Graf August Neidhardt von Gneisenau

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Graf August Wilhelm Antonius Antonius Neithardt v. Gneisenau (Neidhardt von Gneisenau)

German: GFM August Wilhelm Antonius Graf Neidhardt von Gneisenau (Neidhardt)
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Belgern-Schildau, Leipzig, Saxony, Germany
Death: August 23, 1831 (70)
Poznań, Poznań County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland
Immediate Family:

Son of August William Neidhardt von Gneisenau and Maria Eva Dorothea Mueller
Husband of Freiin Karoline von Kottwitz
Father of Agnes von Scharnhorst; Hugo Graf Neidhardt von Gneisenau; Hedwig Marie von Brühl; Gräfin Emilie Albertine Loide von Hohenthal; BRUNO Friedrich Alexander Graf Neidhardt von Gneisenau and 3 others

Occupation: Generalfeldmarschall.
Managed by: Abou Elyas
Last Updated:

About Graf August Neidhardt von Gneisenau

war ein preußischer Generalfeldmarschall und Heeresreformer (vergleiche Preußische Reformen). Er hatte als Blüchers Stabschef wesentlichen Anteil am Sieg bei Waterloo.

Gneisenau wurde als Sohn des sächsischen Artillerieleutnants August Wilhelm Neidhardt und seiner Frau Maria Eva, geborene Müller, geboren. Der Vater nannte sich „von Neidhardt“; erst in den folgenden Jahren wurde der Beiname Gneisenau, von einem früheren Besitztum der Familie in Österreich, Schloss Gneisenau, hinzugefügt. Als der spätere Feldmarschall 1777 auf der Universität Erfurt immatrikuliert wurde, wurde er im Register als „Antonius Neidhardt“ aufgeführt. Dagegen nannte ihn die brandenburg-ansbachische Rangliste von 1783 „Neidhardt von Gneisenau“, und diesen Doppelnamen behielt er auch im preußischen Dienst.

Nach dem Tod der Mutter am 22. Oktober 1761 übergab ihn sein Vater an Pflegeeltern in Schildau oder Hildesheim. Im Jahr 1769 kam der junge Neidhardt zu seinem Großvater mütterlicherseits nach Würzburg und besuchte die dortige Jesuitenschule bis zum Tod des Großvaters 1772. Danach ist sein Aufenthalt ungeklärt; Würzburg, Schwäbisch Gmünd und Erfurt sind mögliche Aufenthaltsorte. Am 1. Oktober 1777 immatrikulierte sich Neidhardt an der Universität Erfurt und studierte militärische Mathematik, Artilleriewesen, Befestigungskunst und Kartografie. Durch seinen lockeren Lebenswandel verlor der 18-Jährige das großväterliche Erbe und brach 1778 sein Studium ab. Er trat dann in das in Erfurt in Garnison liegende österreichische Husaren-Regiment „Graf Wurmser“ ein und zog als Gemeiner in den Bayerischen Erbfolgekrieg. Nach dem Frieden von Teschen (Cieszyn) im Jahr 1779 trat Neidhardt in den Dienst des Markgrafen Karl Alexander von Brandenburg-Ansbach. In der Rangliste des dortigen Jägerbataillons ist Neidhardt erstmals mit dem Namen verzeichnet, den inzwischen sein Vater angenommen hatte: Neidhardt von Gneisenau.

Gneisenaus Söhne August, Hugo und Bruno schlugen eine militärische Laufbahn ein. Die Tochter Agnes (* 24. April 1800; † 5. Juli 1822), war mit Wilhelm von Scharnhorst, die Tochter Hedwig (* 3. Dezember 1805; † 22. Oktober 1890) seit 1828 mit Graf Friedrich von Brühl, die Tochter Emilie mit Graf Karl von Hohenthal auf Schloss Püchau verheiratet. Die Tochter Ottilie blieb ledig.

Die Hitler-Attentäter Berthold und Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg waren Urenkel Gneisenaus aus der Familie seiner Tochter Emilie.

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_Neidhardt_von_Gneisenau


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_Neidhardt_von_Gneisenau

August Wilhelm Antonius Graf Neidhardt von Gneisenau (27 October 1760 – 23 August 1831) was a Prussian field marshal. He was a prominent figure in the reform of the Prussian military and the War of Liberation.

Early life

Gneisenau was born at Schildau in the Electorate of Saxony. He was the son of a Saxon lieutenant of artillery, August William Neidhardt, and his wife Maria Eva Neidhardt, née Müller. He grew up in great poverty at Schildau, and subsequently at Würzburg and Erfurt. In 1777 he entered the University of Erfurt, but two years later joined an Austrian regiment quartered there. In 1782, taking the additional name of Gneisenau from some lost estates of his family in Austria, he entered as an officer the service of the Margrave of Bayreuth-Ansbach. With one of that prince's mercenary regiments in British pay, he saw active service and gained valuable experience in the American Revolutionary War. Returning in 1786, he applied for Prussian service, and King Frederick the Great gave him a commission as first lieutenant in the infantry.

Made Stabskapitän (Staff Captain) in 1790, Gneisenau served in Poland from 1793-1794. Ten years of subsequent quiet garrison life in Jauer enabled him to undertake wide ranging studies of military and political history. In 1796 he married Caroline von Kottwitz.

Napoleonic Wars

In 1806 Gneisenau served as one of Prince Hohenlohe's staff-officers, fought at Saalfeld and Jena, and a little later commanded a provisional infantry brigade which fought under Lestocq in the Lithuanian campaign. Early in 1807, the Prussian Army sent Major von Gneisenau as commandant to Kolberg, which, though small and ill-protected, with the additional assistance of Schill and Nettelbeck succeeded in holding out against Napoleonic forces until the Peace of Tilsit. The commandant received the highly prized Pour le Mérite and promotion to lieutenant-colonel.

A wider sphere of work now opened to Gneisenau. As chief of engineers, and a member of the reorganizing committee, he played a great part, along with Scharnhorst, in the work of reconstructing the Prussian army. Though primarily devoted to the problem of military reorganization, he exercised considerable influence on the general policy of the Ministry as well. A colonel in 1809, he soon drew upon himself, by his energy, the suspicion of the dominant French, and Stein's fall (January 1809) was soon followed by Gneisenau's retirement. But, after visiting Austria, Imperial Russia, Sweden and England on secret missions, he returned to Berlin and resumed his place as a leader of the patriotic party.

In open military work and secret machinations his energy and patriotism were equally tested, and with the outbreak of the Wars of Liberation, Major-General Gneisenau became Blücher's quartermaster-general. Thus began the connection between these two soldiers which has furnished military history with one of the best examples of the harmonious co-operation between a commander and his chief-of-staff. With Blücher, Gneisenau served in the capture of Paris; his military character perfectly complemented Blücher's, and under this happy guidance the young troops of Prussia, at times defeated but never discouraged, fought their way into the heart of France. The plan for the march on Paris, which led directly to the fall of Napoleon, was specifically the work of the chief-of-staff. In 1814, as a reward for his distinguished service, Gneisenau — along with Yorck, Kleist, and Bülow —was elevated to count, while at the same time Blücher became Prince of Wahlstatt.

In 1815, once more chief of Blücher's staff, Gneisenau played a very conspicuous part in the Waterloo campaign. Senior generals such as Yorck and Kleist had been set aside in order that the chief-of-staff should take command in case of need, and when on the field of Ligny the old field marshal was disabled, Gneisenau assumed command of the Prussian army. He rallied the army, directed it towards Wavre from where part of it marched to join Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815, where the flanking attack by the Prussians helped to decide the battle.

On the field of Waterloo, Gneisenau carried out a pursuit that resulted in the capture of Napoleon's carriage. In the days following the battle, Gneisenau saw that the Prussian forces reached Paris before Wellington. In reward Gneisenau gained further promotion and the Order of the Black Eagle.


http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_Neidhardt_von_Gneisenau

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Graf August Neidhardt von Gneisenau's Timeline

1760
October 27, 1760
Belgern-Schildau, Leipzig, Saxony, Germany
1800
April 24, 1800
Schilda, Brandenburg, Germany
1804
August 10, 1804
Kauffung
1805
December 3, 1805
1809
December 28, 1809
1811
May 3, 1811
Wojcieszów, Złotoryja County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland
1818
1818
1831
August 23, 1831
Age 70
Poznań, Poznań County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, Poland
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