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About John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
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John of Gaunt (Ghent), 1st Duke of Lancaster, KG
Successor: Henry IV Bolingbroke, King of England (2nd Duke of Lancaster and of Aquitaine)
Blanche of Lancaster
m. 1359; dec. 1369
Infanta Constance of Castile
m. 1371; dec. 1394
m. 1396; wid. 1399
Philippa, Queen of Portugal
Elizabeth, Duchess of Exeter
Henry IV Bolingbroke, King of England
Catherine, Queen of Castile
John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset
Cardinal Henry Beaufort
Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter
Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland
House House of Plantagenet (by birth)
House of Lancaster (founder)
Father Edward III of Windsor, King of England
Mother Philippa of Hainault
Born 6 March 1340(1340-03-06)
Died 3 February 1399 (aged 58)
Leicester Castle, Leicestershire
Burial St Paul's Cathedral, City of London
"John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, KG (6 March 1340 – 3 February 1399) was a member of the House of Plantagenet, the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was called "John of Gaunt" because he was born in Ghent, then rendered in English as Gaunt. When he became unpopular later in life, scurrilous rumours and lampoons circulated that he was actually the son of a Ghent butcher, perhaps because Edward III was not present at the birth. This story always drove him to fury. As a younger brother of Edward, Prince of Wales (Edward, the Black Prince), John exercised great influence over the English throne during the minority of his nephew, Richard II, and during the ensuing periods of political strife, but was not thought to have been among the opponents of the king.
John of Gaunt's legitimate male heirs, the Lancasters, included Kings Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI. His other legitimate descendants included, by his first wife, Blanche, his daughters Queen Philippa of Portugal and Elizabeth, Duchess of Exeter; and by his second wife, Constance, his daughter Queen Catherine of Castile. John fathered five children outside marriage, one early in life by a lady-in-waiting to his mother, and four surnamed "Beaufort" (after a former French possession of the Duke) by Katherine Swynford, Gaunt's long-term mistress and third wife. The Beaufort children, three sons and a daughter, were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married in 1396; a later proviso that they were specifically barred from inheriting the throne, the phrase excepta regali dignitate (English: except royal status), was inserted with dubious authority by their half-brother Henry IV. Descendants of this marriage included Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester and eventually Cardinal; Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland, grandmother of Kings Edward IV and Richard III; John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, the grandfather of Margret Beaufort, the mother of King Henry VII; and Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scots, from whom are descended, beginning in 1437, all subsequent sovereigns of Scotland, and successively, from 1603 on, the sovereigns of England, of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the United Kingdom to the present day. The three succeeding houses of English sovereigns from 1399—the Houses of Lancaster, York and Tudor—were descended from John through Henry Bolingbroke, Joan Beaufort and John Beaufort, respectively.
Lancaster's eldest son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford, was exiled for ten years by King Richard II in 1398 as resolution to a dispute between Hereford and Thomas de Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk. When John of Gaunt died in 1399, his estates and titles were declared forfeit to the crown as King Richard II named Hereford a traitor and commuted his sentence to exile for life.
Henry Bolingbroke returned from exile to reclaim his inheritance and depose Richard. Bolingbroke then reigned as King Henry IV of England (1399–1413), the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the throne of England. Due to some generous land grants, John was not only one of the richest men in his era, but also one of the wealthiest men to have ever lived. Taking into account inflation rates, John was worth a modern equivalent of $110 billion, making him the sixteenth richest man in history"
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http://www.mathematical.com/gauntjohn1340.htm (which gives his baptism date as his birth date)
Citations / Sources:
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John of Gaunt Memorial
Birth: Mar. 6, 1340 Ghent Arrondissement Gent East Flanders (Oost-Vlaanderen), Belgium Death: Feb. 3, 1399 Leicester Leicester Unitary Authority Leicestershire, England
English Royalty. 1st Duke of Lancaster. Born the fourth son of Edward III Plantagenet and Queen Philippa of Hainault, at Ghent (or Gaunt) in Flanders. He was made Earl of Richmond in September 1342. He married Blanche, Countess of Derby in May 1359, with whom he had seven children, including the future Henry IV. After his marriage, he was styled as Earl of Derby and of Leicester. He was appointed Knight, Order of the Garter (K.G.) in April 1361. He gained the title of Duke of Lancaster in November 1362 . After the death of his wife in 1369, the ambitious Duke married Costanza, the daughter of Pedro I, King of Léon and Castilla in 1372, with whom he had two children. After his marriage, he was styled as King John of Léon and Castilla. He took Katherine Swynford as his mistress about the same time, and with her had four children, who were given the surname Beaufort. He campaigned with his elder brother, Edward of Woodstock, and took part in the conflicts of the Hundred Years War. After the death of his brother in 1376, he was in the ascendancy at court, however, favor coincided with widespread resentment of his influence among the English population. When his father died in 1377, and was succeeded by Edward's 10 year old son, John became the protector of the young king and effectively ruled England during his minority. His decisions on taxation however, culminated in the Peasants' Revolt in 1381. In 1386, he left England in an unsuccessful attempt to claim the Castilian throne. Upon his return to England in 1389, he served as mediator between the king and the Lords Appellant who had been on the brink of violence. In March 1390, Richard II invested John as Duke of Aquitaine. Costanza died at Leicester Castle in March 1394, and John married his mistress, Katherine, in 1396 at Lincoln Cathedral. The couple's children were legitimized by Richard II and the Church, but barred from inheriting the throne. He died at Leicester Castle three years later at the age of fifty-eight, he was buried beside his first wife in the choir of St Paul's Cathedral. (bio by: Iola)
Parents: Edward III (1312 - 1377) Philippa d'Avesnes of Hainault (1311 - 1369) Spouses: Blanche of Lancaster (1345 - 1369) Katherine Roet Swynford (1350 - 1403) Constance of Castile (1354 - 1394)* Children: Philippa of Lancaster (1360 - 1415)* Elizabeth Lancaster (1363 - 1425)* Henry IV (1367 - 1413)* John de Beaufort (1371 - 1410)* Catherine Plantagenet Of Lancaster (1373 - 1418)* Henry Beaufort (1374 - 1447)* Joan Beaufort Neville (1375 - 1440)* Thomas de Beaufort (1377 - 1426)* Siblings: Joan Perrers Skerne (____ - 1431)** Edward Plantagenet (1330 - 1376)* Isabel Plantagenet de Coucy (1332 - 1379)* Joan Plantagenet (1334 - 1348)* Prince William Of Hatfield (1337 - 1337)* Lionel Plantagenet (1338 - 1368)* John of Gaunt (1340 - 1399) Edmund of Langley (1341 - 1402)* Blanche de la Tour (1342 - 1342)* Mary de Waltham (1344 - 1362)* Princess Margaret Plantagenet Hastings (1346 - 1361)* William de Windsor (1348 - 1348)* Prince Thomas Woodstock Plantagenet (1355 - 1397)*
- Calculated relationship
Burial: Saint Paul's Cathedral London City of London Greater London, England Plot: Nave
Maintained by: Find A Grave Originally Created by: Danette Percifield Cogsw... Record added: Jul 16, 2008 Find A Grave Memorial# 28331470
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster's Timeline
March 6, 1340
St. Bavon's Abbey, Ghent, Belgium
Castle of Gravesteen.
June 24, 1340
Hainaut, Walloon Region, Belgium
March 31, 1360
Leicester, Leicester, England
England, Leicestershire, , England