Gagik I "the Great" King of Armenia

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Gagik I, King of Ani, King

Also Known As: "Rey de Armenia"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Ani, Kars, Turkey
Death: Died in Ani, Kars, Turkey
Immediate Family:

Son of Ashot III of Armenia and Khosrovanuysh, Queen of Armenia
Husband of Katramide of Kartli, Queen of Armenia
Father of Ashot IV King of Armenia and Hovhannes I of Armenia
Brother of Smbat II of Armenia; Kiurike I of Lori and Hripsime of Armenia

Managed by: Douglas John Nimmo
Last Updated:

About Gagik I "the Great" King of Armenia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gagik_I_of_Armenia

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ARMENIA.htm#GagikIdied1017A

ABAS, son of SMBAT I King of Armenia & his wife --- (-951). Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia names "Abas son of Smbat" as ruler of Armenia[91]. The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Asotium…et Apasacium" as the two sons of "Symbatii…principum principis", stating that "Apasacium" was later invested as magister[92]. He succeeded his brother in [928] as ABAS King of Armenia. The Tables chronologiques of Samuel of Ani record the succession in 930 of "Abas fils de Sembat et frère d´Achot", adding that he built "à Cars une cathédrale d´admirable architecture"[93]. He remained as sole king of Armenia after the death of his cousin Ashot in 936. He installed his capital at Kars, where he erected a new cathedral which he was forced to defend against Prince Ber of Abkhazia who sought to force its consecration according to the Greek Orthodox rather than Armenian rite[94].

m ---. The name of Abas's wife is not known.

King Abas & his wife had five children:

  • 1. ASHOT (-977). The Tables chronologiques of Samuel of Ani record the succession in 954 of "Achot fils d´Abas"[95]. He succeeded his father in 951 as ASHOT III "Voghormadz/the Merciful" King of Armenia. He moved his capital from Kars to Ani where he was crowned in 961. Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that many bishops "gathered in the fortress of Ani in the kingdom of Ashot, son of Abas" to discuss unity with the Georgian church[96]. He resisted the advance of the Byzantine army of Emperor Ioannes Tzimisces, who recognised King Ashot's authority in 974 faced with Armenia's combined military forces[97]. m ---. The name of Ashot's wife is not known. Ashot & his wife had three children:
    • a) SMBAT (-[989/90]). Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "his son Smbat (called Shahnshah)" succeeded Ashot and ruled for thirteen years, starting the construction of the cathedral at Ani[98]. The History of Aristakes Lastivertci names "Gagik son of Ashot, brother of Smbat and Gurgen from the Bagratid clan" as king of Armenia[99]. He succeeded his father in 977 as SMBAT II "Tiezerakal/Master of the Universe" King of Armenia. His succession was challenged by his uncle Mushel, although they were reconciled in [982][100].
    • b) GAGIK (-[1017/20]). The History of Aristakes Lastivertci names "Gagik son of Ashot, brother of Smbat and Gurgen from the Bagratid clan" as king of Armenia[101]. He succeeded his brother in [989/90] as GAGIK I "the Great" King of Armenia. - see below ►.
    • c) GURGEN [Kiwrike] (-989). The History of Aristakes Lastivertci names "Gagik son of Ashot, brother of Smbat and Gurgen from the Bagratid clan" as king of Armenia[102]. His father granted him the northern district of Tashir in [972], where he adopted the title King of Albania[103]. - see Part E.
  • 2. MUSHEL (-984). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. His brother King Ashot III installed him at Kars in 961, where he adopted the royal title in 963[104]. m ---. The name of Mushel's wife is not known. - KINGS of KARS and VANAND.


GAGIK of Armenia, son of ASHOT III "Voghormadz/the Merciful" King of Armenia & his wife --- (-[1017/20]). The History of Aristakes Lastivertci names "Gagik son of Ashot, brother of Smbat and Gurgen from the Bagratid clan" as king of Armenia[105]. He succeeded his brother in [989/90] as GAGIK I "the Great" King of Armenia. The Tables chronologiques of Samuel of Ani record the succession in 994 of "Gagic fils d´Achot et frère de Sembat-Chahinchah", adding that he started the construction of "[le] temple de S. Grégoire" at Ani "du côté de Dzaghcotsa-Tzor"[106]. Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "his brother Gagik" succeeded Smbat and ruled for 29 years, building the "church of St Gregory above Tsaghkatsor"[107]. He refused to submit to Emperor Basileios II in 1001[108]. The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that the death “vers le commencement de l´année 420 [29 Mar 971/27 Mar 972]” of “le roi d´Arménie Kakig”[109], although is impossible chronologically. On his death, his territories were divided between his two sons.

m KATRAMIDE, daughter of --- [a Georgian]. Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "his [Gagik's] wife Queen Katramite" completed the construction of the cathedral started by Smbat[110]. The sources are contradictory regarding the parentage of Katramide. According to Vardan, she was the daughter of Vasak [VI] prince of Siunik[111]. The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that the mother of Yovhanes was “la reine Gadramidtkh…fille du roi de Géorgie, Kourke”[112]. It is assumed that this is intended to mean that she was Katramide, daughter of Gurgen [I] Prince of Kartli & his wife --- of Abkhazia. The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that Yovhanes received support from “le chef Géorgien” in his dispute with his brother over their father´s succession, dated to after [1017/20]. It is unclear from the context of the passage whether “le chef Géorgien” in question refers to Yovhanes´s maternal grandfather, although the reference by Matthew to this “chef Géorgien” being “Aph´khaz de naissance” [113] suggests that this might be the case. If the passage indicates the same person, this alleged parentage is cast in doubt, as the death of Prince Gurgen is dated to 1008 in the Georgian Chronicle (18th Century). Alternatively, “le chef Géorgien” may refer to Katramide´s supposed nephew King Giorgi [I], who is recorded as ruling Abkhazia at the time of the death of Yovhanes´s father. This explanation has the advantage of elucidating why the passage in Matthew´s Chronicle avoids referring to “le chef” explicitly as Yovhanes´s grandfather. The contradictions in the early passages of the Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa, combined with the extreme unreliability of the various editions of the Georgian Chronicle as discussed in detail in the document GEORGIA, suggest that it is unwise to conclude anything more precise about the parentage of Katramide other than the likelihood of her father being of Georgian origin.

King Gagik I & his wife had three children:

  • 1. YOVHANES-SMBAT (-1041). The History of Aristakes Lastivertci names "Smbat who was called Yohannes and his brother Ashot" as the sons of "Gagik son of Ashot", recording that Giorgi King of Abkhazia arbitrated their dispute over their inheritance and awarded "the stronghold of Ani and the districts surrounding it" to Yohannes-Smbat and "the lower part of the land facing Persia and Georgia" to Ashot[114]. He succeeded his father in [1017/20] as SMBAT III King of Armenia, ruling jointly with his brother, based at Ani. Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "his son Yohannes" succeeded "Gagik Shahnshah" and ruled for 20 years[115]. He was embroiled in territorial quarrels with his brother and with the King of Kars, and proposed in 1022 to bequeath his kingdom to Emperor Basileios II. The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that disputes between Yovhanes and his brother, commenting that the former was “un homme savant et ingénieux, mais d´une grande obésité”[116]. The History of Aristakes Lastivertci records that King Smbat proposed to bequeath his kingdom to Emperor Basileios II as his son had predeceased him[117]. He was granted the imperial title archon. The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records the death “en l´année 490 [11 Mar 1041/10 Mar 1042]” of “le roi d´Arménie Jean, frère d´Aschod et fils de Kakig, de la famille des Bagratides” and his burial at Ani[118]. The History of Aristakes Lastivertci records the death in the same year of "the two brothers Asot and Yovhannes"[119]. On his death in 1041, Byzantium claimed the Armenian kingdom of Ani[120]. The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that, after the death of “le roi d´Arménie Jean…”, “un des satrapes d´Arménie, homme perfide…Azad Sarkis, descendant de Haig” offered the kingdom to the Byzantines and took the national treasure “chez les Aph´khaz”[121]. m firstly ---. The name of Smbat's first wife is not known. However, the fact of this first marriage is proved by the reference to Smbat's deceased son in the History of Aristakes Lastivertci when it records that the king proposed to bequeath his kingdom to Emperor Basileios II (who died in 1025)[122]. m secondly ([1032]) --- [Argyre], niece of Emperor ROMANOS III Argyros, daughter of ---. Skylitzes states that the wife of Smbat King of Armenia was ανεψιάν of Emperor Romanos III[123]. The Tables chronologiques of Samuel of Ani record the "Romain donne en marriage sa fille à notre roi Iohannès" in 1032[124]. King Smbat & his first wife had one child:
    • a) ERKAT (-before [1022]). The History of Aristakes Lastivertci records that "his son Erkat" predeceased his father Yovhannes[125].
  • 2. ASHOT (-1041, bur Ani). The History of Aristakes Lastivertci names "Smbat who was called Yohannes and his brother Ashot" as the sons of "Gagik son of Ashot", recording that Giorgi King of Abkhazia arbitrated their dispute over their inheritance and awarded "the stronghold of Ani and the districts surrounding it" to Yohannes-Smbat and "the lower part of the land facing Persia and Georgia" to Ashot[126]. He succeeded his father in [1017/20] as ASHOT IV "Kaj/the Brave" King of Armenia, ruling jointly with his brother, nominally based at Duin although the city had been captured by the Kurdish Shaddadid Emirs from Ganja. The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that disputes between Yovhanes and his brother, commenting that the latter had “l´esprit militaire et un courage invincible”, adding in a later passage that “Aschod…ne parvint jamais de sa vie à entrer dans la ville d´Ani”[127]. The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records the death “en l´année 489 [11 Mar 1040/10 Mar 1041]” of “le roi d´Arménie Aschod, le Bagratide…fils de Kakig et frère de Jean” and his burial at Ani[128]. The History of Aristakes Lastivertci records the death in the same year of "the two brothers Asot and Yovhannes"[129]. m ---. The name of Ashot's wife is not known. Ashot & his wife had two children:
    • a) GAGIK ([1025/26]-murdered Kendrosko [2 Mar 1076/29 Feb 1080], bur Pizu Monastery). The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “le roi d´Arménie Aschod, le Bagratide…fils de Kakig et frère de Jean” left “un fils…Kakag…âgé de quinze ans”[130]. The History of Aristakes Lastivertci records the accession of "Gagik son of Ashot" after the death of his father and paternal uncle[131]. He succeeded his father in 1041 as GAGIK II King of Armenia. Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "Gagik son of Ashot…[his] brother's son" succeeded after the death of "Yovhannes…also called Smbat" and ruled for two years, but that he "had no interest in military affairs…but…was trained from childhood in literature" and that "the Byzantines…called him to them" and "put the journeyer into exile on an island and appointed overseers to occupy his place for one year"[132]. He was brought to Ani to be crowned but was unable to evict the Byzantine forces of the regent Sargis Haykazn. The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa paints a slightly different picture when it records that “un jeune homme de dix-neuf ans…Kakig…fils du roi Aschod…” (implying a delay of four years after the death of his father) was crowned king of Armenia by “Grégoire”, and that King Gagik captured “Sarkis”[133]. In 1043, Gagik was invited to Constantinople where he was kept in honourable confinement and eventually forced to cede the kingdom of Ani to Byzantium in 1045[134]. According to the Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa, the Byzantines started their conquest of Armenia during the reign of Emperor Mikhael IV (who died in 1041), while Emperor Konstantinos IX (succeeded in 1042) invited King Gagik to Constantinople, supported by the advice of Sarkis, where he was granted “Galonbegh´ad et Bizou”[135]. He was awarded the title magistros, given a palace in the capital and the lordship of Kalon peghat and Pizou in Cesarea as compensation[136]. Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "the Byzantines gave land and cities in the areas of Caesarea and Sebastia, which was given to the two kings Gagik"[137], referring to this Gagik and "Gagik king of Vanand and Kars who went to the Byzantines", the death of "Gagik Shahnshah king of Vanand" being recorded in "the first year of Diogenes's reign" [1068/69] later in the same source[138]. The territory of the kingdom of Ani was combined with the Iberian theme, known thereafter as the theme of Iberia and Armenia[139]. Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "Gagik king of Kars" murdered the archbishop of Cæsarea, by being mauled by his dog with which he placed in a large sack, for which he was killed by the Byzantines "hurled…from the wall of the fortress"[140]. The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Kakig Schahenschah, fils d´Aschod, fils de Kakig, fils de Sempad, fils d´Ergath, de la race des Bagratides” was killed in “l´année 528 [2 Mar 1079/29 Feb 1080]” at “une forteresse…Guizisdara” by “des chefs romains, fils de Mandalê (Pantaléon)”[141]. The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Gagik king of the Armenians" was killed in [2 Mar 1076/1 Mar 1077] by "the sons of Mandele in the fortress of Kendrosko"[142]. The editor of the Recueil des historiens des croisades places this fortress in the Byzantine theme of Lycandus formed by Emperor Leon VI (ruled 886-912) in the south-east of Cappadocia, north of Germanicia or Marash[143]. Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that King Gagik was buried "in his monastery of Pizu"[144]. m --- of Vaspurakan, daughter of DAVIT of Vaspurakan Lord of Siwas & his wife ---. The History of Aristakes Lastivertci records the marriage of "Gagik son of Ashot" and "the daughter of Dawit, son of Senekerim" on the orders of the emperor[145]. King Gagik II & his wife had three children:
      • i) YOVHANES . The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “son fils aîné…Jean” survived his father[146]. Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that King Gagik "left a son Yovhannes"[147]. m ---, daughter of ABIRAD of Ani. The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. Yovhanes & his wife had one child:
        • (a) ASHOT (-1080). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.
      • ii) DAVIT . The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. Betrothed to ---, daughter of ABULGHARIB of Tarsus & his wife ---. The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.
      • iii) daughter . The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.
    • b) daughter . The History of Aristakes Lastivertci name "Apusuar, who held Duin and Ganjak and was the son-in-law of Ashot king of Armenia"[148]. m APUSUAR Lord of Duin and Ganjak .
  • 3. KOUSCHKOUSCH of Armenia . The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. m SENEKERIM-YOVHANES Prince of Vaspurakan, son of ABOUSAHL-HAMAZASP Prince of Vaspurakan (-[1025/27], bur Varag Monastery).
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Gagik I "the Great" King of Armenia's Timeline

1020
1020
Ani, Kars, Turkey
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Ani, Kars, Turkey
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Ani, Kars, Turkey
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