Sir George Cadbury

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Sir George Cadbury

Birthdate: (83)
Birthplace: Edgbaston, Birmingham,, England.
Death: 1922 (82)
Immediate Family:

Son of John Cadbury and Candia Cadbury (Barrow)
Husband of Elizabeth Mary Cadbury (Taylor) and Mary Eleanor Victoria Cadbury
Father of George Norman Cadbury; Elsie Dorothea (Cadbury); Sir Egbert Cadbury; Marion Janet Greeves (Cadbury); George Woodall Cadbury and 6 others
Brother of John Cadbury; Richard Cadbury; Maria (Cadbury); Joseph Cadbury; Edward Cadbury and 1 other

Occupation: Factory owner and Philanthropist
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Sir George Cadbury

FamilySearch™ International Genealogical Index v5.0 British Isles Family Group Record


George Cadbury Pedigree  

 Birth:  19 SEP 1839  Birmingham, Warwick, England 

Marriage: 19 JUN 1888 Peckham Rye, London, England

Death: 24 OCT 1922 Birmingham, Warwick, England



Elizabeth Mary Taylor Pedigree  

 Birth:  24 JUN 1858  Peckham Rye, London, England 

Marriage: 19 JUN 1888 Peckham Rye, London, England

Death: 04 DEC 1951 Midland, , , England



FamilySearch™ International Genealogical Index v5.0 British Isles Family Group Record


George Cadbury Pedigree  

 Birth:  19 SEP 1839  Birmingham, Warwick, England 

Marriage: 14 MAR 1872 London, London, England Death: 24 OCT 1922 Birmingham, Warwick, England



Mary Tylor Pedigree  

 Birth:  MAR 1849  Middlesex, Stamford Hill, London, England    

Marriage: 14 MAR 1872 London, London, England Death: JUN 1887 Newton Abbot, Devon, England



IGI Individual Record FamilySearch™ International Genealogical Index v5.0

 British Isles 

George Cadbury Pedigree



Birth:  19 SEP 1839   Birmingham, Warwick, England 
Death:  24 OCT 1922   Birmingham, Warwick, England 


 Father:  John Cadbury  Family 
 Mother:  Candia Barrow       


Record submitted after 1991 by a member of the LDS Church. 

ID: I247398 Name: George Cadbury 1 Sex: M Change Date: 17 OCT 2007 Birth: 19 SEP 1839 2 Death: 24 OCT 1922 2

Ancestry Hints for George Cadbury

   8 possible matches found on  

Father: John Cadbury

Marriage 1 Elizabeth Mary Taylor Married: 19 JUN 1888 2 Children

Laurence John Cadbury b: 30 MAR 1889
Egbert Cadbury b: 20 APR 1893

Marriage 2 Mary Tyler Married: 14 MAR 1872 2

Sources: Title: re: updates, Recipient:, Address: Harrogate, North Yorkshire, Author E-mail: Abbrev: re: updates Author: Rhodes, Michael Publication: 8 July 2004 Title: Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry, 18th edition Abbrev: Burke's Landed Gentry, 18th ed. Author: Editor: Townend, Peter Publication: Burke's Peerage Ltd, London, England, 1965-1972 Page: volume 3, page 135


Cadbury, George From New World Encyclopedia

George CadburyGeorge Cadbury (September 19, 1839 – October 24, 1922), the third son of the Quaker tea and coffee dealer John Cadbury, was the co-founder of Cadbury's cocoa and chocolate company, a social reformer, a philanthropist, and a politician. George was born in Edgbaston, Birmingham, England, and was to remain an integral part of the Birmingham society throughout his life.

Although he was a successful businessman, he is best known for building decent housing for his employees and for establishing what has been described as a private social security program for their benefit. Through ownership of several newspapers, he promoted his ideas about welfare, which included improvement of working conditions and the then-innovative concept of an old age pension. Through charities and trusts established by them, the Cadbury family, led by George, is as well known for its philanthropy and humanitarianism as it is for its successful business. After World War I he left the Liberal Party, which he had represented as an elected member of the Birmingham City Council and Worcestershire County Council, and was a co-founder of an anti-war movement established in 1914, the Union of Democratic Control alongside, among others, Ramsay MacDonald, Britain's first Labor Prime Minister.

George Cadbury modeled responsible leadership that lives for the sake of others as he applied the principles of his Quaker faith in business, politics, and his personal life. He regularly taught once a week as a volunteer at the Birmingham Adult School, and through visiting his students' homes became personally aware of their often squalid living conditions. He and his wife, Elizabeth, both were leaders in philanthropy and raised two sons who carried on that tradition as adults.


Blue plaque at George Road, EdgbastonGeorge Cadbury was born September 19, 1839 in Edgbaston, Birmingham, where his father John was a tea and coffee merchant. George was a pupil at the Quaker School. His family were committed members of the Society of Friends. George and his brother Richard took control of their father's business in 1861, since he was too ill to continue to manage it. George married Elizabeth Mary Taylor (1858-1951) in 1888. Elizabeth shared her husband's social agenda, serving on the Birmingham Education Committee and as an elected member of the Council (1919-25). Elizabeth held the Presidency of the National Council of Evangelical Free Churches in 1925 and was created a Dame of the British Empire in 1934. George and Elizabeth's sons, George Cadbury, Jr., Edward and John Lawrence Cadbury followed their parents as philanthropists, in public service as well as working in the family business.

When George and Richard took over, the business was failing. The two brothers introduced powdered cocoa to their customers, and the business began to make a profit. From an early age, George decided that he wanted to place the welfare of his workers before anything else, and invest in the community that enabled his company to succeed. He believed that if workers enjoyed a happy home life in attractive and sanitary surroundings, with a garden in which they could grow food, both they and the company would benefit from the esprit de corps that this would encourage.

Bournville Factory and Village

The packing room at Bournville, circa 1903.In 1878 the brothers moved the factory from its then too-crowded site in Bridge Street in the City of Birmingham, purchasing 14 acres (57,000 m²) of land in open country, four miles (6 km) south of Birmingham, where they opened a new factory in 1879. In 1897 the Cadbury brothers started to produce chocolate. Called Cadbury's Dairy Milk, this lightly colored chocolate became the most popular in Britain, adding to the fame of the company. Over the following years more land was acquired and a model village, which became known as Bournville, designed by architect William Alexander Harvey, was built to provide low cost houses for the workers. For this, the Cadbury's purchased 120 acres next to the factory. Each house had its own garden and the village's design included open spaces, pioneering the Garden City idea, which aims to introduce the benefits of a rural environment into the urban context. Cadbury wanted one tenth of the estate "laid out and used as parks" [1]. Later, a hospital and a library and other community facilities were added. A Trust was established in 1900 to maintain the village, and ownership was invested in the Trustees. There were then 313 houses on the estate.

Cadbury Ltd. prospered because of humanitarian working conditions. In the Bournville factory, named after the local river and the French word for town, they produced chocolate from 1879. The brothers cared for their employees; they both believed in the social rights of the workers and hence they installed canteens and sport grounds. Nineteen years after Richard died, George opened a works committee for each gender which discussed proposals for improving the firm. He also pressed ahead with other ideas, like an annuity, a deposit account and education facilities for every employee. They introduced a half-day of work on Saturday, and days off on Public Holidays. Cadbury also donated the Lickey Hills Country Park to the people of Birmingham.

Bournville Rest House was built to celebrate the Silver Wedding Anniversary of George and Elizabeth Cadbury, and was paid for by the employees of Cadbury Brothers Ltd. The design is by William Alexander Harvey, who was architect of many of the buildings on the estate and is based on a medieval butter market in Dorset. Currently, the building houses the Visitors Center for the Carillon.Cadbury also founded the Animal Friends Society, a "a forerunner of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals" [2]. Except for what went towards upkeep of his family, Cadbury gave all his money to charity.

Social reforms George Cadbury was a pioneer of improving the working and living conditions of workers. He believed in the dignity and worth of all people. He also believed that happy families are essential to social cohesion. Birmingham, as an industrial city, grew during the nineteenth century into one of the most important economic centers in the United Kingdom, to become the second largest city. Nonconformity was strongly represented there and some of its leading politicians were practicing Christians who wanted to create a city, that, like the family and the state, would be created by divine will for the common good. George Dawson (1821-1876), a prominent Free Church minister in Birmingham, called this the "civic gospel". At the opening of the Birmingham Public Library in 1865, Dawson spoke of the city's God-given responsibility to "make provision for all our people". He said: "We are a Corporation, who have undertaken the highest duty that is possible to us; we have made provision for our people—for all our people—and we have made a provision of God's greatest and best gifts unto Man." [3]. As a member of the City Council, elected in 1877, Cadbury supported the reforms led by the Mayor, Joseph Chamberlain known as municipal socialism, which brought ownership of the gas supply, water, garbage disposal under municipal control and created a system of public parks. The Cadbury brothers formed Work Councils for their employees, one for men and one for women. Members were elected. The Councils discussed working conditions, education, health, safety, and also recreational activities. Every Sunday morning for 50 years George Cadbury taught at the Birmingham Adult School. A keen sportsman, George encouraged sport among his workers[4].

Religious beliefs Cadbury was a devout Quaker throughout his life and saw, as did such fellow social reformers as Dawson, a link between his faith and his civic responsibilities. He saw all people as equal before God, which motivated much of his humanitarian and reform work. [5]. In 1903, Cadbury donated the former Cadbury family home to the Society of Friends as Woodbrooke Quaker Study Center. Woodbrooke was from the beginning open to people from any faith and focused on peace and reconciliation, spirituality and other areas of special interest to Quakers. Later, Woodbrooke became a constituent college of the Selly Oak federation, of which George's son, Edward Cadbury was a founding member, building the Selly Oak College Library.

Legacy Through the business that George and his brother established and the Village Trust they founded, the Cadbury brothers' legacy continues to enrich the lives of many people. Their heirs continued to establish charitable foundations—endowing a chair in Theology at Birmingham University, founding and supporting the Selly Oak Colleges, as well as supporting many other institutions. The George Cadbury Hall is named for him in the Selly Oak complex (now part of the University of Birmingham) where the George Cadbury Lectures are held. Edward Cadbury was instrumental in establishing the theology department at the University of Birmingham, where a family member served as Chancellor. Edward also donated Saint Francis Hall to the University, which houses the Chaplaincy. Charitable foundations include the Edward Cadbury Charitable Trust (founded by Edward, George's son) and the Barrow Cadbury Trust, established by Richard's son. George's grandson, Sir Adrian Cadbury, is recognized internationally as a leader in the field of reforming corporate governance.


George Cadbury

Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: George Cadbury

Home > Library > Miscellaneous > Britannica Concise Encyclopedia

(born Sept. 19, 1839, Birmingham, Warwickshire, Eng. — died Oct. 24, 1922, Birmingham) British businessman and social reformer. In 1861 he and his brother Richard took over their father's failing business and built it into the highly prosperous Cadbury Brothers cocoa- and chocolate-manufacturing firm. They improved working conditions and introduced a private social security program for employees. George was also noted for his successful experiments in housing and town planning in Bournville, where he built affordable working-class homes with large gardens. For more information on George Cadbury, visit

Read more:

George Cadbury, the son of John Cadbury, a tea and coffee dealer, was born in Edgbaston, Birmingham in 1839. The Cadbury family were members of the Society of Friends and sent George to the local Quaker school. George's mother, Candia Cadbury, who was an active supporter of the Temperance Society died in 1855. John Cadbury's health was also poor so George's education came to an end and he joined family business.

At the age of twenty-two, George and his elder brother, Richard, assumed control of the company. Five years later Cadburys became the first company in Britain to sell cocoa. The cocoa beans were roasted, winnowed, ground and then mixed with sugar to make chocolate powder. Customers added hot water or milk to the powder to make a popular drink.

Despite the demands of running a large company, George Cadbury was committed to spending time helping those less privileged than himself. Cadbury often said: "We can do nothing of any value to God, except in acts of genuine helpfulness done to our fellow men.". Every Sunday morning Cadbury taught classes at the Birmingham Adult School. Although organised by Quakers, the school was non-sectarian and encouraged students to take part in the activities of their own churches.

In 1879 the company premises were no longer large enough for the rapidly expanded business. A new 15 acre site four miles outside of Birmingham was chosen for the new factory. The factory was named Bournville after the name of the small stream that ran through the site. Bournville was an attractive area and it became known as the "factory in a garden".

At first Cadbury built 24 houses for their key workers at Bournville. Later Cadbury built another 300 houses to form Bournville Village. These houses were superior to working class homes of that time, with larger rooms and generous sized gardens. Another innovation was to group the houses around cul-de-sacs or gardens. A school, hospital, reading rooms and wash-houses were also built for the people in the village.

Cadbury Brothers already had a reputation as a good employer, having introduced Saturday half days and Bank Holiday closing. At Bournville Cadbury introduced a wide variety of sporting and recreational facilities. There was a kitchen for heating up food and later a works canteen was added. The company also provided medical and dental treatment.

Cadbury Brothers made their first milk chocolate in 1897. At first it was similar to the chocolate being imported from Switzerland but later the company started using fresh full cream milk to make a lighter coloured chocolate. Called Cadbury's Dairy Milk, it soon became Britain's best selling chocolate bar.

Cadbury was a strong supporter of William Gladstone and represented the Liberal Party on both Birmingham Town Council and Worcestershire County Council. In 1901 he purchased the Daily News and used it to campaign for old age pensions and against sweated labour. As a pacifist, Cadbury was also a strong opponent of the Boer War.

In the grounds of his home, Northfield Manor, Cadbury arranged for the construction of a building that could seat 700 people. Every year during the summer months, Cadbury provided food and entertainment for about 25,000 children from the deprived areas of Birmingham. In 1906 George Cadbury paid £60,000 into a pension fund for his employees.

Cadbury continued to work at the Birmingham Adult School every Sunday morning. It was estimated that over a fifty year period he taught over 4,000 students. Twice a year he organised reunions at Northfield Manor that were attended by around 1,000 people.

Cadbury opposed Britain's involvement in the First World War and disillusioned with the way the Liberal Government behaved in 1914 switched his financial support to the ant-war Independent Labour Party. Cadbury joined with E.D. Morel, Ramsay MacDonald, Arthur Ponsonby, Arthur Rowntree and other critics of the government's foreign policy to form the Union of Democratic Control (UDC). Over the next couple of years the UDC became the leading anti-war organisation in Britain.

George Cadbury died at Northfield Manor on 24th October, 1922.

George Cadbury Quotes


But if each man could have his own house, a large garden to cultivate and healthy surroundings - then, I thought, there will be for them a better opportunity of a happy family life. George Cadbury

Cadbury: The legacy in Birmingham Bournville village was built by the Cadbury family along with the factory Cadbury chocolate is renowned worldwide, but the Cadbury legacy is more than just a chocolate factory.

The Cadbury family, with their Quaker beliefs that - all human beings should be treated equally and should live in peace, believed in social responsibility and social reform.

They improved working and social conditions for their employees and the community.

This was made possible by the success of their business.

The Cadbury story began in 1824 when John Cadbury, a young Quaker, opened a shop in Birmingham. He sold coffee, tea, drinking chocolate and cocoa amongst other things.

John believed alcohol was a main cause of poverty and hoped his products would serve as an alternative.

He started manufacturing on a commercial scale in 1831 and his brother Benjamin joined the company in the 1840s to form Cadbury Brothers.

Royal approval

Cadbury 1824 John Cadbury opened a shop 1854 Royal warrant issued 1861 George and Richard took over the business 1879 Bournville factory opened 1918 Cadbury opened first overseas factory in Tasmania 1919 Cadbury merged with J.S. Fry & Sons Limited 1969 Cadbury merged with Schweppes 2008 Cadbury Schweppes split The brothers opened an office in London and received a Royal Warrant as manufacturers of chocolate and cocoa to Queen Victoria in 1854.

John's sons George and Richard took over the business in 1861 and set about expanding it.

Richard looked after sales and marketing and George took care of production and buying.

In the late 1870s the growing business needed a larger site, so they purchased land 4 miles out of Birmingham. This was in the countryside at the time.

George Cadbury's vision

A new factory, planned by George, was built on the site, and the area became known as Bournville, after the small stream that runs through the site.

George Cadbury believed human beings should be treated equally George was driven by a passion for social reform and wanted to provide good quality low cost homes for his workers in a healthy environment - giving an alternative to grimy city life. So he set about building a village where his workers could live.

George said of his plans: "If each man could have his own house, a large garden to cultivate and healthy surroundings - then, I thought, there will be for them a better opportunity of a happy family life."

His aim was that one-tenth of the Bournville estate should be "laid out and used as parks, recreation grounds and open space."

The brothers set new standards for working and living conditions in Victorian Britain and the Cadbury plant in Bournville became known as "the factory in a garden".

Building a legacy

Richard died unexpectedly in March 1899 of diphtheria whilst in Jerusalem. George continued to provided better working conditions for employees, setting up workers committees and providing facilities.

Over the years George invested a lot of his money in businesses which placed a high priority on the welfare of the workers and despite running a large company he also dedicated a lot of time to helping those less privileged in his local community.

George gave the Bournville estate to the Bournville Village Trust in 1901. The trust was founded, to administer and develop the village and its surroundings.

George Cadbury gave the estate to the Bournville Village Trust in 1901 One of George Cadbury's former homes, Woodbrooke, a Georgian style mansion built by Josiah Mason, has retained a Quaker connection and is Europe's only Quaker Study Centre. Since 1903 it has provided education for people from around the world.

George's second wife Elizabeth, was also heavily involved in philanthropy. Together they opened Woodlands Hospital in Northfield and built The Beeches, where children from the city slums could holiday.

George also donated the Lickey Hills Country Park to the people of Birmingham.

He was one of the founders of The Birmingham Civic Society in 1918 and died at his home, Manor House, Northfield, in 1922.

Subsequent generations of the Cabury family also took on the responsibility of their workers, from ensuring pensions were set up to founding colleges in the local community.

The Cadbury family still has close ties with the area, though it has not owned the company since the 1960s. less

George Cadbury’s Story

Short Version

George Cadbury loved cricket, football, golf, hockey and tennis and he also loved God. He wanted to make his chocolate factory honour the teachings of the Bible. He had a great love for all the men and women who worked for him. He built them houses with gardens and paid them good wages. He built them a swimming pool, cricket pitches and provided free dental and medical care. His work can teach us about the kingdom of God.

Longer Version

What’s the worst job you’ve ever had? It can’t be as bad as being a miner working in total darkness for 15 hours a day. Can you imagine working in a factory where the work is incredibly hard and boring and you are paid almost nothing? Tragically this was the lot of many poor people in 19th century Britain.

Let’s explore the life of a Christian who cared passionately about the misery that awful work can bring to men, women and children.

George Cadbury was born in Edgbaston near Birmingham in 1839. His father, John Cadbury was a tea and coffee dealer. The Cadbury family were members of the Society of Friends and they sent George to the local Quaker School. His childhood was spent in a loving and deeply religious family.

At the age of 22 George and his elder brother, Richard took over the family business and in 1873 they stopped selling tea and coffee and concentrated on chocolate. Their name is now a byword for excellent confectionary that many of us consume on a weekly/daily basis.

As Christians both men believed strongly that the happiness and well-being of their employees was one of the chief aims of the business. They were profit-sensitive without being profit-driven. They were quite happy to make an honest ‘coin’ but not at their employees’ expense.

Both of the Cadbury boys loved sport. George loved football, cricket, tennis, swimming and golf. George admitted late in life that the first thing he turned to in his daily paper was the cricket news. He was also keen on early morning cold baths!

What was it like to work in the Cadbury chocolate factory? Well each day began with Bible readings and prayers for all! The working day was considerably shorter than many other factories of the time. George introduced half-days on Saturdays and bank holiday closing.

In 1893, when the premises became too small, George decided to build a factory in the country. They called this new site “Bournville”. On this site the brothers provided football and cricket fields, a huge playground for children, swings and even an open air swimming pool! Utterly unheard of at the time!

Employees were encouraged to have fun and the sporting and recreational facilities were fantastic. Sometimes Cadbury would tell his employees to knock off early and everyone would enjoy playing and watching a cracking game of cricket. On one occasion the brothers took all eleven wickets in a match. George once bought his employees a bicycle of the bone-shaker type, which they used to learn to ride on during the lunch-break.

Inside the factory there were warm cloakrooms for drying wet clothes and kitchen facilities for cooking food. The brothers also built superb houses for their employees. Every house had a spacious garden for growing vegetables. Fruit trees were planted and the garden dug over before each new owner moved in. Trees were planted along the wide roads. Imagine moving from a rat-infested slum dwelling to a wonderful garden estate! You would probably shout – “The kingdom of God is here!”

Later George built schools and a shopping area for his employees. Cadbury campaigned for old-age pensions and fought against grim ‘sweated’ labour. He even paid £60,000 of his own money into pension funds for his employees!

On his estate he had a special building constructed and each year thousands of deprived children found in the spacious grounds every delight that could appeal to them – swings and cricket, races and games and above all the open-air swimming pool.

When George died in 1922 , his funeral was attended by over 16,000 people.

What can we learn from the life of George Cadbury?

When we reflect deeply about the life of George Cadbury we can learn a great deal about the kingdom of God. God wants all people to enjoy meaningful work which makes them smile and chuckle. We know from the Bible that God hates oppression, injustice and slavery. God loves to watch grown-ups and children having fun and enjoying his rich creation. That is why He created us in the beginning.

The teaching of Jesus is filled with God’s commandments. Love God and love your neighbour. George Cadbury responded in an imaginative way to the gospel message. He manufactured first-rate confectionary to the glory of God. His employees could hear and see the biblical message.

By way of contrast we must remember that many 19th century factory owners did not love their employees in the Cadbury fashion. Often they treated their workers as if they were slaves and instruments. They exploited and destroyed the lives of poor people who are made in God’s image. Many of these people worshipped the false god – Mammon. Sadly this worship of money is alive and popular today. Liverpool legend Robbie Fowler puts it like this:

“That’s the problem with football, it’s ruthless, and so are the people involved in it…..You are a commodity and you can be treated in the most awful way if they think it can help them in the slightest way.”

The King of kings Jesus Christ is extremely unhappy with both factories and football clubs that treat vulnerable people with such cruelty and disdain. From a Christian point of view it’s bang out of order!

ID: I185519 Name: George Cadbury Sex: M Birth: 19 SEP 1839 in Birmingham, Warwick, England Death: 24 OCT 1922 in Birmingham, Warwick, England Note: Household Record 1881 British Census

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-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Household:

Name Relation Marital Status Gender Age Birthplace Occupation Disability George CADBURY Head M Male 41 Edgbaston, Warwick, England Cocoa Manfr Maria CADBURY Wife M Female 32 Stamford Hill, Middlesex, England Edward CADBURY Son Male 8 Edgbaston, Warwick, Engla George CADBURY Son Male 2 Edgbaston, Warwick, Engla Ellen HYDE Serv W Female 47 Cam, Gloucester, England Cook Ellen BRANT Serv U Female 19 Pershore, Worcester, England Housemaid

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Source Information: Dwelling 32 George Road Census Place Edgbaston, Warwick, England Family History Library Film 1341707 Public Records Office Reference RG11 Piece / Folio 2956 / 75 Page Number 12

Ancestry Hints for George Cadbury

   10 possible matches found on  

Father: John Cadbury b: 12 AUG 1801 in Birmingham, Warwick, England Mother: Candia Barrow b: 8 APR 1805 in Lancaster, Lancaster, England

Marriage 1 Mary Tylor b: MAR 1849 in Middlesex, Stamford Hill, London, England Married: 14 MAR 1872 in London. England Children

Edward Cadbury b: 1872 in Edgbaston, Birmingham, Warwick, England
George Cadbury b: 1878 in Edgbaston, Birmingham, Warwick, England
Mary Isabel Cadbury b: 5 APR 1884 in Birmingham, Warwickshire, , , England

Marriage 2 Elizabeth Mary Taylor b: 24 JUN 1858 in Peckham Rye, London, England Married: 19 JUN 1888 in Peckham Rye, London, England

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Sir George Cadbury's Timeline

September 19, 1839
Edgbaston, Birmingham,, England.
Age 38
April 5, 1884
Age 44
Birmingham,, Warwickshire, , , , England
Age 45
Age 50
Age 52
Age 53
Age 54