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John Cadbury

Birthdate: (86)
Birthplace: Birmingham, Warwickshire, England, UK
Death: May 11, 1889 (86)
Immediate Family:

Son of Richard Tapper Cadbury and Elizabeth Cadbury (Head)
Husband of Priscilla Ann Cadbury (Dymond) and Candia Cadbury (Barrow)
Father of John Cadbury; Richard Cadbury; Maria (Cadbury); Sir George Cadbury; Joseph Cadbury and 2 others
Brother of James Cadbury; Jesse Cadbury; Anne (Cadbury); Joel Cadbury; Benjamin Head Cadbury and 3 others

Occupation: Tea Merchant
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About John Cadbury

John Cadbury in 1841 England & Wales Census

Gender: Male

Birth: Between 1802 and 1806

 Warwickshire, England

Residence: 1841

 Calthorpe Street, Birmingham, Warwickshire, England

Age: 35 - 39

Wife (implied): Candia Cadbury

Children (implied): John Cadbury, Richard Cadbury, Maria Cadbury, George Cadbury


Parish: Edgbaston Series: HO107 Folio: 3\15

City: Birmingham Piece: 1151 Family: 861

County: Warwickshire Registrar's district: Edgbaston Line: 2

Country: England Superintendent registrar's district: King Norton Image: 22

Date: 1841 Enum. District: 7

John Cadbury in 1851 England & Wales Census

Gender: Male

Birth: Circa 1802

 Birmingham, Warwickshire, England

Residence: 1851

 Calthorpe Street, Edgbaston, Worcestershire, England

Age: 49

Marital status: Married

Occupation: Tea Merchant

Wife: Candia Cadbury

Children: John Cadbury, R Cadbury, M Cadbury, Geoe Cadbury, Edwd Cadbury, Henry Cadbury


Parish: Edgbaston Series: HO107 Family: 7

Municipal borough: Birmingham Piece: 2049 Line: 15

Parlamentary borough: Birmingham Registrar's district: Kings Norton Image: 3

County: Worcestershire Enumerated by: John Donning

Country: England Enum. District: 2G Date: 1851 Folio: 265


Relation to head Name Age

Head John Cadbury 49

Wife Candia Cadbury 45

Son John Cadbury 17

Son R Cadbury 15

Daughter M Cadbury 13

Son Geoe Cadbury 11

Son Edwd Cadbury 8

Son Henry Cadbury 5

Niece M Gibbins 12

Nephew Wm Gibbins 10

Nephew Thos Gibbins 8

Maria Simms 55

Hannah Morgan 16

Name: John CADBURY , Fndr. Cadbury's Chocolate Co.

Sex: M

Birth: 12 AUG 1801 in Birmingham, Warwickshire, England

Death: 12 MAY 1889 Note: John Cadbury from: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia @

John Cadbury (1801 – 12 May 1889), was proprietor of a small chocolate business in Birmingham, England, that later became part of Cadbury-Schweppes, one of the world's largest chocolate producers. Cadbury was born in Birmingham to a wealthy Quaker family that moved to the area from the west of England. As a Quaker in the early 19th century, he was not allowed to enter a university so could not pursue a profession such as medicine or law. Being pacifist, a military career was also out of the question. So, like many other Quakers of the time, he turned his energies toward business and began an apprenticeship as a tea dealer in Leeds in 1818.

Returning to Birmingham in 1824, Cadbury opened a small one-man grocery shop at 93 Bull Street. In 1831, he switched his business and rented a small factory (an old malthouse) in Crooked Lane to begin the manufacture of drinking chocolate and cocoa.

Cadbury was influenced in his choice of trade by his temperance beliefs – he felt alcohol was a major cause of poverty and other social ills, and saw cocoa and chocolate as alternatives. As a social reformer, he also led a campaign to ban the use of boy chimney sweeps and campaigned against animal cruelty, forming the Animals Friend Society, a forerunner of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

Meanwhile, Cadbury’s manufacturing enterprise prospered, his brother Benjamin Cadbury joined the business in 1847 and they rented a larger factory in Bridge Street. Two years later, in 1849, the Cadbury brothers pulled out of the retail business, leaving it in the hands of their nephew, Richard Cadbury Barrow (Barrow's remained a leading Birmingham store until the 1960s).

Cadbury married twice. He and his first wife, Priscilla Ann Dymond (1799–1828), were married in 1826, but she died two years later.

In 1832 he married his second wife, Candia Barrow (1805–1855).
They had seven children: John (1834–1866), Richard (1835–1899), Maria (1838–1908), George (1839–1922), Joseph (1841–1841), Edward (1843–1866), and Henry (1845–1875).

Benjamin and John Cadbury dissolved their partnership in 1860 and John retired in 1861, leaving his sons, Richard and George to continue to build the business. In 1879 they relocated it near a small village called Bournbrook, which they developed and named Bournville, now a major suburb of Birmingham. The family rapidly developed the Cadbury's factory, and it remains a key site of Cadbury Schweppes.

For the remainder of his life, John Cadbury engaged in civic and social work in Birmingham.

Father: Richard Tapper CADBURY b: 6 NOV 1768 in Exeter, Devon, England Mother: Elizabeth HEAD b: 7 MAR 1768

Marriage 1 Priscilla Ann DYMOND b: 1799 Married: 1826

Marriage 2 Candia BARROW b: 8 APR 1805 in Lancaster, Lancashire, England

Married: 24 JUL 1832 in Lancaster, Lancashire, England


John CADBURY b: 1834
Richard CADBURY b: 1835 in Edgbaston, Warwickshire, England
Maria CADBURY b: 1838 in Edgbaston, Warwickshire, England
George CADBURY b: 19 SEP 1839 in Edgbaston, Warwickshire, England
Joseph CADBURY b: 1841
Edward CADBURY b: 1843
Henry CADBURY b: 1845


IGI Individual Record FamilySearch™ International Genealogical Index v5.0   British Isles 

Johan Cadbury Pedigree Male Family


Birth:  12 AUG 1801   Birmingham, Warwick, England 
Death:  11 MAY 1889    


 Father:  Richard Tapper Cadbury  Family 
 Mother:  Elizabeth Head     


 Spouse:  Candia Barrow  Family 
 Marriage:  24 JUL 1832   Birmingham, Warwick, England 

John Cadbury

Born: 12-Aug-1801

Birthplace: Birmingham, West Midlands, England

Died: 11-May-1889

Location of death: Birmingham, West Midlands, England

Cause of death: Illness

Remains: Buried, Witton Cemetery, Birmingham, West Midlands, England

Gender: Male

Religion: Quaker

Race or Ethnicity: White

Sexual orientation: Straight

Occupation: Business

Nationality: England

Executive summary: Chocolatier

John Cadbury was apprenticed to a tea dealer in his teens and early twenties, then opened a tea and coffee shop in Birmingham in 1824, with a small selection of cocoa and chocolate that came to be his best-selling items. In 1831 he began making his own cocoa and chocolate, in 1847 his brother Benjamin joined the firm, and in 1853 Cadbury Brothers received a royal warrant as official confectioners for Queen Victoria. Cadbury paid his workers well, established work councils to hear and resolve employee grievances, and kept a physician on staff to provide for workers' health care. He campaigned to outlaw child labor, and was a founding member of the Animals Friends Society, which later evolved into the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. He sank into depression after the death of his wife in 1855, and the business faltered until he retired in 1861, turning the company over to his sons, who manufactured Cadbury's first Easter eggs in 1875 and revitalized the business. Cadbury died in 1889, and left his home to his church, the Religious Society of Friends.

Father: Richard Tapper Cadbury (linen draper, b. 1768, d. 1860)

Mother: Elizabeth Head Cadbury (m. 1796)

Sister: Sarah Cadbury

Sister: Ann Cadbury

Brother: Benjamin Head Cadbury (Cadbury executive, b. 1798, d. 1880)

Sister: Elizabeth Head Cadbury

Sister: Emma Cadbury (b. 1811, d. 1905)

Brother: James Cadbury **************************************************8

Brother: Joel Cadbury

Sister: Lucretia Cadbury

Sister: Maria Cadbury

Brother: Richard Cadbury

Wife: Priscilla Ann Dymond Cadbury (b. 1799, m. 1826, d. 1828, no children)

Wife: Candia Barrow Cadbury (b. 1805, m. 1831, d. 1855, seven children)

Son: John Cadbury (b. 1834, d. 1866)

Son: Richard Cadbury (Cadbury executive, b. 1835, d. 1899)

Daughter: Maria Cadbury (b. 1838, d. 1908)

Son: George Cadbury (Cadbury executive, b. 19-Sep-1839, d. 1922)

Son: Joseph Cadbury (b. 1841, d. 1841)

Son: Edward Cadbury (b. 1843, d. 1866)

Son: Henry Cadbury (b. 1845, d. 1875)

Cadbury Schweppes Founder & President (1824-61) of Cadbury Brothers

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

Risk Factors: Depression

Ancestry of the Cadburys  

The Cadbury company, today one of the world's largest producers of chocolate, began in 1824 as a one man grocery opened by a young Quaker, John Cadbury. He set up shop next to his father's drapery and silk business in Birmingham, England. Soon, the business was manufacturing drinking chocolate and cocoa which John prepared himself using a mortar and pestle. In 1847, John teamed up with his brother Benjamin to form Cadbury Brothers of Birmingham. About this time they started making some of England's first eating chocolate. By 1853, the Cadburys received a royal warrant to make chocolates for Queen Victoria. Benjamin left the company in 1860 and a year later John Cadbury retired, leaving his sons Richard and George in charge of the business. Since that time, Cadbury has merged with Schweppes but remains one of the most loved chocolates brands in the world.

Cadburys' Social Concerns For a considerable time, the Cadbury family were prominent both in the life of the city of Birmingham, England, and in the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). They sought to put Quaker testimonies such as that of human equality before God into practice.

Even the choice of chocolate as a line of business related to their Quaker testimonies. John Cadbury, the founder of the Cadbury chocolate business, was active all his life in the temperance society. He felt alcohol was a major cause of poverty and other ills among working people. He saw cocoa and chocolate as an alternative to alcohol.

The Cadburys were involved in social reforms far beyond those directly impacting their own business. John Cadbury led a campaign to ban the use of climbing boys to sweep chimneys. He was also a leader in the struggle against animal cruelty, forming the Animals Friend Society, a forerunner of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Members of the Cadbury family, particularly George Cadbury and George Cadbury Jr., were actively involved as teachers in the adult school movement to provide education to the working classes.

Labor Relations The Cadburys were pioneers in employee welfare and labor relations, setting standards which other enlightened employers adopted. Cadbury Brothers was the first firm to introduce the Saturday half-day holiday, and also pioneered in closing the factory on bank holidays. In 1918, Cadbury Brothers established democratically elected Works Councils, one for men and one for women. Departments elected representatives to these Councils by secret ballot. The Councils dealt with working conditions, health, safety, education, training, and the social life of the workers.

Conditions and benefits were superior to those workers generally knew in the Victorian era. Young employees were encouraged to attend night school and were allowed to leave work an hour early twice a week. When the Bournville factory opened in 1879, it featured heated dressing rooms, kitchens for hearting food, gardens, and extensive sports fields. Management negotiated special workers' fares with the railway company. The Cadburys even provided swimming pools for employees. They also encouraged the spiritual development of employees, starting morning prayers and Bible readings in 1866, continuing for half a century. Around the turn of the century, the Cadburys established medical and dental departments. They established a Pension Fund in 1906.

Housing Reform and Bournville Village George Cadbury was a housing reformer active in the Garden City movement. When the growing company needed to build a new factory, the Cadburys decided to move out of the unhealthy Birmingham industrial quarter to a country location on the outskirts of the city. They named this property Bournville.

When they built the Bournville factory in 1879, they built 16 houses for senior employees. In 1895, George Cadbury bought an additional 120 acres and began to build more houses in the garden city. He sought to provide affordable housing for wage earners in a healthy environment. The community was not limited to Cadbury workers, and was designed to be mixed in both class and occupation. Cottages were grouped and set back from tree-lined roads. Each plot had space for gardens, and building was restricted so the gardens were not overshadowed. In 1897, Richard Cadbury built a quadrangle of houses for pensioners.

To preserve the character of the Bournville Village for future generations, George Cadbury founded the Bournville Village Trust in 1900. The Trust was always separate from the company. Several Cadbury family members are still trustees today. The Trust continues to follow the original principles, including the preservation of parks and open spaces. The Trust has established 12 different kinds of special needs housing, diversifying the population even more than in the early days. Self-build co-partnerships, where members do the work themselves under expert direction, built 400 homes.

Cadbury: The legacy in Birmingham Bournville village was built by the Cadbury family along with the factory Cadbury chocolate is renowned worldwide, but the Cadbury legacy is more than just a chocolate factory.

The Cadbury family, with their Quaker beliefs that - all human beings should be treated equally and should live in peace, believed in social responsibility and social reform.

They improved working and social conditions for their employees and the community.

This was made possible by the success of their business.

The Cadbury story began in 1824 when John Cadbury, a young Quaker, opened a shop in Birmingham. He sold coffee, tea, drinking chocolate and cocoa amongst other things.

John believed alcohol was a main cause of poverty and hoped his products would serve as an alternative.

He started manufacturing on a commercial scale in 1831 and his brother Benjamin joined the company in the 1840s to form Cadbury Brothers.

Royal approval

Cadbury 1824 John Cadbury opened a shop 1854 Royal warrant issued 1861 George and Richard took over the business 1879 Bournville factory opened 1918 Cadbury opened first overseas factory in Tasmania 1919 Cadbury merged with J.S. Fry & Sons Limited 1969 Cadbury merged with Schweppes 2008 Cadbury Schweppes split The brothers opened an office in London and received a Royal Warrant as manufacturers of chocolate and cocoa to Queen Victoria in 1854.

John's sons George and Richard took over the business in 1861 and set about expanding it.

Richard looked after sales and marketing and George took care of production and buying.

In the late 1870s the growing business needed a larger site, so they purchased land 4 miles out of Birmingham. This was in the countryside at the time.

George Cadbury's vision

A new factory, planned by George, was built on the site, and the area became known as Bournville, after the small stream that runs through the site.

George Cadbury believed human beings should be treated equally George was driven by a passion for social reform and wanted to provide good quality low cost homes for his workers in a healthy environment - giving an alternative to grimy city life. So he set about building a village where his workers could live.

George said of his plans: "If each man could have his own house, a large garden to cultivate and healthy surroundings - then, I thought, there will be for them a better opportunity of a happy family life."

His aim was that one-tenth of the Bournville estate should be "laid out and used as parks, recreation grounds and open space."

The brothers set new standards for working and living conditions in Victorian Britain and the Cadbury plant in Bournville became known as "the factory in a garden".

Building a legacy

Richard died unexpectedly in March 1899 of diphtheria whilst in Jerusalem. George continued to provided better working conditions for employees, setting up workers committees and providing facilities.

Over the years George invested a lot of his money in businesses which placed a high priority on the welfare of the workers and despite running a large company he also dedicated a lot of time to helping those less privileged in his local community.

George gave the Bournville estate to the Bournville Village Trust in 1901. The trust was founded, to administer and develop the village and its surroundings.

George Cadbury gave the estate to the Bournville Village Trust in 1901 One of George Cadbury's former homes, Woodbrooke, a Georgian style mansion built by Josiah Mason, has retained a Quaker connection and is Europe's only Quaker Study Centre. Since 1903 it has provided education for people from around the world.

George's second wife Elizabeth, was also heavily involved in philanthropy. Together they opened Woodlands Hospital in Northfield and built The Beeches, where children from the city slums could holiday.

George also donated the Lickey Hills Country Park to the people of Birmingham.

He was one of the founders of The Birmingham Civic Society in 1918 and died at his home, Manor House, Northfield, in 1922.

Subsequent generations of the Cabury family also took on the responsibility of their workers, from ensuring pensions were set up to founding colleges in the local community.

The Cadbury family still has close ties with the area, though it has not owned the company since the 1960s.

Cadbury: History of a chocolate giant Andrew Oxlade, This is Money 7 September 2009, 12:00am Reader comments (2) Cadbury has become the target of a takeover by US food giant Kraft. We outline the history of one of Britain's most famous brands...


WANT TO KNOW MORE?How chocolate cleaned up Cadbury soars 40% on £10bn Kraft bid FTSE 100 latest: Cadbury bid boosts market FTSE LATEST5896.2528.34

Cadbury, which dates back to 1824, has a heritage which helps make it one of the country's most paternalisitc and socially aware employers.

The Cadbury family were one of the driving forces of philanthropy in the late stages of the Victorian era, when society grew more reflective on what had been an age of growing social and economic division. The industrial revolution had driven prosperity and attracted millions of people to the cities in search of work. Yet millions of those workers lived in abject poverty as characterised in the works of Charles Dickens and other authors.

As Quakers, the Cadbury family believed tea, coffee and cocoa beverages could serve as an alternative to alcohol, seen to be a cause of poverty and deprivation among the working classes.

The Bournville factory was built in 1879 and, in 1893, as part of the company's altruistic vision, saw the creation of a 120-acre village of better housing for its workers.

The Cadbury family was particularly concerned with the health of its workforce, incorporating park and recreation areas into the Bournville village plans, and encouraging swimming, walking and other sports.

In the 20th Century, Cadbury brands seeped into the public consciousness thanks to products such as Dairy Milk bars (1905), Milk Tray (1915), Bassett's Jelly Babies (1918), Flake (1920), Creme Egg (1923), Crunchie (1929), Cadbury Roses (1938), Picnic (1958) and Wispa (1983 - relaunched in 2008 due to demand from an online campaign).

In 1969, the company merged with US drinks maker Schweppes. That part of the business was demerged in 2008, creating soft drinks group Dr Pepper Snapple Group.


• A full history of Cadbury brands

1824 John Cadbury opened a grocer's shop in Bull Street, a fashionable part of Birmingham. Goods include cocoa and drinking chocolate.

1831 John Cadbury moved into manufacturing, renting a small factory in Crooked Lane, Birmingham, to make cocoa and drinking chocolate.

1847 With business booming, a larger factory was rented in the centre of Birmingham on Bridge Street.

1861 Richard and George Cadbury took over the business from their father John who was in poor health. They were aged just 25 and 21.

1866 The brothers launched Cocoa Essence after George bought a revolutionary cocoa press from Dutch manufacturer van Houten.

1879 Production began at the new 'factory in a garden' in the countryside at a greenfield site, four miles outside Birmingham, which they named Bournville.

1893 George Cadbury bought more land in Bournville in order to build a 'model village' for industrial workers.

1897 Cadbury launched its first milk chocolate for eating ,created by adding dried milk powder to cocoa solids, cocoa butter and sugar.

The Bournville Almshouses, a group of cottages round a central garden, were built for pensioners who had worked at Cadbury.

1900 The Bournville Village Trust was created to create a community and safeguard the area from other developers.

1905 Cadbury Dairy Milk was launched to compete against the leading brands of Swiss milk chocolate.

1906 A pension fund was launched for workers, with a capital gift from the company.

1915 Milk Tray was launched in this year: a stylish but no-frills box of chocolates for every day eating.

1918 Democratically elected 'works councils' for men and women were set up to discuss factory issues.

1919 Cadbury merged with J.S. Fry & Sons Limited in order for both companies to compete against Rowntree.

1921 Cadbury opened their first overseas factory in Hobart, Tasmania, followed by New Zealand in 1930.

1939 The Second World War begins, rationing is enforced and the making of chocolate and cocoa comes under Government control.

1955 Cadbury move into TV advertising on the launch night of commercial television on 22 September 1955.

1969 Cadbury merged with Schweppes in order to give better value to the customer, boost its foods arm and gain the resources to enter international markets. The new company is listed on the London Stock Exchange.

2003 Cadbury becomes the world's No 1 confectionery company after buying up various chewing gum brands, such as Trident and Stride.

2008 Cadbury and Schweppes demerged, splitting its confectionery and drinks business.

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The Cadbury family dynasty was started in 1824 by John Cadbury. A devout Quaker, he saw cocoa and chocolate as healthy alternatives to alcohol. He also led a campaign to prohibit the employment of boys as chimney sweeps, and formed the Animals Friend Society, the predecessor to the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The same Quaker motivation in his descendants led to the foundation of Bournville Village in the late 1800s for both Cadbury's factory and its workers, and in turn inspired his American competitor, Milton S. Hershey, to do the same. [1]

1801 -- John Cadbury is born. His father was Richard Tapper Cadbury (c. 1768 -- 1860.) Originally Quakers from Exeter, his parents moved to Birmingham in 1794, and set up a silk and drapery shop, and became quite wealthy. John had nine brothers and sisters: James, Ann, Maria, Lucretia, Sarah, Emma Joel (1811 -- 1905), Elizabeth Head, Richard, Benjamin Head, and Joel. Some sources say that no higher education routes were open to John, but that's not quite true: the Manchester Academy in York (now Manchester-Harris College at Oxford University) was open to religious nonconformists. In any event, John decided to follow a career in business. 1818 -- At the age of 17, John apprenticed with a tea dealer in Leeds. 1824 -- At the age of 23, John returned to Birmingham and opened a one-person shop at 93 Bull Street, next to his father's store which sold drapery and silk, in a fashionable part of town. John sold tea, coffee, hops for beer, mustard and drinking chocolate (aka cocoa.) He had a plate glass window installed (a novelty for the time), and hired a Chinese man to work the counter in Chinese costume. John started advertising himself right away. He placed his first newspaper advertisement on 1st March 1824 in the Birmingham Gazette. To make drinking chocolate, he ground up the cocoa beans in mortars and pestles, blended it with sugar, and formed it into blocks for the customers to take home. Customers would use it by scraping some off as a powder into hot water or milk. 1826 -- John married Priscilla Ann Dymond (1799 -– 1828.) 1828 -- Priscilla died. The couple did not have any children. 1831 -- John decided to expand his capacity in cocoa and drinking chocolate. He kept the store, but he rented an old malthouse to use as a factory for chocolate manufacturing. 1832 -- John remarried to Candia Barrow (1805 -–1855.) They would have seven children in all, though one died as an infant and only three others made it past the age of thirty-two. The children were: John (1834 -- 1866), Richard (1835 -- 1899), Maria (1838 -- 1908), George (19 September 1839 -- 1922), Joseph (1841 -- 1841), Edward (1843 -- 1866), and Henry (1845 -- 1875.) 1839 -- John and Claudia were living in Edgbaston, Birmingham. 1842 -- By now, John was making eleven different kinds of cocoa, and sixteen different kinds of drinking chocolate. 1847 -- John rented a larger factory on Bridge Street , in Birmingham city centre off Broad Street. Up till now, his brother, Benjamin Head Cadbury (1798 -- 23 January 1880; married Candia Wadkin 1803 -- 1887: no sons, seven daughters) had worked in their parents' drapery shop. In 1847, John brought Benjamin into the business as a partner, and they traded as the "Cadbury Brothers of Birmingham." 1849 -- John got his nephew, his sister Sarah's son, Richard Cadbury Barrow, to look after the retail side of things in the store on Bull Street. That small store would evolve into the Barrow Stores of Birmingham, which lasted in business until the 1960s. 1850 -- John brought his son Richard on board. Richard was just fifteen at the time. Richard would later marry an Elizabeth Adlington (1838 -- 1868); they seem to have had around 24 children, one of which was William Adlington (1867 -- 1957), later to play a large role in the business. William himself would later have close to 20 children. 1854 -- On 4 February, Cadbury's received a Royal Warrant from Queen Victoria. 1855 -- John's second wife, Candia, died. 1856 -- John brought his son George on board. George was seventeen at the time. 1860 -- John and Benjamin's father, Richard, died on 13 March 1860 at the age of ninety-two. In the same year, John dissolved the partnership with Benjamin, leaving Benjamin with the Barrow stores. 1861 -- John retired, passing the business to his sons Richard and George. Richard was twenty-five at the time; George was twenty-one. They found business for the next five years quite hard going, and contemplated giving it up, but they saw it through. George would later marry Elizabeth Mary Taylor (1858-1951.) They would have close to twenty-five children, including Laurence John (1889-1982), who would later become chairman of the business, and after him, two of his sons, Adrian and Dominic. [2] 1861 -- Richard moved to 17 Wheeley's Road in Birmingham. He would live here until 1871. 1866 -- With the advent of a process to extract cocoa butter from cocoa beans, the brothers were able to make eating chocolate. This helped them turn the corner on the five tough years they had had. 1872 -- George moved to live at 32 George Road. He would live here until 1881. 1875 -- Cadbury's produced its first Easter Eggs. 1878 -- Cadbury's now had 200 people working for them. The company Cadbury's purchased 4 1/2 acres of the Bournbrook Hall estate just outside Birmingham, four miles south of Birmingham city centre, between the villages of Stirchley and King's Norton. They renamed "Bournbrook" to Bournville, to make it sound more French -- French chocolate was seen as the quality to beat at the time. The site was named after the brook named "Bourn" that ran through it. It was close to railway lines and the Worcester Canal that went into Bristol, where coffee beans could be landed from abroad. The space would provide better working conditions, as well as cheaper land now and in the future for expansion. A fire later in the year in their factory, on 23 November 1878, doesn't seem to have done substantive damage. 1879 -- Construction at Bournville started in January 1879. The old Bridge Street site was closed in July 1879. Cadbury's made sure they had enough inventory to last them a few months in between factories. Operations started at the new factory in Bournville in September 1879. At the same time as the factory was being built, Cadbury's had twenty-four houses constructed for a few key workers. 1880 -- Benjamin Cadbury dies, 23 January 1880, eighty-two years old. 1800/81 -- George moved to a house on Bristol Road, Birmingham. It had ten acres and a lake. 1881 -- Cadbury's exports product for the first time. The destination is Australia. 1889 -- John died on 12 May 1889. In his will, he left the Bristol Road house to the Quakers. 1890 -- George purchased a house in Northfield, Birmingham called "New House", and renamed it to "Manor House." The house remained in the Cadbury family until the 1950s, when it was sold to the University of Birmingham. 1895 -- Cadbury's decided to build an entire village at Bournville. They purchased an adjacent 120 acres of land. Though they wanted to provide affordable housing for workers, they also wanted non-Cadbury workers to live there. Cadbury's also wanted to prevent its headquarters, which was called a "factory in a garden", from being hemmed in by monotonous city suburbs. Cadbury's built an additional 300 houses, making 324 in total, making sure that each one had its own garden. The homes were designed by architect William Alexander Harvey in an 'Arts and Crafts' style, but with modern (for the times) interiors. 1897 -- Cadbury's started making milk chocolate by adding milk powder to chocolate. It was coarse by European standards, but then Cadbury's set out to develop a formula that would be better than European milk chocolate by using fresh milk instead. George travelled to Switzerland in 1897 to learn the Swiss techniques. 1898 -- Cadbury's reduced the work week from 53 1/2 to 48 hours per week. 1899 -- Richard died. George brought two of his sons, Edward and George, and Richard's son, William Adlington (1867 -- 1957) onto the board of directors, as well as his cousin Richard Cadbury Barrow. In the same year, Cadbury's was registered as a limited company. It now employed 2,600 people to make various chocolate candies. 1900 -- George signed over land and houses to the Bournville Village Trust, which was created separately from the Cadbury business. 1901 -- George bought a Liberal newspaper, the "Daily News" of London, whose first editor had been Charles Dickens. He would use it to advocate for things such as an old age pension. The paper continued until it was absorbed by the Daily Chronicle in 1930. George would not allow references to horse-racing or betting in the newspaper. 1903 -- George purchased the remainder of the Bournbrook Estate. He set aside recreational land for the workers, and provided pensions, medical facilities, housing, education and training. 1905 -- Cadbury's launched Cadbury's Dairy Milk. It was supposed to be called "Dairy Maid", but six weeks before starting sales, they changed the name to "Dairy Milk." The Bournville Quaker Meeting house held its first meeting on 3 September 1905. 1906 -- George invested a pension fund for his employees with £60,000. 1908 -- Bournville Dark Chocolate bars were launched. Cadbury's sued the London Standard Newspaper for libel. [3] 1910 -- Cadbury's employed 5,300 people. 1913 -- Within eight years, Cadbury's Dairy Milk had become Cadbury's best-selling product. 1914 -- Elizabeth Cadbury, George's wife, published and wrote the introduction to a book of letters composed by her mother, Mary Jane Taylor (1831 -- 1887.) The book, published by Cornish Bros. in Birmingham, was called "A Dear Memory." 1915 -- Cadbury's Milk Tray was launched. The pieces of chocolate were shipped on trays in large boxes, and sold loose to customers at stores. 1916 -- Cadbury's started selling Cadbury's Milk Tray in purple boxes for sale to customers as a entire box. 1918 -- Worker's Councils, one for men and one for women, are setup. Half the council members are management, the other half are workers elected by secret ballot. 1919 -- Cadbury's merged with J.S. Fry and Sons. Cadbury's reduces its work week to 44 hours. 1920 -- Cadbury's Flake was introduced. 1921 -- The distinctive Cadbury's logo, with the name written in script, was introduced. It was based on how William A. Cadbury signed his name. 1922 -- George died on 24 October 1922 at Manor House, Northfield, Birmingham, England, aged 83. His ashes are still kept in an urn in the Friend's Meeting House at Bournville. His son Laurence became Chairman sometime afterwards, certainly by 1935. Cadbury's opened a factory in Claremont, Hobart (in Tasmania, Australia.) 1923 -- Cadbury Creme Eggs were launched. 1928 -- Cadbury Dairy Milk with Fruit & Nut was launched. "Glass and a half of Milk" slogan was introduced. 1929 -- Cadbury Crunchie bar was launched. 1930 -- Cadbury's opened a factory in New Zealand. 1932 -- Cadbury's opened factories in Montreal, Canada, and in Dublin, Ireland, and launched its Bourn-Vita drink product (discontinued in the UK in 2008.) Bourn-Vita was launched in Australia the same year or shortly after, then in India in 1948. 1933 -- Cadbury's saved Wedgewood from bankruptcy by ordering promotional Bourn-Vita cups and saucers. [4] 1934 -- George's wife Elizabeth was made Dame Commander of the British Empire. 1938 -- Cadbury's Roses are launched. In this year as well, the Bournville location alone employed 10,000 people 1939 -- Cadbury's opened a factory in South Africa. Later that year, expansion stopped with the start of the Second World War. It was not really to start again until the 1960s. During the war, parts of the Cadbury's plant were converted to make various things from milling machines for rifle factories to pilot seats. In Australia, Cadbury's became the official supplier for chocolate in troops rations. Instead of Cadbury's distinctive purple, in Australia the packaging was switched to brown paper during the war years there. 1941 -- In the UK, chocolate was rationed and available only through ration coupons. The price for a bar of Cadbury's in 1941 was 2 1/2d. 1943 -- Non-family members are appointed to the Cadbury board for the first time. 1945 -- On VE day, a bonfire was built in front of the black and white manor house. The builders of the bonfire erected it deliberately on top of the fire hydrant, so that the fire truck couldn't come along and put it out. In place of honour inside the bonfire was a Hitler dummy, with a swastika on its head and arm. There was dancing in the village green that evening, and the fire was lit at 10:00 pm. The next day, there was an impromptu street party in Maple Road, with tables set up all along down the middle of the road with food on it, and games for the children. 1947 -- Cadbury's opened a factory in India. 1957 -- William Adlington Cadbury died. 1962 -- Cadbury's went public. 1965 -- Laurence stepped down as chairman. His son, Adrian Cadbury (15 April 1929 -- ) became Chairman of the company, a position he held until 1989. 1967 -- Cadbury's Mini-Eggs launched. 1969 -- Cadbury's merged with Schweppes. 1971 -- Modern version of Cadbury's Creme Eggs launched. 1982 -- On 31st July of this year, Laurence's son and Adrian's brother, Jocelyn Benedict Laurence Cadbury, Conservative MP for Northfield, age 36, committed suicide on the main driveway through Davids (the 15-acre estate in Bournville where his parents Laurence and Joyce Cadbury lived, sold off in 1994) by shooting himself in the head with a shotgun. Another of his brothers had previously been killed in a motorcycle crash; his sister was killed in an airplane crash. No reason for his suicide has ever been made widely known. 1993 -- Adrian's brother, Dominic Cadbury (12 May 1940 -- ), became chairman, a position he held until 2000. 1995 -- Cadbury's opened a factory in Beijing (Peking), China. 1996 -- Cadbury's started sponsoring the television programme, "Coronation Street." 1999 -- Cadbury's Miniature Heroes launched. 2001 -- Dream and SnowFlake bars launched. 2006 -- By this point, Cadbury's had added factories in Marlbrook, Herefordshire (for milk), Chirk, North Wales (for cocoa bean processing) and Somerdale near Bristol. Bournville in this year covered a total of 1,000 acres (405 hectares), providing room for 7,800 homes and 120 acres (48 hectares) of parkland and garden. Pubs were still non-existent in Bournville, as alcohol was still banned there [5]. Bournville dark chocolate is now manufactured in France 2010 -- On 19 January 2010, Cadbury's chairman, Roger Carr, and board, agreed to recommend to shareholders the sale of Cadbury to Kraft for £11.7 billion. "“There is a lot of emotion about [the sale of] Cadbury, but while it has deep British roots and great values, half of its share register is American and half of its management and business is drawn from the transformational Adams acquisition made in America seven years ago. “The company ceased to be a family business when it was floated half a century ago and the Cadbury family has not been involved for about a decade." [6] ___________________________________________________

[1] Around the same time, William Hesketh Lever established in Merseyside, England, the model village of Port Sunlight, named after his leading soap brand.

[2] Another of George's children was Sir Egbert Cadbury, who later became a managing director of Cadbury's; one of Edgert's boys, Peter Egbert Cadbury (born 6 February 1918 -- 13 April 2006), was a colourful character who shared offices with Margaret Thatcher when they were both young lawyers, kept a crossbow in his house to shoot burglars, and founded Westward Television in the UK.

[3] Cadbury's sourced its cocoa beans from the west coast of Africa, chiefly the islands of São Tomé and Principé, which were Portuguese territory. Parts of the British Foreign Office had known that Portugal was still capturing people from Angola, and forcing them into slave labour on the cocoa plantations on the islands, but the Foreign Office dithered about how to deal with it without affecting various agreements with Portugal. William Cadbury reputedly first heard of the slavery in 1901. As the rumours became more widespread, Cadbury's tried to see whether they were true or not by going through the Foreign Office, where he was reputedly assured that they were pressuring Portugal to institute reforms, which were underway already. Consequently, Cadbury's inquired no further, not even when Harper's Magazine ran an article in 1905 exposing the ongoing practice of slavery under the Portuguese.

It wasn't just Cadbury that the cocoa beans were being sold to, though. It was everybody: Fry's, Rowntree, even German chocolate makers. What made Cadbury special, though, was politics: George was a Liberal party member and had been a big supporter of Liberal Prime Minister William Gladstone. The Liberal newspaper that Cadbury's owned, the Daily News, had been hammering the Conservative government of the day since 1904 for turning a blind eye to exploitive labour of Chinese workers in South Africa. The Conservative newspapers had spotted their chance to return the favour.

Cadbury found itself ripped to shreds in all the Conservative newspapers, with the London Evening Standard firing the first salvo in an evening edition editorial on 26 September 1908:

...."Such being the case, we can only express our respectful surprise that Mr. Cadbury's voyage of discovery has been deferred so long. One might have supposed that Messrs. Cadbury would themselves have long ago ascertained the condition and circumstances of those labourers on the West Coast of Africa and the islands adjacent who provide them with raw material. That precaution does not seem to have been taken..... And the worst of all this slavery and slave-driving and slave-dealing is brought about by the necessity of providing a sufficient number of hands to grow and pick cocoa on the islands of Principe and Sao Thome [Ed. Portuguese-held islands off the coast of West Africa], the islands which feed the mills and presses of Bournville! Such is the terrible indictment, made, as we have said, by a writer of high character and reputation on the evidence of his own eyesight. There is only one thing more amazing than his statements: and that is the strange tranquillity with which they were received by those virtuous people in England whom they intimately concerned." [London Evening Standard, 26 September 1908. Reprinted in Lowell J. Satre, Chocolate on Trial: Slavery, Politics & the Ethics of Business (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2005), 227-229.]

At the end of 1908, William A. Cadbury finally travelled to São Tomé and Principé to actually see what was happening. Then, while he was south, at the start of 1909, William travelled on to Odumasi, Ghana, found the cocoa there to be safer to buy politically while still of good quality, and switched their purchasing to Ghana in 1910. Cadbury would later gift a Cadbury Hall for education at Kumasi, and a Fellowship for West African Studies at the University of Birmingham.

Nonetheless, Cadbury's sued for libel in 1909. Lawyers in the libel case, such as Lord Carson, scoffed at the notion that Cadbury's could have had any doubt what the situation was in Africa already. They showed the court evidence that Cadbury's had been offered a cocoa plantation for sale on one of the islands, and if they wished, the offer would also include "200 black labourers, for £3,555." On 7 December 1909, a judge in Birmingham awarded Cadbury's a token one farthing in damages.

[4] "Wedgewood was saved from bankruptcy by unexpected but crucial business from Cadbury's. The company noted for its delicate Jasper ware received an order for earthenware beakers and saucers which could be exchanged for labels from Bourn-vita drinking chocolate." [Lynn Knight. Clarice Cliff. London: Bloomsbury. 2005. Page 170.] In 1934, a matching plate, jug and sugar basin were added to the offer. The offer was repeated by Cadbury's in the 1950s, but the tableware then was plastic.

[5] Alcohol came to be served, though, in the Cadbury social club for staff. cf: Robinson, James. Bournville: the town that chocolate built. Manchester: The Guardian. 23 January 2010. P. 33.

[6] Roger Carr, Chairman of Cadbury's. As quoted in: Davey, Jenny. Kraft makes plans to raise £7bn in the bond market. London: The Times. 24 January 2010.

Literature & Lore about John Cadbury "Not long ago the English cocoa firms -- Messrs. Cadbury, Messrs. Fry and Messrs. Rowntree -- and the firm of Messrs. Stollwerck, of Cologne, sent at their own expense a special commissioner to inquire into all the circumstances of the case. The report of this commission, Mr Burtt, has recently been published by them -- a fact which shows that they have not the slightest desire to shirk their responsibilities, but, instead, are the first to recognize them. "If this is not slavery, I know of no word in the English language which correctly characterizes it." This is Mr. Burtt's conclusion. But the cocoa firms in question were not content simply with this report. At present Mr. William Cadbury is in Portuguese West Africa negotiating with the planters and the Government in order to put an end to slavery and to induce the planters to grown their cocoa under conditions of free labor...The leading British cocoa firms, as we have shown, are awake, or are awakening, to their responsibilities. It remains for the British public, and we trust also for the public of the United States, to play their part. They must not let the whole brunt of the battle fall upon the manufacturers. They must let it be know that if needs be they will stand loyally by any and every firm which refuses to use slave-grown cocoa." -- Quote from the London Spectator. In Manitoba Morning Free Press. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 26 December 1908. Page 4.

"Outside the city of Birmingham is Bournville [sic], a model village maintained by George Cadbury, the famous English Quaker, the owner of the London Daily News. From that great newspaper all betting news and liquor advertisements have been eliminated. It is the cleanest paper in that respect among all the dailies of Great Britain. In this village of Bournville, the people who work, thousands of them, take their turn to come into a large public hall several mornings in the week, where they have a short praise and prayer service before they go to their work. There is a spirit of goodwill and kindliness and brotherhood in the institution. There is a fine cricket ground for the men; gymnasium for the women; recreation grounds for all. Back of the houses are gardens for fruit and vegetables. It is a sweet, wholesome life of labor, redeemed from the grime of a great city and the drudgery of toil without any of the beauty of life. It is a bit of the Kingdom put into the manual labor of men and it sweetens the lives of thousands of people as they waken in the morning and anticipate the day's work. ..." -- Sheldon, Charles M. Rev. The Rule of the Kingdom. Fort Wayne, Indiana: The Fort Wayne Sentinel. 18 July 1908. Page 15.

"Damages of One Farthing For Libel: Birmingham, Dec. 7. Damages of one farthing were granted the heirs of the late Richard Cadbury, the millionaire chocolate manufacturer, in their suit for libel against the London Standard. The litigation grew out of charges relative to the use of alleged slave grown cocoa, from the Island of St. Thomas, a possession of Portugal off the west coast of Africa." -- The Evening Observer. Dunkirk, New York. Tuesday, 7 December 1909. Page 9.

"London, July 23.—During the last week or two a number of identical articles have appeared in a couple of London papers which are controlled by the great cocoa firm of Cadbury, stating that a dynastic crisis was imminent in Portugal and that the boy King Manuel was about to abdicate in favor of his uncle, the duke of Oporto....I am in a position to state that there isn't a word of truth in these statements.....It is interesting to note that both the papers which printed these veiled attacks on the Portuguese monarchy are controlled by a business firm which had a good deal of trouble not long ago with the Portuguese government, over its use of cocoa grown by slaves in Portuguese territory. It was compelled by public opinion to cease the use of this raw material and then tried to throw all the blame on the Portuguese government, which asserted that it was doing all it could to put an end to the system of servile labor, but was hampered by capitalists in close touch with the English cocoa firm." -- [Author unattributed]. Atlanta, Georgia: The Constitution. Sunday, 24 July 1910. Page 6.

"There is probably no man who is more passionately devoted to cycling that Mr. George Cadbury, the head of the famous Bournville cocoa firm of that name. He himself cycles every day from his home to the works, a distance of a mile and a half, and back again in the evening. Every Sunday morning he rises at six o'clock and cycles into Birmingham, five miles away, to conduct an eight o'clock Sunday morning class for men and youths. Nothing is allowed to interfere with attendance at this class for men and youths, and even in the depth of winter Mr. Cadbury is punctually at his post. Mr. Cadbury is proud of his class, and every member is proud of Mr. Cadbury." -- Column: Personal Gossip that Amuses, Readers of the London Press. Oakland, California. The Oakland Tribune. Wednesday, 16 February 1910. Evening edition. Page 6.

Every Christmas, Cadbury's makes a special order of chocolate bars for the Queen from a special recipe using a specially reserved machine. The chocolate is wrapped in gold foil covered with a red paper wrap, and labelled "Superior Culinary Plain Chocolate". It is a dark chocolate containing a high proportion of cocoa solids, but beyond that, Cadbury will not discuss the recipe.

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John Cadbury's Timeline

August 12, 1802
Birmingham, Warwickshire, England, UK
Age 31
Age 32
Age 35
September 19, 1839
Age 37
Edgbaston, Birmingham,, England.
Age 38
Age 40
Age 42
May 11, 1889
Age 86