Jiang Zhongyuan 江忠源

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【(湖南新寧)】 江忠源 (常孺 岷樵)

Chinese: 忠烈公 【(湖南新寧)】 江忠源 (常孺 岷樵)
Birthdate:
Death: 1854 (41-42)
Immediate Family:

Son of 江上景
Husband of 陳氏 and 楊氏
Father of 江孝椿 and 江孝棠 (芾生)
Brother of 江忠濬 (達川); 江忠濟 (汝舟) and 江忠淑

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Immediate Family

About Jiang Zhongyuan 江忠源

Chiang Chung-yüan 江忠源 (T. 常孺 H. 岷樵) Aug. 1, 1812-1854, Jan. 15, a native of Hsin-ning, Hunan, was the organizer of a detachment of Hunan volunteers known as Ch'u Yung 楚勇 in who fought against the Taiping rebels. A chü-jên of 1837, he lived in Peking for several years until 1844 when he took the, special examination (大挑) granted to those who had failed three times for the chin-shih degree. After passing the examination he was made an expectant director of district schools. Upon his return to his native place he perceived that rebellion was imminent and began to train volunteers to combat it. In 1847 an uprising took place in Hsin-ning which he put down with the help of volunteers. He was rewarded with an expectant magistracy and later received appointment to Hsiu-shui (1849-50) as acting magistrate, and then to Li-shui as magistrate. As all high officials were requested, at the accession of Emperor Wên-tsung (1850), to recommend persons worthy of important office, Chiang was so recommended by his friend, Tsêng Kuo-fan [q.v.]. But instead of proceeding to Peking, he returned home to observe the period of mourning for the death of his father. About this time Hung Hsiu-ch'üan [q.v.] initiated his rebellion in Kwangsi. Grand Secretary Sai-shang-a (see under Chung-ch'i) was sent to quell the insurgents and Chiang Chung-yüan was called from mourning to assist at the front. His volunteers became known in Kwangsi as the Ch'u Yung and were the first contingent of Hunanese to fight outside their province in the Taiping war. As the war progressed in Kwangsi Chiang won a battle and was rewarded with the promise of an appointment as first-class sub-prefect, after his period of mourning was ended. Involved in disagreement among the generals about military tactics (see under Hsiang Jung), he became discouraged and retired for a time from active service. But in 1852, when the Taipings threatened Kuei-lin, he summoned a detachment of 1, 000 recruits and rushed from Hsin-ning to the front. After winning three battles the siege of Kuei-lin was raised and Chiang was rewarded with the rank of a prefect (1852). When the Taipings retreated to Ch'üan-chou with the intention of invading Hunan by boat, he held them for a time, but soon they altered their plans and proceeded to Hunan overland, taking Tao-chou, Chiang-hua and other districts. Although Chiang besieged some of them at Ch'ên-chou for more than a month, the Taipings forced their way through and advanced on Changsha, the capital of Hunan. There Chiang helped to defend the city. Later the Taipings abandoned the siege of Changsha but advanced northward through Yochow to Wuchang and other places on the Yangtze. Chiang and his men remained in Hunan in the winter of 1852 to suppress small uprisings. The following year, as a reward for his prowess in defending Changsha, he was elevated to the rank of an intendant and then was appointed provincial judge of Hupeh where he rendered good service. Later in the same year (1853) he was made an assistant commander of the armies in Kiangnan (Kiangsu and Anhwei). Before proceeding to his headquarters in Kiangnan (see under Hsiang Jung) he submitted an eight point memorial to the throne about the military situation, suggesting among other matters the enforcement of military law and disciplinary measures. When he reached Kiukiang on his way to Kiangnan he learned that the Taipings had left P'êng-tsê to attack Nanchang. He at once changed his plans and proceeded to the rescue of that city, arriving there one day ahead of the Taipings. He was besieged at Nanchang from June 22 to September 24, 1853. When the siege was raised by Lo Tsê-nan [q.v.] and others, Chiang was appointed governor of Anhwei. At this time the capital of that province was in the hands of the rebels, and the new capital, Lu-chou, was threatened. With a small force and insufficient provisions he hurried to the defense of Lu-chou. Besieged by the enemy, he fought desperately against an overwhelming majority. Though very ill and severely wounded, he resisted the attack to his last breath. When Lu-chou was eventually captured he ended his life by drowning.

Chiang Chung-yüan was posthumously given the rank of a governor-general, was canonized as Chung-lieh 忠烈 and was granted the minor hereditary ranks of Ch'i-tu-yü and Yün-ch'i-yü. In 1864 his rank was raised to a Ch'ing-ch'ê-tu-yü of the third class. He was generous, brave and far-sighted; and kind and sincere to his officers and soldiers who admired him, obeyed him, and were ready to die for him. A collection of his literary works, entitled 江忠烈公遺集 Chiang Chung-lieh kung i-chi, 1 chüan, appeared in 1856. A revised edition in 3 chüan, including a biography of him by Kuo Sung-tao [q.v.], was printed in 1898.

Chiang Chung-yüan was the eldest of four brothers. These brothers and several cousins participated in the campaign against the Taipings. One brother, Chiang Chung-chi 江忠濟 (T. 汝舟), 1819-1856), was killed in action against the bandits of T'ung-ch'êng, Hupeh, and was canonized as Chuang-chieh, 壯節 A cousin, Chiang Chung-i 江忠義 (T. 味根, 1834?-1863), diistinguished himself in many battles and suceeded Chiang Chung-yüan as commander of a part of the Ch'u Yung volunteers. In 1861 Chiang Chung-i defeated Shih Ta-k'ai [q.v.] in Hupeh and forced the war into Szechwan. His operations, in 1863, in Kiangsi and southern Anhwei were very successful, but he soon became ill and died. Although only thirty sui he was posthumously given the rank of president of a Board, was canonized as Ch'êng-k'o 誠恪, and in 1885 was given the title of Junior Guardian of the Heir Apparent.

[ 1/413/la; 1/435/la; 2/43/la; 5/51/20a; 5/55/14b; 5/58/12a;7/26/1a;8/3-上; Kuo Sung-tao [q.v.], Yang-chih shu-wu wên-chi 17/la; Huang P'êng-nien [q.v.], Pao-lou wên-ch'ao (1923) 7/lOb.]

TÊNG Ssŭ-yü

忠烈公 江忠源 (常孺 岷樵)生平 (中文)

《清史稿 卷407》

江忠源,字岷樵,湖南新寧人。道光十七年舉人。究心經世之學,伉爽尚義。公車入京,初謁曾國籓,國籓曰:「吾生平未見如此人,當立名天下,然終以節烈死。」大挑教職,回籍。察教匪亂將作,陰以兵法部勒鄉里子弟。既而黃背峒盜雷再浩果勾結廣西莠民為亂,一戰破其巢,擒再浩戮之。以功擢知縣,揀發浙江。秀水災,奉檄往賑,遂權縣事。賑務畢舉,擒劇盜十數,邑大治。巡撫吳文鎔待以國士,補麗水,檄治海塘。文宗即位,曾國籓應詔薦其才,送部引見,尋以父憂去官。

咸豐元年,大學士賽尚阿督師剿粵匪,調赴軍前,副都統烏蘭泰深倚重,事必諮而行。忠源招舊所練鄉兵五百人,使弟忠濬率以往,號「楚勇」。賊氛方熾,官兵莫攖其鋒。忠源勇始至,偪賊而壘。賊輕其少,且新集,急犯之。堅壁不出,逼近始馳突,斬級數百,一軍皆驚。累功賜花翎,擢同知直隸州。賊聚永安,向榮與烏蘭泰不協,忠源調和,勿聽,知必敗,引疾回​​籍。

二年春,賊果突圍出犯桂林。忠源聞警,增募千人,偕劉長佑兼程赴援,未至,烏蘭泰傷歿於軍,自是獨領一軍,進扼桂林城外鸕鶿洲,三戰皆捷,圍尋解,擢知府。賊竄全州,將趨湖南,忠源偕諸軍進擊。賊陷城不守,復出竄,悉載輜重舟中,期水陸並下。忠源發樹塞河,截賊蓑衣渡,鏖戰兩晝夜,悍酋馮雲山中砲死。賊棄舟夜遁,盡獲其輜重。忠源先請扼東岸,未用其策,賊由東竄入湖南,陷道州。又議賊眾不滿萬,慮日久裹脅眾,分防不如合剿,遠堵不如近攻。於是諸軍合攻道州,賊堅壁,意在久踞。購城中內應,約期襲之。賊走藍山、嘉禾,犯桂陽,陷郴州。忠源謂後路進剿愈急,前路攻陷愈多,請仍申合剿之議,當事不省,賊益張,徑犯長沙。忠源偕總兵和春馳援,至則賊已踞城南,窟穴民廛,攻城甚急。忠源望見天心閣地勢高,賊柵其上,驚曰:「賊據此,長沙危矣!」率死士爭之,賊敗退。趣移壘逼賊,共汲一井,擊柝相聞。忠源弟忠濟自郴州尾賊至,約夾擊,為伏賊所傷。縋入城商方略,因語眾曰:「官軍四面集,惟河西一路空虛。賊奪民舟渡江掠食,食盡將他竄。宜重兵扼迴龍塘。」巡撫張亮基韙之,而諸將逡巡莫前。時賽尚阿罷,徐廣縉代之,未至,城內外巡撫三,提督二,總兵十,莫相統攝。忠源赴湘潭,請於廣縉,不省。賊卒由迴龍塘竄陷岳州,遂破武昌。忠源痛謀不見用,不欲東。張亮基奏留守湖南,剿平巴陵土匪,調赴瀏陽剿徵義堂會匪周國虞,斬馘七百,解散萬人。瀏陽平,擢道員。

三年正月,授湖北按察使,張亮基署總督,兵事悉倚之。剿平通城、崇陽、嘉魚、蒲圻諸匪,擒其渠劉立簡、陳百斗、熊開宇等。文宗知忠源忠勇可恃,命率所部赴向榮軍,尋命幫辦江南軍務。瀕行,上疏切論軍事,略曰:

粵寇之亂,用兵數年,糜餉二千萬,人無固志,地罕堅城。臣出入鋒鏑,於今三年,謹策其大端,惟聖明裁察:一曰嚴軍法。將不行法,是謂無將;兵不用法,是為無兵。全州以失援陷而左次相仍,道州以棄城陷而潰逃踵接;岳州設防而不能為旦夕之守,九江列艦而不能遏水陸之衝。豈有他哉?畏賊之念中之也。賊嘗致死於我,而我不能致死於賊。賊之戰也,驅新附於前,以故黨乘其後,卻則擊殺。故賊退必死而進乃生,我退必生而進則死,不待戰陣,而勝負分焉已。誠欲反怯為強,莫若易寬為猛。皇上執法以馭將帥,將帥執法以馭偏裨,偏裨執法以馭兵士。避寇者誅,不援者誅,未令而退者誅。法令既嚴,軍聲自壯。此討賊之大端也。一曰撤提鎮。承平既久,宿將凋亡,提鎮大臣,積資可待。位尊則意為趨避,偏裨不敢與爭;權重則法難驟加,督撫不能擅決。人情當齒壯官卑之日,輒思發奮為雄,位高則進取念衰,必不能踔厲以赴時會。且軍興數載,饋餉滋艱,提鎮所需,較副參懸絕。裁一提鎮,養精兵二百而有餘。奚取以有限脂膏,奉此無益之提鎮?誠擇一深明將略者統制其間,餘則悉歸休致。副將以下,量擢其才。此整軍之要道也。一曰汰冗兵。選兵膽氣為上,堅樸次之,技藝又次之。質實耐苦之人,令進則進,令退則退,其身聽命於將而不知它。浮怯之徒,無事則趨蹌觀美,臨陣則退縮旁徨,論功則鑽刺以圖美官,遇敗則推諉以逃咎戾,宜汰者一也。徵調頻煩,或羸老備籍,坐耗資糧,或部曲散亡,驚魂甫定。當此餉糈匱絀,豈容更益虛糜,宜汰者二也。誠敕各營將領,討部曲而嚴察之,氣充膽壯者備攻剿,樸實堅苦者備屯防。捨此二端,盡歸釐汰,此致強之急務也。一曰明賞罰。勝有賞,敗有罰,亙古不變之常經也。顧勝有賞而賞非勝,則不如無賞;敗有罰而罰非敗,則不如無罰。無賞無罰,人猶冀賞罰之時;賞非其功,罰非其罪,則懲勸之用乖,怨讟之聲作,而軍事不可為矣。今戰勝有功,固當賞錄,左右侍從,獎敘尤多;且未嘗行一失律之誅,按一縱寇之罪。勝敗本兵家之常,主兵者每言勝而諱敗;功過本無妨互見,主兵者輒匿過而言功。治承平天下且不可,況危亂之世哉?夫軍中賞罰未可一概論。勝固當賞,或旅進取斬級以冒功,或追擊貪貨財而得小,則當罰;敗固當罰,或邁勇先驅,後援不繼,或大軍已卻,一將獨前,則當賞。今大帥據營將之言,營將恃左右之口。功罪之實,非採訪所可知,好惡之心,因毀譽而多舛。求是非洽乎人心,難矣。自非親歷行陣,開誠佈公,何以慰軍士之心而振披靡之習?此風氣不可不急為振拔者也。一曰戒浪戰。用兵之道,能守而後能戰,能製人而後不制於人,能避賊之長而後可用吾之短。臣自廣西以來,深觀賊勢,結營則因地築壘,環以深壕;置陣則正兵敵前,奇兵旁襲;止則遍購徒黨,伺吾虛實;行則遙壯聲威,乘吾張皇。故嘗以為賊止則當扼要以斷其饋濟,嚴兵以截其奔逃;賊行則當逆擊以遏其鋒,設伏以撓其勢。乃我之圍賊不嚴守而攻堅,追賊不截歸而尾擊,小有挫失,士氣先頹。此兵法不可不變計者也。一曰察地勢。勢者非圖史所載山川一定之險也。視賊出入之途,先為之防,察賊分合之機,遙為之制;則漸車之澮,數仞之岡,苟形勢在所必爭,即事機不容或失。全州蓑衣渡之戰,寇焰已摧,宜速壁河東斷其右臂;道州之役,寇鋒已挫,宜分屯七里橋扼其東趨;長沙將解圍,則宜堅壁迴龍潭、土橋頭,使賊不得西犯。它若道州蓮花池、蓮濤灣,死地六十里,而縱之使生;湘陰臨資口、岳州城陵磯皆必爭之區,而縱之使遁。禍機在咫尺之間,流毒遂在千里之外。此敗轍之不可不深鑑者也。一曰嚴約束。殺賊所以安民,安民乃可殺賊。粵寇慘虐,不可勝言,然擇肥而噬,窮簷不暇搜求。或偽結民心,多償市直。兵則攫取姦污,窮戶且難倖免。故於賊且有恕詞,於兵能無怨毒。且長夫估客,遊蕩無常,託偽營裝,恣行淫掠,鄉民畏懼,莫敢誰何。應敕諸營首嚴防制,備冊時稽。犯則軍法按行,絕其芽蘗。此結民心毖後患之要圖也。一曰寬脅從。粵寇徒黨,喪亡實多,煨燼之餘,類多附脅。平昔會徒盜賊,寬典相蒙,監禁軍流,乘時放逸,命為前導,尤所甘心。凡此法無可逭,自爾獲焉必殺。至若良民驅迫,骨肉羈縻,此中進退維谷之忱,艱苦顛連之狀,每一念及,輒用隱傷。宜敕各營刊示射達,臨陣建免死之旗,令其倒戈以赴,曲賜保全。既可探賊情,復以攜賊黨。此尤好生盛德,討賊機宜之大權也。行此八者,破格以攬奇才,便宜以畀賢帥,擇良吏以固根本,嚴綜覈以裕餉源。如此而盜賊不滅,盛治不興,原斬臣首以謝天下。

疏入,上嘉納之。

行至九江,聞南昌被圍,方有旨促援鳳陽,疏請先援江西,率兵千三百人,三晝夜馳抵南昌。巡撫張芾舉王命旗牌授忠源,戰守事悉聽指揮。忠源火城外廛廬,斬逃者,謂章江門最受敵,自當之,日登城督戰。賊穴地轟城,崩數十丈。刃斃先登賊,囊土填缺。數突門出戰,夜遣死士縋下焚賊營。詔嘉獎,被珍賚。尋湖南援師至,分軍扼樟樹鎮,遣羅澤南剿平泰和、萬安、安福土匪。守南昌九十餘日,至八月,屢砲毀賊壘,沉賊船,乘風縱火,賊乃遁。詔嘉其功,加二品頂戴。賊退據九江,分擾湖北興國,迳犯田家鎮。忠源赴援,部兵二千,途阻不能遽達,先挈親兵數十人抵田家鎮。甫一日,賊舟乘風大至,道員徐豐玉等死之。忠源自劾,詔原之,降四級留任,尋擢安徽巡撫。

賊已陷黃州、漢陽,圍武昌。沿江擊賊,敗之,武昌解嚴。疏請增兵萬人,當淮南一路,而湖北留其兵不盡遣,僅率兵二千冒雨行。將士疲頓,忠源亦遘疾。至六安,賊已陷桐城、舒城。吏民遮留,不可,留千人守六安,舁疾抵廬州。部署未定,賊已大至。城中合援兵團勇僅三千人,忠源力疾守陴,迭挫撲城之賊。地道轟城屢圮,皆奮擊卻之。詔嘉忠源力保危城,躬馳戰陣,賜號霍隆武巴圖魯。時陝甘總督舒興阿兵萬餘,畏葸不進。忠源弟忠濬偕劉長佑來援,駐城外五里墩,阻不得前。被圍月餘,廬州知府胡元煒陰通賊,賊知城中食乏,軍火將盡,攻益急。水西門圮,且戰且修築。賊突自南門緣梯入,忠源掣刀自刎。左右持之,一僕負之行,忠源奮脫。轉戰至水閘橋,身受七創,投古塘死之。布政使劉裕珍,池州知府陳源兗,同知鄒漢勳、鬍子雝,縣丞興福、艾延輝,副將鬆安,參將馬良、戴文淵,同時殉難。胡元煒竟降賊。忠濬募人求其屍。後八日,部卒周昌跡得之,負出,面如生。

事聞,文宗震悼,贈總督,予騎都尉兼雲騎尉世職,入祀昭忠祠,諡忠烈。同治初,江南平,追念前功,予三等輕車都尉世職,湖南、江西並建專祠,湖北省城與羅澤南合祀三忠祠。忠源歿逾年,湖南有寇警,弟忠淑奉檄募勇助剿。母陳出私財助餉,並懸重賞以勵眾。事定,巡撫駱秉章以聞,特旨予忠源父母三代一品封典。忠源弟三人,忠濬、忠濟、忠淑,族弟忠義、忠信,皆自忠源初起即從軍中。忠濬、忠義自有傳。

忠濟,從守長沙,城壞,堵缺口,殺登城賊數十,以勇名。三年,忠源赴湖北,以舊部千人付忠濟留長沙。忠源勦賊通城,兵單不利,忠濟倍道赴援,戰於桂口,斬賊首陳申子於陣,又破何田俊等,焚其巢;及援南昌,兩塞城缺,斬賊之先登者。巡撫張芾疏稱其精敏勇敢,軍中畏服,累功擢候選知府。江西解嚴後,忠濟回籍侍母。忠源既歿,有旨仍用忠濟及忠濬率兵勦賊。忠濬方赴援廬州,從和春攻剿。忠濟為駱秉章調赴藍山、寧遠剿土匪,連破賊解圍,擢道員。五年,駐防岳州。胡林翼攻武昌未下,賊勾結崇陽、通城土匪,忠濟遣兵复通城,遂留駐。六年春,江西賊由義寧竄至,忠濟進擊,連破賊壘,而悍黨集數万,為所圍,力戰三日,營陷,死之。贈按察使銜,予騎都尉世職,諡壯節。

忠信,少跅弛不羈,年十六,從忠源赴廣西軍。犯軍令,忠源將斬之,眾為乞免。及遇賊,驍捷敢戰,常為軍鋒,累加擢千總。聞忠源被圍廬州,從忠濬赴援。比至,壁西門外五里墩不得進。忠信夜率壯士十餘人,潛越賊營,縋入城,告以援至。留城中,屢完城缺,縋出攻賊壘,殺賊,擢守備,賜花翎。及城陷,忠源揮之去。五年,從忠濬复廬州,功多,擢游擊,賜號毅勇巴圖魯。忠濬假歸,代統其眾。六年,從和春克三河、巢縣,累擢副將。從秦定三規桐城,建議出奇兵夾擊,連破賊營十有六,進逼城下,賊大出,迎擊,進至東門外,躍馬越壕擒賊將,砲丸中左腋,殞於陣。予雲騎尉世職,諡忠節。忠濟、忠信並附祀忠源專祠。