Andronicus II, byzantine emperor

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Andronicus Palaiologos

Greek: Ανδρόνικος Παλαιολόγος, Lithuanian: Andronikos Ii Palaiologos, Bizantijos Imperatorius
Also Known As: "император Андроник II Палеолог", "Andronikos II Palaiologos; Palæologus"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Nicaea, Byzantine Empire
Death: February 13, 1332 (72)
Constantinople, Byzantine Empire
Immediate Family:

Son of Michael VIII, Byzantine Emperor and Princess Téodôra Dukaina Vatatzina
Husband of ÁRPÁD (házi) Anna, Empress Consort of Byzantine Emperor; Eirene of Montferrat and Unknown Mistress Palaiologus vanhempi
Father of Michael IX Palaiologos, byzantine co-emperor; Konstantinos Palaiologinos; Ioannes Palaiologos; Teodoro I Palaiologos, marchese del Monferrato; Simonis-Simonida Despina and 4 others
Brother of Prince Manuel Palaiologos; Anna Komnene Palaiologina; Konstantinos Palaiologos; Irene Asan, Empress of Bulgaria; Eudokia Palaiologina and 3 others
Half brother of Maria / Despina-Khatun of the Byzantine Empire and Euphrosyne Palaiologina

Occupation: Kejsare i Byzan, Emperor of Byziantine Empire, Bysantin keisari 1282-1328, Bizantijos Imperatorius 1282-1328
Managed by: Henn Sarv
Last Updated:

About Andronicus II, byzantine emperor

http://finnholbek.dk/getperson.php?personID=I50&tree=2

Andronikos II Palaiologos (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Β' Παλαιολόγος) (25 March 1259, Nicaea – February 13, 1332, Constantinople) — also Andronicus II Palaeologus — reigned as Byzantine emperor from 1282 to 1328. He was the eldest surviving son of Michael VIII Palaiologos and Theodora Doukaina Vatatzina, grandniece of John III Doukas Vatatzes. On 8 November 1273, Andronikos II married Anne of Hungary (1260–1281), daughter of King Stephen V of Hungary.

Andronikos II Palaiologos was acclaimed co-emperor in 1261, after his father Michael VIII recovered Constantinople from the Latin Empire, but he was crowned only in 1272. Sole emperor from 1282, Andronikos II immediately repudiated his father's unpopular Church union with the Papacy (which he had been forced to support while his father was still alive), but was unable to resolve the related schism within the Orthodox clergy until 1310. Andronikos II was also plagued by economic difficulties and during his reign the value of the Byzantine hyperpyron depreciated precipitously while the state treasury accumulated less than one seventh the revenue (in nominal coins) that it had done previously. Seeking to increase revenue and reduce expenses, Andronikos II raised taxes and reduced tax exemptions, and dismantled the Byzantine fleet (80 ships) in 1285, thereby making the Empire increasingly dependent on the rival republics of Venice and Genoa. In 1291, he hired 50–60 Genoese ships. Later, in 1320, he tried to resurrect the navy by constructing 20 galleys, but failed.

Andronikos II Palaiologos sought to resolve some of the problems facing the Byzantine Empire through diplomacy. After the death of his first wife Anne of Hungary, he married Yolanda (renamed Eirene) of Montferrat, putting an end to the Montferrat claim to the Kingdom of Thessalonica. Andronikos II also attempted to marry off his son and co-emperor Michael IX Palaiologos to the Latin Empress Catherine I of Courtenay, thus seeking to eliminate Western agitation for a restoration of the Latin Empire. Another marriage alliance attempted to resolve the potential conflict with Serbia in Macedonia, as Andronikos II married off his five-year old daughter Simonis to King Stefan Milutin in 1298.

In spite of the resolution of problems in Europe, Andronikos II was faced with the collapse of the Byzantine frontier in Asia Minor. After the failure of the co-emperor Michael IX to stem the Turkish advance in Asia Minor in 1302 and the disastrous Battle of Bapheus, the Byzantine government hired the Catalan Company of Almogavars (adventurers from Aragon and Catalonia) led by Roger de Flor to clear Byzantine Asia Minor of the enemy. In spite of some successes, the Catalans were unable to secure lasting gains. They quarreled with Michael IX, and eventually turned on their Byzantine employers after the murder of Roger de Flor in 1305, devastating Thrace, Macedonia, and Thessaly on their road to Latin Greece. There they conquered the Duchy of Athens and Thebes. The Turks continued to penetrate the Byzantine possessions, and Prusa fell in 1326. By the end of Andronikos II's reign, much of Bithynia was in the hands of the Ottoman Turks of Osman I and his son and heir Orhan. Also, Karesi conquered Mysia region with Paleokastron after 1296, Germiyan conquered Simav in 1328, Saruhan captured Magnesia in 1313 and Aydınoğlu captured Symirna in 1310.

The Empire's problems were exploited by Theodore Svetoslav of Bulgaria, who defeated Michael IX and conquered much of northeastern Thrace in c. 1305–1307. The conflict ended with yet another dynastic marriage, between Michael IX's daughter Theodora and the Bulgarian emperor. The dissolute behavior of Michael IX's son Andronikos III Palaiologos led to a rift in the family, and after Michael IX's death in 1320, Andronikos II disowned his grandson, prompting a civil war that raged, with interruptions, until 1328. The conflict precipitated Bulgarian involvement, and Michael Asen III of Bulgaria attempted to capture Andronikos II under the guise of sending him military support. In 1328 Andronikos III entered Constantinople in triumph and Andronikos II was forced to abdicate. He died as a monk in 1332.

Family

In 1274 Andronikos II married as his first wife Anna of Hungary, a daughter of King Stephen V of Hungary and Elizabeth the Cuman, with whom he had two sons:

Michael IX Palaiologos

Constantine Palaiologos, despotes

After Anna died in 1281, in 1284 Andronikos II then married Yolanda (renamed Eirene), a daughter of Marquis William VII of Montferrat, with whom he had:

John Palaiologos (c. 1286–1308), despotes, married Eirene Choumnaina, no issue.

Theodore I, Marquis of Montferrat (1291–1338)

Demetrios Palaiologos (d. after 1343), despotes. Father of Irene Palaiologina.

Simonis Palaiologina (1294-after 1336), who married King Stefan Milutin of Serbia

Andronikos II also had at least two illegitimate daughters:

Eirene, who married John II Doukas, ruler of Thessaly

Maria, who married Toqta, Khan of the Golden Horde


Andronikos II Palaiologos

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Andronikos II Palaiologos or Andronicus II Palaeologus (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Β' Παλαιολόγος) (25 March 1259, Constantinople – February 13, 1332, Constantinople), reigned as Byzantine emperor 1282–1328. Andronikos II Palaiologos was the eldest surviving son of Michael VIII Palaiologos and Theodora Doukaina Vatatzina, grandniece of John III Doukas Vatatzes.

Life

Andronikos II Palaiologos was acclaimed co-emperor in 1261, after his father Michael VIII recovered Constantinople from the Latin Empire, but he was crowned only in 1272. Sole emperor from 1282, Andronikos II immediately repudiated his father's unpopular Church union with the Papacy (which he had been forced to support while his father was still alive), but was unable to resolve the related schism within the Orthodox clergy until 1310. Andronikos II was also plagued by economic difficulties and during his reign the value of the Byzantine hyperpyron depreciated precipitously while the state treasury accumulated less than one seventh the revenue (in nominal coins) that it had done previously. Seeking to increase revenue and reduce expenses, Andronikos II raised taxes and reduced tax exemptions, and dismantled the Byzantine fleet (80 ships) in 1285, thereby making the Empire increasingly dependent on the rival republics of Venice and Genoa. In 1291, he hired 50-60 Genoese ships. Later, in 1320, he tried to resurrect the navy by constructing 20 galleys, but unfortunately he failed.

Andronikos II Palaiologos sought to resolve some of the problems facing the Byzantine Empire through diplomacy. After the death of his first wife, he married Yolanda (renamed Eirene) of Montferrat, putting an end to the Montferrat claim to the Kingdom of Thessalonica. Andronikos II also attempted to marry off his son and co-emperor Michael IX Palaiologos to the Latin Empress Catherine I of Courtenay, thus seeking to eliminate Western agitation for a restoration of the Latin Empire. Another marriage alliance attempted to resolve the potential conflict with Serbia in Macedonia, as Andronikos II married off his five-year old daughter Simonis to King Stefan Milutin in 1298.

In spite of the resolution of problems in Europe, Andronikos II was faced with the collapse of the Byzantine frontier in Asia Minor. After the failure of the co-emperor Michael IX to stem the Turkish advance in Asia Minor in 1300, the Byzantine government hired the Catalan Company of Almogavars (adventurers from Aragon and Catalonia) led by Roger de Flor to clear Byzantine Asia Minor of the enemy. In spite of some successes, the Catalans were unable to secure lasting gains. They quarreled with Michael IX, and eventually turned on their Byzantine employers after the murder of Roger de Flor in 1305, devastating Thrace, Macedonia, and Thessaly on their road to Latin Greece. There they conquered the Duchy of Athens and Thebes. The Turks continued to penetrate the Byzantine possessions, and Bursa fell in 1326. By the end of Andronikos II's reign, much of Bithynia was in the hands of the Ottoman Turks of Osman I and his son and heir Orhan.

The Empire's problems were exploited by Theodore Svetoslav of Bulgaria, who defeated Michael IX and conquered much of northeastern Thrace in c. 1305-1307. The conflict ended with yet another dynastic marriage, between Michael IX's daughter Theodora and the Bulgarian emperor. The dissolute behavior of Michael IX's son Andronikos III Palaiologos led to a rift in the family, and after Michael IX's death in 1320, Andronikos II disowned his grandson, prompting a civil war that raged, with interruptions, until 1328. The conflict precipitated Bulgarian involvement, and Michael Asen III of Bulgaria attempted to capture Andronikos II under the guise of sending him military support. In 1328 Andronikos III entered Constantinople in triumph and Andronikos II was forced to abdicate. He died as a monk in 1332.

[edit]Family

In 1274 Andronikos II married as his first wife Anna of Hungary, a daughter of King Stephen V of Hungary and Elizabeth the Cuman, with whom he had two sons:

Michael IX Palaiologos

Constantine Palaiologos, despotes

After Anna died in 1281, in 1284 Andronikos II then married Yolanda (renamed Eirene), a daughter of Marquis William VII of Montferrat, with whom he had:

John Palaiologos (c. 1286-1308), despotes

Theodore I, Marquis of Montferrat (1291-1338)

Demetrios Palaiologos (d. after 1343), despotes. Father of Irene Palaiologina.

Simonis Palaiologina (1294-after 1336), who married King Stefan Milutin of Serbia

Andronikos II also had at least two illegitimate daughters:

Eirene, who married John II Doukas, ruler of Thessaly

Maria, who married Toqta, khan of the Golden Horde


Andronikos II Palaiologos (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Β' Παλαιολόγος) (25 March 1259, Nicaea – February 13, 1332, Constantinople) — also Andronicus II Palaeologus — reigned as Byzantine emperor from 1282 to 1328. He was the eldest surviving son of Michael VIII Palaiologos and Theodora Doukaina Vatatzina, grandniece of John III Doukas Vatatzes.

Andronikos II Palaiologos was acclaimed co-emperor in 1261, after his father Michael VIII recovered Constantinople from the Latin Empire, but he was crowned only in 1272. Sole emperor from 1282, Andronikos II immediately repudiated his father's unpopular Church union with the Papacy (which he had been forced to support while his father was still alive), but was unable to resolve the related schism within the Orthodox clergy until 1310. Andronikos II was also plagued by economic difficulties and during his reign the value of the Byzantine hyperpyron depreciated precipitously while the state treasury accumulated less than one seventh the revenue (in nominal coins) that it had done previously. Seeking to increase revenue and reduce expenses, Andronikos II raised taxes and reduced tax exemptions, and dismantled the Byzantine fleet (80 ships) in 1285, thereby making the Empire increasingly dependent on the rival republics of Venice and Genoa. In 1291, he hired 50-60 Genoese ships. Later, in 1320, he tried to resurrect the navy by constructing 20 galleys, but unfortunately he failed.

Andronikos II Palaiologos sought to resolve some of the problems facing the Byzantine Empire through diplomacy. After the death of his first wife, he married Yolanda (renamed Eirene) of Montferrat, putting an end to the Montferrat claim to the Kingdom of Thessalonica. Andronikos II also attempted to marry off his son and co-emperor Michael IX Palaiologos to the Latin Empress Catherine I of Courtenay, thus seeking to eliminate Western agitation for a restoration of the Latin Empire. Another marriage alliance attempted to resolve the potential conflict with Serbia in Macedonia, as Andronikos II married off his five-year old daughter Simonis to King Stefan Milutin in 1298.

Andronikos II and Michael IX Palaeologus (Silver basilikon).

In spite of the resolution of problems in Europe, Andronikos II was faced with the collapse of the Byzantine frontier in Asia Minor. After the failure of the co-emperor Michael IX to stem the Turkish advance in Asia Minor in 1300, the Byzantine government hired the Catalan Company of Almogavars (adventurers from Aragon and Catalonia) led by Roger de Flor to clear Byzantine Asia Minor of the enemy. In spite of some successes, the Catalans were unable to secure lasting gains. They quarreled with Michael IX, and eventually turned on their Byzantine employers after the murder of Roger de Flor in 1305, devastating Thrace, Macedonia, and Thessaly on their road to Latin Greece. There they conquered the Duchy of Athens and Thebes. The Turks continued to penetrate the Byzantine possessions, and Prusa fell in 1326. By the end of Andronikos II's reign, much of Bithynia was in the hands of the Ottoman Turks of Osman I and his son and heir Orhan. Also, Karesi conquered Mysia region with Paleokastron after 1296, Germiyan conquered Simav in 1328, Saruhan captured Magnesia in 1313 and Aydınoğlu captured Symirna in 1310.

The Empire's problems were exploited by Theodore Svetoslav of Bulgaria, who defeated Michael IX and conquered much of northeastern Thrace in c. 1305-1307. The conflict ended with yet another dynastic marriage, between Michael IX's daughter Theodora and the Bulgarian emperor. The dissolute behavior of Michael IX's son Andronikos III Palaiologos led to a rift in the family, and after Michael IX's death in 1320, Andronikos II disowned his grandson, prompting a civil war that raged, with interruptions, until 1328. The conflict precipitated Bulgarian involvement, and Michael Asen III of Bulgaria attempted to capture Andronikos II under the guise of sending him military support. In 1328 Andronikos III entered Constantinople in triumph and Andronikos II was forced to abdicate. He died as a monk in 1332.

Family

In 1274 Andronikos II married as his first wife Anna of Hungary, a daughter of King Stephen V of Hungary and Elizabeth the Cuman, with whom he had two sons:

Michael IX Palaiologos

Constantine Palaiologos, despotes

After Anna died in 1281, in 1284 Andronikos II then married Yolanda (renamed Eirene), a daughter of Marquis William VII of Montferrat, with whom he had:

John Palaiologos (c. 1286-1308), despotes, married Eirene Choumnaina, no issue.

Theodore I, Marquis of Montferrat (1291-1338)

Demetrios Palaiologos (d. after 1343), despotes. Father of Irene Palaiologina.

Simonis Palaiologina (1294-after 1336), who married King Stefan Milutin of Serbia

Andronikos II also had at least two illegitimate daughters:

Eirene, who married John II Doukas, ruler of Thessaly

Maria, who married Toqta, khan of the Golden Horde

A.E. Laiou, Constantinople and the Latins: The Foreign Policy of Andronicus II, 1282-1328, Harvard University Press, 1972

Donald M. Nicol, The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 12061-1453, Cambridge University Press, 1993, 2nd edition, pp. 93-147

Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991.

This article incorporates text from the article "Andronicus II" in the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.


http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant8.html

The Palaiologos family

The early generations of this family are confused and uncertain. The first certain ancestor is one Andronikos Dukas Komnenos Palaiologos, Gov of Thessalonica, +after 1246; m.his cousin Theodora Palaiologina; they had issue:

  • A1. MICHAÉL VIII Dukas Komnenos Palaiologos, Emperor of Byzantium (1259-82), *1224/5, +1282; m.1253 Theodora Dukaina Batatzaina (*1240 +1303)
    • B1. Manuel, *1254/7, +ca 1259
    • B2. ANDRONIKOS II Palaiologos, Emp of Byzantium (1282-1328), *25.3.1259, +Monte Athos 13.2.1332; 1m: 1273 Anna (+1281/2) dau.of King Stephen V of Hungary; 2m: 1285 Yolanda=Eirene of Montferrat (*1274 +1317)
      • C1. [1m.] MICHAÉL IX Palaiologos, co-emperor of Byzantium (1295-1320), *1277, +12.10.1320; m.1295 Rita of Armenia (*1278 +VII.1333)
      • ...
      • C2. [1m.] Konstantinos Palaiologos, despot of Thessalonica, +after 1329; 1m: 1295 Theodora Muzalon; 2m: Eudokia Neokaisareitissa
        • D1. [illegitimate] Michael Katharos
      • C3. [2m.] Ioannes Palaiologos, Despot of Thessalonica, *1286, +1307; m.1303 Eirene Chumnaina (*1292, +1360)
      • C4. [2m.] Theodoros Palaiologos, Marquis de Montferrat (1306-38), *Constantinople 1291, +Casale 21.4.1338, he inherted his mothers margravate of Montferrat; m.Hagia Sophia, Constantinople IX.1307 Argentina Spinola (+before 1338), dau.of Obizino di Corrado Spinola, Duke of Genoa by Violante di Saluzzo; for his issue see HERE
      • C5. [2m.] Demetrios Angelodukas Palaiologos, +after 1343
      • C6. [2m.] Bartholomaios, +young
      • C7. [2m.] Isaakios, +young
      • C8. [2m.] Theodora, +young

C9. [2m.] Simonis, *1292/93, +after 1336; m.1300 King Stepan Uros II of Serbia (+29.10.1321)

  • **C10. [illegitimate] Maria; m.Tochtu Khan of the Golden Horde
    • *C11. [illegitimate] Eirene; m.1315 Ioannes Dukas Angelos, Archon of Neiapatrai
    • ...
view all 17

Andronicus II, byzantine emperor's Timeline

1259
March 25, 1259
Byzantine Empire
1277
April 17, 1277
Age 18
Constantinople, Byzantine Empire
1278
1278
Age 18
Kontantinopolis, Bizantija
1279
1279
Age 19
Of, Constantinople, Constantinople, Turkey
1283
1283
Age 23
Of, Saloniki, Makedhonia, Greeze
1291
1291
Age 31
Константинопол, Византия
1292
1292
Age 32
Constantinople, Byzantine Empire
1296
1296
Age 36
(Constantinople), Byzantium, Istanbul, Turkey