedes Isabel Francisca de Asis Antonia Luisa Fernanda Felipa Amalia Cristina Francisca de Paula Ramona Rita Cayetana Manuela Juana Josefa Joaquina Ana Rafaela Filomena Teresa Santisima Trinidad Gaspara Melchora Baltasara de Orléans y Borbón, Reina consorte de España and Maria Christina of Austria
Father of Jorge Sanz y Martínez De Arizala; Alfonso Sanz y Martínez de Arizala; Fernando Sanz y Martinez de Arizala; Maria de las Mercedes Isabel Teresa Christina Alfonsa Jacinta de Borbón y Habsburgo-Lorena, Infanta de España; María Teresa Isabel Eugenia del Patrocinio Diega de Borbón y Hasburgo-Lorena, Infanta de España and 1 other
Brother of Luis de Borbón y Borbón; Fernando de Borbón y Borbón; Isabel de Borbón y Borbón, Infanta de España; Maria Cristina de Borbón y Borbón; María de la Concepción de Borbón y Borbón and 4 others
Half brother of Cipriano González Bravo and María De Sotto y de Borbón

Occupation: King of Spain 1874-1885, King of Spain
Managed by: Noah Tutak
Last Updated:

About Alfonso XII, Rey de España

Predecessor: Amadeo I Successor: Alfonso XIII

Alfonso XII de Borbón y de Borbón, Rey de España

M, #101328, b. 28 November 1857, d. 25 November 1885

Last Edited=10 May 2003

Consanguinity Index=24.6%

    Alfonso XII de Borbón y de Borbón, Rey de España was born on 28 November 1857 at Madrid, Spain. ▼1 

He was the son of Francisco de Asis de Borbón, Duque de Cádiz and Isabel II, Reina de España. He married, firstly, Maria de las Mercedes de Orléans y de Borbón, Infanta de España, daughter of Antoine Marie Philippe Louis d'Orléans, Prince d'Orléans and Maria Luisa Fernanda de Borbón, Infanta de España, on 23 January 1878 at Madrid, Spain. ▼1

He married, secondly, Maria Cristina Erzherzogin von Österreich, daughter of Karl Ferdinand Erzherzog von Österreich and Elizabeth Franziska Maria Erzherzogin von Österreich, on 29 November 1879 at Madrid, Spain. ▼1

He died on 25 November 1885 at age 27 at El Prado, Madrid, Spain. ▼1

    Alfonso XII de Borbón y de Borbón, Rey de España gained the title of Rey Alfonso XII de España in 1874.

Children of Alfonso XII de Borbón y de Borbón, Rey de España and Elena Sanz y Martinez de Arrizala

-1. Alfonso Sanz y Martinez de Arrizala+ b. 1880, d. 1970

-2. Fernando Sanz y Martinez de Arrizala b. 1881, d. 1922

Children of Alfonso XII de Borbón y de Borbón, Rey de España and Maria Cristina Erzherzogin von Österreich

-1. Maria de las Mercedes de Borbón y Habsburgo, Infanta de España+ b. 11 Sep 1880, d. 17 Oct 1904

-2. Maria Theresia de Borbón y Habsburgo, Infanta de España+ b. 12 Nov 1882, d. 23 Sep 1912

-3. Alfonso XIII de Borbón y Habsburgo, Rey de España+ b. 17 May 1886, d. 28 Feb 1941

Source / Forrás:

http://thepeerage.com/p10133.htm#i101328


Alfonso XII of Spain

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Alfonso XII (November 28, 1857–November 25, 1885) was king of Spain, reigning from 1875 to 1885, after a coup d'état restored the monarchy and ended the ephemeral First Spanish Republic.

Alfonso was the son of Isabella II of Spain, and allegedly, Francis of Assisi de Borbon, her King Consort. His true biological paternity is uncertain, though his legal paternity is not: his mother was married to her (presumed homosexual) cousin Francis of Assisi de Borbon, the King Consort of Spain, at the time of Alfonso's conception and birth. Some theories suggest that Alfonso's biological father might have been either Enrique Puigmoltó y Mayans, captain of the Royal Guard, or General Francisco Serrano.

In exile

When Queen Isabella and her husband were forced to leave Spain by the Revolution of 1868, Alfonso accompanied them to Paris. From there, he was sent to the Theresianum at Vienna to continue his studies. On June 25, 1870, he was recalled to Paris, where his mother abdicated in his favour, in the presence of a number of Spanish nobles who had tied their fortunes to that of the exiled queen. He assumed the title of Alfonso XII, for although no King of united Spain had borne the name "Alfonso XI", the Spanish monarchy was regarded as continuous with the more ancient monarchy represented by the eleven kings of León and Castile, also named Alfonso.

Shortly afterwards, Alfonso proceeded to the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in the United Kingdom in order to continue his military studies. While there, he issued, on December 1, 1874, in reply to a birthday greeting from his followers, a manifesto proclaiming himself the sole representative of the Spanish monarchy. At the end of that year, when Marshal Serrano left Madrid to take command of the northern army in the Carlist War, Brigadier Martinez Campos, who had long been working more or less openly for the king, led some battalions of the central army to Sagunto, rallied to his own flag the troops sent against him, and entered Valencia in the king's name. Thereupon the president of the council resigned, and his power was transferred to the king's plenipotentiary and adviser, Canovas del Castillo.

[edit]Return from exile

Within a few days after Canovas del Castillo took power, the new king arrived at Madrid, passing through Barcelona and Valencia and was acclaimed everywhere (1875). In 1876, a vigorous campaign against the Carlists, in which the young king took part, resulted in the defeat of Don Carlos and the Duke's abandonment of the struggle.

On January 23, 1878, Alfonso married his cousin, Princess Maria de las Mercedes, daughter of Antoine, Duke of Montpensier, but she died within six months of the marriage. Towards the end of the same year, a young workman of Tarragona, Juan Oliva Moncasi, fired at the king in Madrid.

Download recording - The folk song "¿Dónde vas, el caballero?" was adapted as "¿Dónde vas, Alfonso Doce?" with lyrics reflecting the story of tragic love between king and queen. This is a version from Minorca preserved at the Library of Congress' Florida Folklife from the WPA Collections; performed by Maria Hugas de Aceval on September 26, 1939 in St. Augustine, Florida.

[edit]Second marriage and rule

On November 29, 1879, Alfonso married a much more distant relative, the Archduchess Archduchess Maria Christina of Austria, daughter of Archduke Karl Ferdinand of Austria and of his wife Archduchess Elisabeth of Austria. During the honeymoon, a pastrycook named Otero fired at the young sovereign and his wife as they were driving in Madrid.

The children of this marriage were:

Maria de las Mercedes, Princess of Asturias, (September 11, 1880 – October 17, 1904), married on February 14, 1901 to Prince Carlos of Bourbon, and titular heiress from the death of her father until the posthumous birth of her brother

Maria Teresa, (November 12, 1882 – September 23, 1912), married to Prince Ferdinand of Bavaria on January 12, 1906

Alfonso XIII (May 17, 1886 -- February 28, 1941). Born posthumously, this son was king from the moment of his birth and thus never held any other Spanish titles from the crown, such as Infante or Prince of Asturias. He married Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, called "Ena," a carrier of hemophilia, and two of their sons died young from the disease. A third was a deaf-mute as a result of a childhood illness. A fourth was the father of the current King of Spain.

In 1881, the king refused to sanction a law by which the ministers were to remain in office for a fixed term of eighteen months. Upon the consequent resignation of Canovas del Castillo, he summoned Práxedes Mateo Sagasta, the Liberal leader, to form a new cabinet.

Death and impact

In November of 1885, Alfonso died, just short of his 28th birthday, of tuberculosis.

Coming to the throne at such an early age, Alfonso had served no apprenticeship in the art of ruling, but he possessed great natural tact and a sound judgment ripened by the trials of exile. Benevolent and sympathetic in disposition, he won the affection of his people by fearlessly visiting districts ravaged by cholera or devastated by earthquake in 1885. His capacity for dealing with men was considerable, and he never allowed himself to become the instrument of any particular party. During his short reign, peace was established both at home and abroad, finances were well regulated, and the various administrative services were placed on a basis that afterwards enabled Spain to pass through the disastrous war with the United States without the threat of a revolution.

References

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.


Espanjan kuningas 1875-1885

Alfonso XII was King of Spain, reigning from 1874 to 1885, after a coup d'état restored the monarchy and ended the ephemeral First Spanish Republic.

Having been forced into exile after the Glorious Revolution deposed his mother Isabella II from the throne in 1868, Alfonso studied in Austria and France. His mother abdicated in his favour in 1870, and he returned to Spain as king in 1874 following a military coup against the First Republic. Alfonso died aged 27 in 1885, and was succeeded by his unborn son, who became Alfonso XIII on his birth the following year.

To date, he is the last monarch of Spain who died whilst on the throne.

Alfonso was born in Madrid as the eldest son of Queen Isabella II. Officially, his father was her husband, Infante Francis. Alfonso's biological paternity is uncertain: there is speculation that his biological father may have been Enrique Puigmoltó y Mayans (a captain of the guard).[1] These rumours were used as political propaganda against Alfonso by the Carlists.

His mother's accession created the second cause of instability, which was the Carlist Wars. The supporters of the Count of Molina as king of Spain rose to have him enthroned. In addition, within the context of the post-Napoleonic restorations and revolutions which engulfed the West both in Europe and the Americas, both the Carlistas as well as the Isabelino conservatives were opposed to the new Napoleonic constitutional system. Much like in Britain, which subtracted itself from the liberal constitutional process, Spanish conservatives wanted to continue with the Traditional Spanish Organic Laws such as the Fuero Juzgo, the Novísima Recopilación and the Partidas of Alfonso X. This led to the third cause of instability of note, the "Independence of the American Kingdoms", recognized between 1823 and 1850.

When Queen Isabella and her husband were forced to leave Spain by the Revolution of 1868, Alfonso accompanied them to Paris. From there, he was sent to the Theresianum at Vienna to continue his studies. On 25 June 1870, he was recalled to Paris, where his mother abdicated in his favour, in the presence of a number of Spanish nobles who had tied their fortunes to that of the exiled queen. He assumed the name Alfonso XII, for although no King of united Spain had borne the name "Alfonso XI", the Spanish monarchy was regarded as continuous with the more ancient monarchy represented by the 11 kings of Asturias, León and Castile also named Alfonso.[2]

After Amadeo's abandonment in 1873, Parliament declared the Federal Republic (including Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Pacific Archipelagos), the first act of President Estanislao Figueras was to extend the Abolition Act to Puerto Rico. Cuban slaves would have to wait until 1889.

But the republicans were not in agreement either, and they had to contend with the War in Cuba, and Muslim uprisings in Spanish Morocco. In the midst of the crisis during and after the First Spanish Republic, the Carlist party made itself strong in areas with claims over their national and institutional specificity, such as Catalonia or the Basque districts. By 1872, the Third Carlist War erupted. This unrest led to the creation of a group in favor of the Bourbon restoration, made by some sectors of the conservatives led by Canovas del Castillo.

The Prince of Asturias, Alfonso, was the person chosen to develop the new road map proposed by Canovas, which led to the June 1870 abdication of Queen Isabel II in favour of her son Prince Alfonso. The new road map, which indeed ended the eternal crisis begun in 1810 was called 'Alfonsismo', and the moderate centrist Cánovas del Castillo became the spokesman. As having Alfonso in Spain would be a problem, Cánovas became responsible for his education. He sent Alfonso to the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, in England, where the training Alfonso received was severe but more cosmopolitan than in Spain, given the current atmosphere.

On 1 December 1874, Alfonso issued the Sandhurst Manifesto, where he set the ideological basis of the Bourbon Restoration. It was drafted in reply to a birthday greeting from his followers, a manifesto proclaiming himself the sole representative of the Spanish monarchy. At the end of 1874, Brigadier Martínez Campos, who had long been working more or less openly for the king, led some battalions of the central army to Sagunto, rallied to his own flag the troops sent against him, and entered Valencia in the king's name. Thereupon the President resigned, and his power was transferred to the king's plenipotentiary and adviser, Antonio Cánovas. The 29 December 1874 military coup of Gen. Martinez Campos in Sagunto ended the failed republic and meant the rise of the young Prince Alfonso.

Within a few days after Canovas del Castillo took power as Premier, the new king, proclaimed on 29 December 1874, arrived at Madrid, passing through Barcelona and Valencia and was acclaimed everywhere (1875). In 1876, a vigorous campaign against the Carlists, in which the young king took part, resulted in the defeat of Don Carlos and the Duke's abandonment of the struggle.

Initially led by Canovas del Castillo as moderate prime minister, what was thought at one time as a coup aimed at placing the military in the political-administrative positions of power, in reality ushered in a civilian regime that lasted until Primo de Rivera's 1923 coup d'état. Cánovas was the real architect of the new regime of the Restoration.

In order to eliminate one of the problems of the reign of Isabel II, the single party and its destabilizing consequences, the Liberal Party was allowed to incorporate and participate in national politics, and the 'turnismo' or alternation was to become the new system. Turnismo would be endorsed in the Constitution of 1876 and the Pact of Pardo Palace (1885). It meant that liberal and conservative prime ministers would succeed each other ending thus the troubles.

This led to the end of the Carlist revolts and the victory over the New York-backed Cuban revolutionaries, and led to a huge backing both by insular and peninsular Spaniards of Alfonso as a wise and able king.

Alfonso's short reign established the foundations for the final socioeconomic recuperation of Spain after the 1808–1874 crisis. Both European (the coastal regions, such as the Basque Country, Catalonia, and Asturias) and Overseas – Antilles and Pacific were able to grow steadily. Cuba and Puerto Rico prospered to the point that Spain's first train was between Havana and Camaguey, and the world's first telegraph was in Puerto Rico, as Samuel Morse lived there with his daughter, married to a Puerto Rican businessman. Upon the American invasion of Puerto Rico, ten US dollars were needed to buy one Puerto Rican peso.

On 23 January 1878 at the Basilica of Atocha in Madrid, Alfonso married his first cousin, Princess Maria de las Mercedes, daughter of Antoine, Duke of Montpensier, but she died within six months of the marriage.

On 29 November 1879 at the Basilica of Atocha in Madrid, Alfonso married a much more distant relative, Maria Christina of Austria, daughter of Archduke Karl Ferdinand and Archduchess Elisabeth of Austria. During the honeymoon, a pastry cook named Otero fired at the young sovereign and his wife as they were driving in Madrid.

The children of this marriage were: María de las Mercedes, Princess of Asturias, (11 September 1880 – 17 October 1904), married on 14 February 1901 to Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, and titular heiress from the death of her father until the posthumous birth of her brother María Teresa, (12 November 1882 – 23 September 1912), married to Prince Ferdinand of Bavaria on 12 January 1906 Alfonso XIII (17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941). Born posthumously. He married Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg Alfonso had two sons by Elena Armanda Nicolasa Sanz y Martínez de Arizala (Castellón de la Plana, 15 December 1849 – Paris, 24 December 1898):

Alfonso Sanz y Martínez de Arizala (28 January 1880, Madrid – 1970), married in 1922 to María de Guadalupe de Limantour y Mariscal (24 April 1897, Mexico City – 1977, Marbella), daughter of Julio de Limantour y Marquet (17 June 1863, Mexico City – 11 October 1909, Mexico City) and wife Elena Mariscal Smith, paternal granddaughter of French Joseph Yves de Limantour y Rence de la Pagame (1812, Ploemeur – 1885, Mexico City) and wife Adèle Marquet y Cabannes[3] Fernando Sanz y Martínez de Arizala (28 February 1881, Madrid – 1922, Nice, France), unmarried and without issue In 1881 Alfonso refused to sanction a law by which the ministers were to remain in office for a fixed term of 18 months. Upon the consequent resignation of Canovas del Castillo, he summoned Práxedes Mateo Sagasta, the Liberal leader, to form a new cabinet.

In November 1885, Alfonso died, just short of his 28th birthday, at the Royal Palace of El Pardo near Madrid. He had been suffering from tuberculosis, but the immediate cause of his death was a recurrence of dysentery.

In 1902, his widow Maria Cristina initiated a national contest to build a monument in memory of Alfonso. The winning design, by José Grases Riera, was erected in an artificial lake in Madrid's Parque del Buen Retiro in 1922.

Coming to the throne at such an early age Alfonso had served no apprenticeship in the art of ruling. Benevolent and sympathetic in disposition, he won the affection of his people by fearlessly visiting districts ravaged by cholera or devastated by earthquake in 1885. His capacity for dealing with men was considerable, and he never allowed himself to become the instrument of any particular party. During his short reign, peace was established both at home and abroad, finances were well regulated, and the various administrative services were placed on a basis that afterwards enabled Spain to pass through the disastrous war with the United States without the threat of a revolution.

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Alfonso XII, Rey de España's Timeline

1857
November 28, 1857
Madrid, España
November 28, 1857
- September 30, 1868
Madrid, Madrid, Community of Madrid, Spain
December 28, 1857
Madrid, Madrid, Community of Madrid, Spain
1874
December 28, 1874
- November 25, 1885
Age 17
Tarnia, Estovakia, Bahrenburg
December 28, 1874
- November 25, 1885
Age 17
Madrid, Madrid, Community of Madrid, Spain
1875
1875
Age 17
1880
January 28, 1880
Age 22
Madrid, Spain
September 11, 1880
Age 22
Madrid, Comunidad de Madrid, España