Georg Johannes Ludwig Ritter von Trapp

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About Georg Johannes Ludwig Ritter von Trapp

Korvettenkapitän Georg Ludwig Ritter von Trapp (April 4, 1880 – May 30, 1947) was an Austro-Hungarian Navy officer. His exploits at sea during the World War I earned him numerous decorations, including the prestigious Military Order of Maria Theresa.

Later, von Trapp headed the singing family portrayed in the heavily-fictionalized musical The Sound of Music.

Georg von Trapp Born April 4, 1880 Zadar, Austria-Hungary, now in Croatia.Died May 30, 1947 (aged 67) Stowe, Vermont, U.S

Nationality Austrian

Spouse(s) Agathe Whitehead (1891-1922) m. 1911-1922

Maria Augusta Kutschera (1905-1987) m. 1927-1947

Children Rupert von Trapp (1911-1992)

Agathe von Trapp (1913)

Maria Franziska von Trapp (1914)

Werner von Trapp (1915-2007)

Hedwig von Trapp (1917-1972)

Johanna von Trapp (1919-1994)

Martina von Trapp (1921-1951)

Rosemarie von Trapp (1929)

Eleonore von Trapp (1931)

Johannes von Trapp (1939)

Korvettenkapitän Georg (pronounced Gay-Orgg) Ludwig Ritter von Trapp (April 4, 1880 – May 30, 1947) was an Austro-Hungarian Navy officer. His exploits at sea during the World War I earned him numerous decorations, including the prestigious Military Order of Maria Theresa.

Later, von Trapp headed the singing family portrayed in the heavily-fictionalized musical The Sound of Music.

His father, Fregattenkapitän August Trapp, was a naval officer who had been elevated to the Austrian nobility in 1876 which entitled him and his descendants to the style of Ritter (Knight) von in the case of male and von in the case of female offspring. August Ritter von Trapp died in 1884, when Georg Ludwig was four. His mother was Hedwig Wepler. Von Trapp's older sister was the Austrian artist Hede von Trapp. He also had a brother, Werner von Trapp, who died in World War I in 1915.

In 1894, von Trapp followed in his father's footsteps and entered the Austro-Hungarian Navy, entering the naval academy at Rijeka (Fiume). He graduated four years later and completed two years of follow-on training voyages including a trip to Australia. In 1900 he was assigned to the armored cruiser Kaiserin und Königin Maria Theresia and was decorated for his performance during the Boxer Rebellion. In 1902 he passed the officer's examination.

Von Trapp was fascinated by submarines, and in 1908 he seized the opportunity to be transferred to the newly-formed U-boot-Waffe. In 1910 he was given command of the newly-constructed U-6, which was christened by Agathe Whitehead, granddaughter of the Englishman Robert Whitehead, inventor of the torpedo. He commanded U-6 until 1913.

On April 22, 1915, von Trapp took command of U-5 and conducted nine combat patrols. While in command of the U-5 he sank: on duty aboard SMU-5 the following:-

   * The French armored cruiser Léon Gambetta at 39.30N, 18.15E on April 21, 1915, 15 miles south of Cape Santa Maria di Leuca
   * The Italian submarine Nereide at 42.23N, 16.16E on August 5, 1915, 250 yards off Pelagosa (Palagruža) Island

He captured:

   * The Greek steamer Cefalonia off Durazzo on August 29, 1915

He is sometimes credited with sinking the Italian troop transport, Principe Umberto but in reality, this was sunk by the U-5 under von Trapp's successor Friedrich Schlosser (1885–1959) on June 8, 1916 after von Trapp was transferred to the U-14.

On October 14, 1915 he was transferred to the captured French submarine Curie, which the Austrian Navy redesignated U-14. While in command of the U-14, he sank:

   * The British tanker Teakwood at 36.39N, 21.10E on April 28, 1917
   * The Italian steamer Antonio Sciesa at 36.39N, 21.15E on May 3, 1917
   * The Greek steamer Marionga Goulandris at 35.38N, 22.36E on July 5, 1917
   * The French steamer Constance at 36.51N, 17.25E on August 23, 1917
   * The British steamer Kilwinning at 35.26N, 16.30E on August 24, 1917
   * The British steamer Titian at 34.20N, 17.30E on August 26, 1917
   * The British steamer Nairn at 34.05N, 19.20E on August 28, 1917
   * The Italian steamer Milazzo at 34.44N, 19.16E on August 29, 1917
   * The British steamer Good Hope at 35.53N, 17.05E on October 18, 1917
   * The British steamer Elsiston at 35.40N, 17.28E on October 18, 1917
   * The Italian steamer Capo Di Monte at 34.53N, 19.50E on October 23, 1917

He conducted ten more war patrols, until, in May 1918, he was promoted to Korvettenkapitän (equal to Lieutenant Commander) and given command of the submarine base in the Gulf of Kotor.

At the end of World War I, von Trapp's wartime record stood at 19 war patrols, 11 cargo vessels totalling 45,669 tons sunk, 1 cargo vessel captured, the French armored cruiser Léon Gambetta (12,600 tons) and the Italian submarine Nereide (225 tons). Among other honors, he received the Knight's Cross of the Military Order of Maria Theresa.

The end of the First World War saw the defeat and collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In the process, Austria was reduced in size to its German-speaking core, losing its seacoast, and had no further need for a navy, leaving von Trapp without a job.

Von Trapp was first married to Agathe Whitehead, who was a niece of Lord Midleton and a grand-daughter of Robert Whitehead, the inventor of the torpedo. It was she who had christened the U-boat U-6, his first command. Sources conflict on whether the marriage took place in January 1911 or January 1912. (More recent information has marriage as March 1, 1912.)

Agathe's inherited wealth sustained the couple and permitted them to start a family. Their first child, Rupert von Trapp, was born on 1 November 1911 at Pola. The marriage produced six more children: Agathe von Trapp, born at Pola; Maria Franziska von Trapp, Werner von Trapp, Hedwig von Trapp, and Johanna von Trapp, all born at Zell am See at the family home, the Erlhof 47°18′46.88″N 12°48′59.53″E / 47.3130222°N 12.8165361°E / 47.3130222; 12.8165361; and Martina von Trapp, born at Klosterneuburg at the family home, the Martinsschlössel. 48°18′48.04″N 16°19′10.47″E / 48.3133444°N 16.319575°E / 48.3133444; 16.319575

On September 3, 1922, Agathe Whitehead died of scarlet fever contracted from her daughter Agathe von Trapp.

The family purchased a villa in Aigen, a suburb of Salzburg, and moved in 1924.[1] 47°47′19.59″N 13°4′53.00″E / 47.788775°N 13.08139°E / 47.788775; 13.08139

About 1926 Maria Franziska von Trapp was recovering from an illness and was unable to attend school, and Von Trapp hired Maria Augusta Kutschera, from the nearby Nonnberg Abbey, as a tutor.

Second marriage

Maria Augusta, 22, and Georg, 47, married on November 26, 1927. The birth date of their first child, Rosemarie von Trapp, may have been January 8, 1928, just 1 month and 13 days after the wedding, because the date appears on Maria von Trapp's declaration of intention for naturalization in 1944, and four years later on her petition for naturalization. However, in her 1972 autobiography, "Maria", she includes a photo of herself on her wedding day and there is no visual evidence of a pregnancy. The picture does not, however, include the captain, and there is nothing that indicates when it was taken. In Georg's biography he uses the year 1929 for the birth without any further explanation. In Maria's 1949 book, "The Story of the Trapp Family Singers", she describes informing her stepchildren of her first pregnancy in the summer, but by the time she wrote the book, more than 20 years had passed, the captain was dead, and Maria was attempting to market the family story for profit. The declaration of intention and the petition for naturalization were executed under oath. The declaration was signed in 1944. As Maria relates in her 1949 book, around that time, she got into trouble with the War Production Board, and she may have had an especial incentive to be truthful when submitting papers to the federal government under oath, and less of an incentive to do so when supplying pictures or writing stories.

Georg and Maria would later have two more children: Eleonore von Trapp, born May 14, 1931 in Salzburg; and Johannes von Trapp, born January 17, 1939 in Philadelphia, bringing the total number of Georg's children to ten.

In 1935, Georg's money, inherited from his first wife, Agathe, was invested in a bank in England. At that time, however, Austria was under economic pressure from a hostile Germany, and Austrian banks were in a precarious position. To help a friend, Auguste Caroline Lammer (1885–1937), in the banking business, Georg withdrew most of his money from London and deposited it in an Austrian bank. The Austrian bank thereafter failed, which wiped out most of the family's fortune. As Maria further indicates in her book, Georg was thoroughly demoralized and depressed at this turn of events, but was unable to engage in other gainful activities, and believed that it was beneath the dignity of the family to sing in public or otherwise work for a living. Prior to the loss of the family fortune, the family had engaged in singing as a hobby.

Faced with an impossible situation of little or no money, and a husband incapable of providing for her or for the family, Maria took charge and arranged for singing engagements, and began to make arrangements for the family to sing at various events as a way of earning a livelihood. At about that time, a Catholic priest, Franz Wasner, came to live with them. About the same age as Maria, he became the musical director of the group.

von Trapp was in no danger of being ordered to join Hitler's navy after the Anschluss. He had taken Italian citizenship after 1918, and so was protected from any such orders; he would have had to volunteer. In any case, World War I veterans who were Austrian citizens were not called to join Hitler's forces until 1939 and 1940, long after the Anschluss. The von Trapps were indeed opposed to the Anschluss, in particular because of Nazi persecution of Catholics, but did not depart suddenly or under pain of separation. In fact, as the website makes clear, after leaving, the von Trapps rented out their house.

The family left Austria for Italy by train, returning to Georg's home village. They sailed to the United States in 1938 for their first concert tour, then went back to Europe to tour Scandinavia in 1939. During this time, they actually went back to Salzburg for a few months before returning to Sweden to finish the tour. From there, they travelled to Norway to begin the trip back to the United States in September 1939.

After living for a short time in Merion, Pennsylvania, where their last child Johannes was born, the family settled in Stowe, Vermont in 1941. They purchased a 660-acre farm in 1942 and converted it into the Trapp Family Lodge. They built a home which they named Cor Unum (One Heart).

In January 1947, Major General Harry J. Collins turned to the Trapp Family in the USA pleading for help for the Austrian people, having seen the residents of Salzburg suffer when he had arrived there with the famed 42nd Rainbow Division after World War II. The Trapp Family founded the Trapp Family Austrian Relief, Inc.

Georg Ritter von Trapp died of lung cancer on May 30, 1947 in Stowe, Vermont.


Johannes von Trapp succeeded Maria as manager of the Trapp Family Lodge in Stowe, which remains among Vermont's most popular tourist attractions and is one of the major concert sites of the Vermont Mozart Festival. The von Trapp family estate in Salzburg, Austria had planned to open as a hotel in 2008, with the opening attended by Maria Franziska von Trapp. However, these plans were blocked by Salzburg city officials following complaints from local residents.


To The Last Salute

"The true story of Georg Von Trapp--in English for the first time! The Sound of Music is one of the most beloved musicals in America, but if you're a serious military buff, you'll want to read about the real Georg Von Trapp, a wily and inspiring man who commanded one of Austro-Hungary's seven submarines in WW I." (Warfare Catalog, The Military Book Club, Memorial Day 2007, p. 15).

Further Reference

  • To The Last Salute: Memories of an Austrian U-Boat Commander, by Georg Von Trapp, translated and with an introduction by Elizabeth M. Campbell. 224 pages.

  • Residence: Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria - 1935
  • Census: 1940 - 252 Merion Road, Merion, Lower Merion Twp, Montgomery, Pennsylvania, USA

About Georg Johannes Ludwig Ritter von Trapp (Hrvatski)

Georg von Trapp rođen je 4. travnja 1880. u Zadru, a dio djetinjstva proveo je u Puli kamo mu je bio premješten otac August Ritter von Trapp. U to je doba Pula već bila glavna vojna pomorska luka Austro-Ugarske Monarhije. Mnoge vojarne, vojne bolnice, mornarička zvjezdarnica, zgrada Admiraliteta, nekoliko sjajno dizajniranih parkova, velebna crkva Gospe od mora, gradska knjižnica, kasino, vile za časnike, kazalište, lukobran i druga zdanja svjedoče i danas o važnosti nekadašnje glavne carske luke. Muškarci u uniformama i žene u toaletama davale su duh i ritam gradskom životu. Stroga vojna hijerarhija, ali i hijerarhija plemićkih titula davale su ton tada još pomno uređenu svijetu. Čast muškarca i dostojanstvo žene u to su se vrijeme još branili mačem i bili su znakom uspješno vođenog i proživljenog života. Ako prošećete Pulom, uz tragove antičkog svijeta stalno ćete susretati velebne zgrade koje svjedoče i o sjaju glavne vojne luke nestale Monarhije. Tako npr. Mornarička crkva (Garnisonkirche Madonna del Mare) nije bila pod ingerencijom pulskog i porečkog biskupa nego austrijskog Vojnog vikarijata, a kamen temeljac položio je sam car Franjo Josip I. i za nju osobno dao 5000 kruna. To se dogodilo 28. lipnja 1891.godine, uoči sv.Petra i Pavla, prigodom 25.obljetnice austrijske pobjede nad talijanskom vojskom kod Visa, a u spomen poginulim mornarima. Pompa odora i činova, parade vojne moći, korza i koncerti, obvezan odlazak u crkvu i kavanu nedjeljom, odlučan korak mornara i nježno šuštanje čipkastih toaleta kao da se još slute tijekom šetnji gradom. U Puli je Georg von Trapp poslije živio s obitelji, ali priča ipak mora poštivati kronologiju Georgova života pa nam valja poći do Rijeke u kojoj on pohađa srednju pomorsku školu i Pomorsku akademiju koje završava 1898. i dobiva titulu kadeta (istu akademiju završio je i njegov otac, kapetan u austrijskoj mornarici). Sastavni dio časničke izobrazbe tada su bili i bonton, ples i sviranje violine jer su časnici smjeli pohađati društvena okupljanja aristokracije i buržoazije i imali su pristup dvorskim plesovima.

U to vrijeme Rijeka je bila na vrhuncu trgovačke i industrijske moći (polovica tadašnje ukupne hrvatske industrije je u Rijeci). Samo središte Rijeke obilježeno je zgradama sa pet katova, visine tipične za Beč i Budimpeštu, a kojih nema toliko ni u Grazu, Klagenfurtu ili u Zagrebu. Brižnost i temeljitost, radišnost i strpljivost uz odvažnost lokalnih poduzetnika i danas se osjete u gradu. Rafinerija šećera otvorena je 1754. g. i već je tada zapošljavala 1000 ljudi. 1858. godine Rijeka ima 12 brodogradilišta, veliku tvornicu papira i najveću tvornicu duhana u cijeloj Monarhiji. Na prijelazu stoljeća riječka luka bila je, prema količini prometa, među deset najvećih europskih luka.

Za našu je priču međutim ključan podatak o osnutku Ljevaonice metala 1853. godine koja počinje raditi sljedeće godine. Iz Trsta u nju dolazi inženjer Robert Whitehead i donosi tehnologiju izrade parnih kotlova pa je novoosnovano poduzeće izradilo parne strojeve za oklopne fregate „Erzherzog Ferdinand Max“ i „Kaiser Maximillian“. Polovicom šezdesetih godina upoznaje umirovljenog oficira Ivana Luppisa koji je imao ideju o novom oružju – čamcu bez posade s eksplozivom. U to se doba ljevaonica još zvala Riječko tehničko poduzeće. Započelo se s istraživanjima, pokusima, tehničkim i mehaničkim poslovima. Rezultat rada je prvi torpedo na svijetu, proizveden u Rijeci 1866. godine (tvrtka se tada preimenovala u „Torpedofabrik Whitehead und Co.“). Rijeka je postala središte najmodernije svjetske industrije. Whitehead je bio vlasnik i četrdeset velikih stambenih zgrada u Rijeci. Iako je sam sebi izgradio monumentalnu grobnicu u obliku piramide na Kozali sa sarkofagom na kojem je isklesan u prirodnoj veličini, ipak je 1905. godine pokopan u Engleskoj. Sin John ženi austrijsku groficu Agathe Breunner i kupuje imanje blizu Zella am See. Najstariju kći udaje za sina kancelara Bismarcka, a mlađa Johnova kći, Agatha se na porinuću podmornice „U-6“ u brodogradilištu 3. maj zaljubljuje u Georga von Trappa, poslije prvog zapovjednika te podmornice.

Krštenje i porinuće broda najsvečaniji je trenutak za grad u kojem postoji brodogradilište. Slučaj je htio da na samo Valentinovo ove godine budem prisutna na krštenju i porinuću tankera što ga je isto brodogradilište izgradilo za tvrtku Uljanik plovidbe. Brodogradilište je smješteno nedaleko od središta grada, a osnovano je 1892. godine. Ozračje svečanosti osjeti se već na cesti koja se spušta do škvera. Svi su primjereno odjeveni, a dočekuju vas zvuci limene glazbe. Tu su radnici u plavim kombinezonima sa članovima obitelji, a učiteljica je dovela razred školske mlađarije. Uz trup gotovog broda, spremnog za čin krštenja i primopredaje kao da je riječ o kakvoj mladoj koja stupa u brak, uzdižu se skele kojima ste bliže trupu broda. Skele su okićene zelenilom, njihovim stubama penju se uzvanici i odličnici, nebo je ogromno i plavo i odjednom silno blizu, s mora nešto puše, ali ga gotovo i ne vidite od trupa grdosije uz koju osjećate strahopoštovanje i nemoć i pitate se kako je to ljudska ruka napravila. Tu su se prvi put vidjeli Agatha i Georg i, kažu svi, zaljubili na prvi pogled. On je već tada bio prokušan u borbi, uspravna držanja, ponosita pogleda, napetih prsiju, s brčićima, a ona, kuma broda, bila je kći iz viših krugova, „dobra prilika“. Poneseni svečanim ugođajem susreli su se Agatha i Georg opet na domjenku nešto kasnije na terasi hotela Continental, izgrađena 18880. godine, i otplesali svoj prvi ples. Najbolje slastice u gradu, otmjeni konobari, muškarci s prslucima iz čijih džepova vire zlatni satovi, majke i tete što pomno prate kretnje svojih nježnih mladica i potencijalnih povoljnih prilika, glazba koja lagano svira na terasi okrenutoj Rječini i moru, to je okvir njihovih kasnijih susreta i njegova udvaranja. Dobro uređen građanski svijet čvrstih pravila zabavu je završio laganom šetnjom Korzom da bi zatim nestao u intimi salona s vitrinama kakve i danas čuva Pomorski muzej u Guvernerovoj palači.

U to vrijeme, dakle 1908. godine Georg se nakon završetka školovanja vratio s prekoocanskih putovanja na oklopnom krstašu „Kaiserin und Königin Maria Theresia“. Sudjelovao je u gušenju Bokserskog ustanka u kineskim vodama, iskazao je hrabrost, snalažljivost i požrtvovnost pa je odlikovan i promaknut u čin poručnika bojnog broda. Od 1910. do 1913. Georg plovi na podmornici, testira njena bojna svojstva i rad torpeda.

Na početku 1911. godine, 10. siječnja, vjenčaju se on i Agatha, a iste godine rođen je u Puli, vjerujem u imperijalnom zdanju današnje bolnice Negri, i njihov prvi sin Rupert von Trapp. Obitelj živi u Puli. Georg se sav posvetio izgradnji imperijalne podmorničke flote i potrebnim testiranjima i usavršavanjima. 1912. godine obitelj useljava u velebnu vilu Casa Trapp, izgrađenu za njih. Nju je, uz još desetak okolnih vila, projektirao austrijski arhitekt Ferdinand Geyer. Vila Trapp nalazi se na Verudi, ondašnjoj pulskoj rezidencijalnoj četvrti za visoke časnike.

Vila TrappVila Trapp Danas je vila na adresi Pina Budicina 11, a u prizemlju je smješten dječji vrtić „More“. Vila je velika i prostrana, takve ćete naći recimo u Beču u četvrti Döbling. Mješavina je gradske vile i lovačke kurije, a tornjići, vijugave stepenice i zaobljeni prozorski okviri omiljeni su graditeljski element toga doba. Ima dva kata i danas zapušten vrt koji su, vjerujem, resili ukrasni grmovi ruža ili hortenzija. Puteljci oko kuće nekoć su bili njegovani, a drveće pomno obrezano. Ako dvaput zaokružite oko kuće, vjerujem da ćete čuti smijeh Ruperta i male Agathe koja se rodila ubrzo nakon sina prvijenca. Pretpostavljam da je posluga, koja je kao i svugdje živjela u potkrovlju, na terasu uvečer donosila rashlađena pića. Presvučeni za večeru, dame i gospoda opušteno bi čavrljali i razmijenjivali najnovije vijesti i duhovitosti. Pinijama bi se povremeno oteo težak uzdah, a more bi se samo zahihotalo.

U prizemlju su bile gospodarske prostorije poput kuhinje i smočnica, a na prvom katu (piano nobile) odvijao se društveni život obitelji u salonima za kavu, za muziciranje, pisanje pisama i čitanje, objedovanje i primanje gostiju. Na drugom katu bile su spavaonice obitelji. Obitelj von Trapp živjela je uobičajenim životom klase kojoj je pripadala. Formalnost i krući način ophođenja još nisu bili ustuknuli pred idejama slobode koja često ne poznaje i ne prihvaća nikakva pravila. Čvrsti ritam dana omeđen dužnostima, obrocima i satovima primanja davao je životu mir i preglednost.

Danas je zgrada podijeljena na više stanova. Glavni ulaz je zapušten. Ako naiđete na otključana vrata, uđite i ugledat ćete prekrasno veliko drveno stubište lijepih rukohvata. Pod je od hrastovih dasaka. Sve skupa podsjeća na nešto umanjeno stubište austrijskog imanja iz filma na kojem djeca izvode poznatu pjesmu za laku noć. Strop je visok i bijel, visina stepenica ugodna i lako ćete se popeti do prvog velikog odmorišta veličine prosječne dnevne sobe modernih stanova, a koji je zapravo uvod u dva niza salona koji su nam na žalost ostali nedostupni.

Tu su živjeli Agatha i Rupert von Trapp kad je počeo rat. Kad se rodila mala Maria Francesca 28. rujna 1914. godine, Agatha je mužu poslala telegram s unaprijed dogovorenom šifrom SMS Maria stigla. SMS tad je bila kratica za Seiner Majestät Schiff.

Georg tek 1915. godine u travnju stupa u aktivnu službu. Preuzima zapovjedništvo podmornice „U-5“ usidrene u Boki kotorskoj i čuva Otrantska vrata. Samo pet dana nakon preuzimanja zapovjedništva, u noći sa 26. na 27. travnja, potapa s dva izravna hitca francusku krstaricu „Leon Gambeta“ i vrlo brzo stječe strahopoštovanje i kod neprijatelja i kod suboraca. U svibnju 1918. biva promaknut u čin kapetana korvete i imenovan zapovjednikom Boke kotorske.

Biti častan vojnik i časno se boriti bio je credo Georga von Trappa. Omiljen među mornarima jednako kao poslije među članovima obitelji više je služio, manje naređivao, a zaslugama se uopće nije dičio. Jasno je osjećao da postoji granica između pravih i pogrešnih odabira, između Dobra i Zla. Bio je čovjek od riječi i čovjek integriteta. Osjeti se to na svakoj stranici knjige koju je napisao 1935. godine na njemačkom jeziku “Bis zum letzten Flaggenschuss“. Knjigu je zbog ljubavi prema djedu kojeg nikad nije upoznala prevela njegova unuka Elisabeth, kći njegove najmlađe kćeri Eleonore „Lorli“ pa je danas lako dostupna (To the Last Salute, Memoires of an Austrian U-boat Commander). To je prava knjiga ratnog kapetana posvećena mornarici, moru, različitim brodovima i podmornicama, manjim i većim torpednim čamcima, razmišljanjima o vojnoj strategiji i taktici, važnosti ljudstva i njihovoj odanosti, o odlukama, neprijatelju i vojničkoj časti. Ali u njoj je i puno predivnih opisa podneblja i ljudi što ih je susreo duž cijelog Jadrana.

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Georg Johannes Ludwig Ritter von Trapp's Timeline

April 4, 1880
Zadar, Općina Zadar, Zadar County, Croatia
October 7, 1880
Trieste, Province of Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy
November 1, 1911
Pula, Istria, Croatia
March 12, 1913
Pula, Općina Pula, Istria County, Croatia
September 28, 1914
Zell am See, Salzburg, Austria
December 21, 1915
Zell am See, Salzburg, Austria
July 28, 1917
Zell am See, Salzburg, Austria
September 7, 1919
Zell am See, Salzburg, Austria
February 17, 1921
Klosterneuburg, Lower Austria, Austria