Caliph Umar al-Farooq bin al-Khattab

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Umar al-Farooq bin al-Khattab

Persian: عمر بن الخطاب al-Khattab
Also Known As: "'Umar al-Farooq ("Distinguisher between truth and false")"
Birthplace: Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Death: November 06, 644 (58-67)
Medina, Saudi Arabia
Place of Burial: Medina, Saudi Arabia
Immediate Family:

Son of Umar al-Khattab bin Nufayl and Khantamah binte Hisham al-Makhzumi
Husband of Qariba binte Umait al-Makhzumi; Umm Kulthoom binte Abu Bakr; Fukhia al-Yamania; Malika (Umm Kulthoom) binte Jarwila; Umm Hakim binte al-Harith al-Makhzumi and 5 others
Ex-husband of Umm Kulthoom "Jamila" binte 'Aasim bin Thabit
Father of Ataullah bin Umar al-Farooq; 'Aasim bin Umar al-Farooq; Obaidallah bin Umar al-Farooq; Zaynab bint Umar; Fatimah binte Umar al-Farooq and 8 others
Brother of Fatimah binte al-Khattab and Zayd bin al-Khattab
Half brother of Hafsah Bint Umar al-Khattab; Private and Zayd ibn al-Khattab

Occupation: AMIR-UL-MOMINEEN/CALIPH OF MUSLIMS, 2nd Caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate
Managed by: Bo Garsteen
Last Updated:

About Caliph Umar al-Farooq bin al-Khattab

From Banu 'Adi Clan of Quraysh Tribe.

Second Caliph of Islam

When attained majority,father,Khattab set me to the task of grazing camels,an occupation which was then the favorite national calling in Arabia. Acquired skill in tracing genealogy from his father-attained perfection in wrestling-during youth,literally jumped on to my horse's back-prior to my conversion to Islam the Quraish had invested me with the ambassadorial office and my brain was a repository of the choicest verses of the famous poets-At the time of the advent of the Prophet, I was amongst only 17 persons in the whole clan of Quraish who could read and write-to earn livelihood by trading travelled to Persia, & Syria,paid visits to several Arabian & Persian princes-was 27 years old when Prophet declared Islam.After the death of Amir-al-Momineen,Allah bestowed this exalted office laden with heavy responsibilty to be the Amir -ul-Momineen, or Leader of all Muslims.

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Umar ibn al-Khattab' (592-644)

Second of the four "rightly guided" caliphs. Umar was born in Meccaaround 581 to the Adi clan of the Quraish tribe. Umar belonged to afamily of average class, but he was able to become literate, and waswell known for his physical strength, becoming a champion wrestler.When Muhammad first declared his message of Islam, Umar believed Islamwas heretical rhetoric against the Quraish and his ancestors, and heresolved to kill Muhammad. He was stopped on his way to Muhammad'shouse, however, with news of his sister's conversion to Islam. Umarwas initially angered by the news, but after reading some of the Quranhe was instantly changed. Rather than killing Muhammad, he determinedto accept Islam.

Umar was part of the first emigration to Medina, and became animportant companion of Muhammad. He participated in all of the Muslimbattles against the Quraish. Upon the death of Muhammad, Umar was insuch a state of despair that he threatened to decapitate anyone whosaid that Muhammad was dead.

Abu Bakr became the first successor to Muhammad. During Abu Bakr'sshort reign as caliph, Umar was an important advisor to him, and AbuBakr selected Umar as his successor prior to his death. Umar reignedas caliph from 633 until his assassination in 644. Umar's time ascaliph saw the Islamic empire grow at an unprecedented rate, takingIraq and parts of Iran from the Sassanids, and thereby ending thatempire, and taking Egypt, Palestine, Syria, North Africa and Armeniafrom the Byzantines. Umar also codified Islamic law, and was known forhis simple lifestyle and modest living. A famous story tells of himarriving in Jerusalem walking beside his camel upon which his servantwas sitting.

Umar was murdered in 644 by a Persian slave who was angered by apersonal quarrel with Umar; he stabbed the caliph six times as Umarled prayers in Masjid al Nabawi. Umar died two days later, and isburied alongside Muhammad and Abu Bakr. Prior to dying, he appointed acouncil of six men to elect his successor from amongst themselves,chosing Uthman ibn Affan. Umar is most recognized for originating mostof the major political institutions of the Muslim state andstabilizing the rapidly expanding Arab empire.

Umar, also spelled Omar (Arabic: عمر بن الخطاب‎, translit. ʿUmar ibn Al-Khattāb, Umar Son of Al-Khattab, born c.583 CE – died 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.

Kuffa during Caliph Umar's era (637–644) The Arabs, led by Caliph ʻUmar ibn Khattāb, conquered Iraq and began ruling Suristan around 637. Umar, who assigned the land of the Jews in Arabia to his warriors, ordered the relocation of the Jews of Khaybar to a strip of land in Kufa in 640.

Caliph Umar was a senior Sahaba of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He succeeded Abu Bakr (632–634) as the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate on 23 August 634. He was an expert Islamic jurist known for his pious and just nature, which earned him the epithet Al-Farooq ("the one who distinguishes between right and wrong"). He is sometimes referred to as Umar I by historians of Islam, since a later Umayyad caliph, Umar II, also bore that name. According to Sunnis, Umar is the second greatest of the Sahaba after Abu Bakr.

Under Umar, the caliphate expanded at an unprecedented rate, ruling the Sasanian Empire and more than two-thirds of the Byzantine Empire. His attacks against the Sasanian Empire resulted in the conquest of Persia in fewer than two years (642–644).

According to Jewish tradition, Umar set aside the Christian ban on Jews and allowed them into Jerusalem and to worship

In 610 Muhammad started preaching the message of Islam. Like many others in Mecca, Umar opposed Islam and he even threatened to kill Muhammad. He resolved to defend the traditional polytheistic religion of Arabia. He was adamant and cruel in opposing Muhammad and very prominent in persecuting Muslims.

He recommended Muhammad's death. He firmly believed in the unity of the Quraish and saw the new faith of Islam as a cause of division and discord.

Due to persecution, Muhammad ordered some of his followers to migrate to Abyssinia. As a small group of Muslims migrated Umar became worried about the future unity of the Quraish and decided to have Muhammad assassinated.

Umar converted to Islam in 616, one year after the Migration to Abyssinia.

Umar started the welfare state which continued under the Ummayad power. [The welfare state of both the Muslim and the non-Muslim poor started by Umar ibn al Khattab had also continued (under the Ummayad)...]

Caliph Umar (634-644 CE) launched an offensive against the Sassanid Persian Empire in 642 and by 651 the Empire was destroyed. But parts of Khorasan where held by Sasanian loyalists helped by their Hephthalite allies.

The Banu Najjar were the maternal tribe of the Prophet's grandfather Abdul-Muttalib, they resided in Madinah, and after the Prophet's emigration from Makkah he settled with them in Madinah, and it is at their settlement that the current Mosque of the Prophet stands.

Not to be confused with Banu Nadir, another Jewish tribe.

The Zaidiyyah Shia accept Umar and Abu Bakr as legitimate Rashidun caliphs.

Umar is considered as a political genius, as an architect of the Islamic Empire he is regarded as the 52nd most influential figure in history. Umar remained politically stagnant during Muhammad's era, however after his death, it was Umar's brilliance that Abu Bakr was elected caliph, despite massive initial confrontations at Saqifah.[citation needed] Umar successfully broke the alliance of the tribes of Medina who claim the caliphate to be their right, paving the way for the succession of Abu Bakr. During Abu Bakr's era, he actively participated as his secretary and main adviser. After succeeding Abu Bakr as caliph, Umar won over the hearts of Bedouin tribes by emancipating all their prisoners and slaves taken during the Ridda wars, his excellent oratory skills helped him to heighten his popularity graph, mostly among the poor and underprivileged people.[citation needed] He proved himself as an excellent manager during the year of the great Famine when his dynamic abilities saved millions from starvation.[citation needed] He is best known for building up an efficient administrative structure of the empire, that held together his vast realm. He organized an effective network of intelligence, partly a reason for his strong grip on his bureaucracy.

His judicial reforms were fairly modern and advanced in nature when compared to contemporary systems of his era.[citation needed] He opposed the construction of the present day Suez Canal, as it posed a threat to the security of Medina. One of the reasons for the compactness of his political rule in the conquered lands is reputed to be his policy of tolerance to their religious beliefs and imposition of far lower taxes on them as compared to the Sassanid Persian empire and Byzantine Empire.[citation needed] Their local administration was kept untouched and several of the former Byzantine and Persian officials were retained on their services under Umar's governors.

Umar never appointed governors for more than two years, for they might get influence in their county. He dismissed his most successful general Khalid ibn Walid, due to his immense popularity and growing influence that he saw as a menace to his authority. Rather than tenacious conquest he stressed more on consolidating his rule in the conquered land, a fact that saved the Byzantine empire from complete disappearance. Umar is reported to have wished an official tour across his domain to personally examine the condition of his subjects.

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Caliph Umar al-Farooq bin al-Khattab's Timeline

Mecca, Saudi Arabia


Age 33
Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Age 47
Medina, Saudi Arabia
November 6, 644
Age 63
Medina, Saudi Arabia
November 7, 644
Age 63
Medina, Saudi Arabia