Malmfrid Mstislawna Kijewskaja, Princess of Kiev

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Malmfrid Mstislawna Kijewskaja, Princess of Kiev

Russian: Мальмфрида Мстиславна, Princess of Kiev, Norwegian: Dronning Malmfrid Mstislawna of Kiev, Princess of Kiev
Also Known As: "Malmfrid Mstislavsdatter", "Мальмфрида Мстиславна", "Malmfred of Kiev", "Malmfrid Haraldsdatter", "Malmfrid Mstislavich", "Malmfrid", "Mstislawna", "Mstislavsdatter"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Kiev, Ukraina (Ukraine)
Death: 1137 (27-36)
Danmark (Denmark)
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Grand Prince of Kiev Mstislav Vladimirovich and Princess Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden
Wife of Kong Erik "Emune" Estridsøn af Danmark, II and Sigurd I Magnusson "the Crusader" Jorsalfare, King of Norway
Mother of Prinsesse av Norge Kristin Sigurdsdatter
Sister of Izyaslav II Mstislavich, Grand Duke of Kiev; Kseniya Princess of Kiev; Vsevolod Mstislavich - Всеволод Мстиславич; Ingeborg of Kiev; Maria Agaphia of Kiev and 4 others
Half sister of Euphrosyne of Kiev

Occupation: Russian princess, Norwegian and Danish queen consort, Dronning av Norge, Prinsesse, Dronning: Danmark 1132 - 1137, Prinsesse af Kiev, Dronning af Danmark og Norge, Dronning av Kiev
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About Malmfrid Mstislawna Kijewskaja, Princess of Kiev

Malmfrid Mstislawna Kijewskaja, Princess of Kiev

  • Daughter of Grand Prince of Kiev Mstislav Vladimirovich and Princess Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden
  • Princess of Kiev
  • Malmfrid Mstislavsdatter (born about 1105, died after 1137 ) was queen of Norway and (from about 1132) queen of Denmark

Project MedLands Norway Kings

King Magnus III had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):

  • 3. SIGURD ([1089/90]-Oslo 14 Aug 1130, bur Hallvardskyrka, Oslo). Snorre names Sigurd as son of King Magnus, when recording that his father installed as chief over the Orkney islands after expelling earls Paul and Erlend[395]. In a later passage, Snorre records that he was the son of Thora, and a year younger than his half-brother Eystein[396]. He succeeded his father in 1103 as SIGURD "Jorsalafare/the Crusader" Joint King of Norway jointly with his half-brothers Eystein I and Olav IV. Morkinskinna records that Sigurd “ruled the eastern part of the country and was entitled to official entertainment and revenue” after his father died[397]. Snorre records that his sons Eystein, Sigurd and Olav took the kingdom of Norway after their father's death, recording that Sigurd was 13 or 14 years old when he was chosen king[398]. Albert of Aix records that "frater regis de Nortwega, Magnus" arrived at the port of Ascalon and, in a later passage, that he helped besiege Sidon by sea[399]. Assuming that the reference to Norway is correct, "Magnus" is presumably an error for "Sigurd". Snorre recounts his journeys to Spain, Sicily, Jerusalem and Constantinople, stating that he was 20 years old when he returned to Norway and had been three years on his travels[400]. He died insane. Snorre records that King Sigurd suffered from delusions[401]. Snorre records the death of King Sigurd "the night before Mary's mass" and his burial "in Halvard's church"[402]. Morkinskinna records that King Sigurd was forty years old when he died[403]. Betrothed (1102) BIADMUNIA [Blathmin], daughter of MUIRCHERTACH MacTordelbach High King of Ireland & his wife --- ([1094/97]-). Snorre records that King Magnus "contracted in marriage his son Sigurd to Biadmynia, King Myrkjartan's daughter"[404]. Orkneyinga Saga records that Magnus "Barelegs" King of Norway “arranged the betrothal of Bjadmunja, daughter of King Myrkjartan of Connaught to his son Sigurd”, adding that she was five at the time and his son nine[405]. Snorre records that Sigurd left "the Irish king's daughter behind" when he left for Norway following his father's death[406]. According to Morkinskinna, King Magnus arranged the marriage of “his son Sigurdr” to “Malcolm king of the Scots…his daughter” when in Orkney[407]. This clearly refers to the same person as Biadmunia as Morkinskinna adds that the ages of the children as five and nine, as recorded in Orkneyinga Saga. However, the suggestion that her father was King Malcolm is clearly anachronistic in view of the king´s death in 1093. Morkinskinna records that Sigurd “left the daughter of King Malcolm of the Scots behind in the west and did not wish to be married to her” after his father died[408]. married firstly (divorced 1128) as her first husband, MALMFRID Mstislavna, daughter of MSTISLAV I "the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife Christine of Sweden (-after 1137). Snorre records the marriage of King Sigurd and "Malmfrid, a daughter of King Harald Valdemarson, eastward in Novgorod"[409]. Fagrskinna names “Málfridr ok Ingibjörg” as daughters of “Harald konungr” & his wife “Kristinar, dóttur Inga konungs Steinkelssunar”, adding that Malmfrida married “Sigurdr konungr Jórsalafari” and secondly “Eirikr eimuni Danakonungr Eirikssunr”[410]. Morkinskinna records that Sigurd married “Malmfrídr, the daughter of Haraldr Valdimarsson from the east in Kiev…[and] Kristín, the daughter of King Ingi Steinkelsson king of the Swedes”[411]. Snorre records that King Sigurd divorced her[412]. She married secondly ([1130]) Erik Eriksson of Denmark, who succeeded in 1134 as Erik II "Emun" King of Denmark. Baumgarten records her second marriage but only cites one secondary source in support[413]. married secondly ([1128]) CECILIA, daughter of ---. Snorre records the marriage of King Sigurd and "Cecilia, who was a great man's daughter", overruling the objections of the bishops of Bergen and Stavanger[414]. Mistress (1): BORGHILD Olavsdatter, daughter of ---. Snorre names Borghild as the daughter of a "rich bonde called Olaf of D|al who dwelt in Great Dal in Aumord", recording that she had "conversations and intimacy with King Eystein" but that King Sigurd made her his concubine[415]. Morkinskinna names “Borghildr, the daughter of Óláfr of Dalr” as King Sigurd´s concubine[416].

King Sigurd & his first wife MALMFRID Mstislavna had one child

  • a) KRISTIN Sigurdsdatter ([1125]-1178). Snorre names "Christina, a daughter of King Sigurd the Crusader and Queen Malmfrid" as the wife of Erling[417]. Morkinskinna names “Kristín” as the daughter of “King Sigurdr jórsalafari and Queen Malmfrídr”[418]. This is confirmed by the Saga of King Sverre which records the marriage of "Ragnhild daughter of Earl Erling and Kristin Kings-daughter" and "Halkel son of Jon Hallkelsson"[419]. [She may have been the Mistress: of SIGURD Haraldsson Mund joint King of Norway, son of HARALD "Gille" King of Norway & his mistress Thora Guttormsdatter (-murdered 10 Jun 1155). Snorre names "Harald…who called himself a son of King Sigurd Haraldson and the princess Kristin, and a brother of King Magnus by the mother's side", when recording that he was captured by Nikolas "Kufung" who brought him to Bergen "into Earl Erling's hands", who ordered him to be taken to Nordnes where he was beheaded[420].] married (1155) ERLING Ormsen "Skakke/the Sharp" of Studla in South Hordaland, son of ORM Sveinsson & his wife Ragnhild Sveinkesdatter (-killed in battle near Nidaros [Trondheim] 18 or 19 Jun 1179, bur Trondheim Cathedral). Left for Palestine 1151 with Kali-Ragnvald Jarl of Orkney. Regent of Norway 1162 for his son King Magnus V. Jarl in Norway 1170. He was killed in battle against King Sverre.

King Sigurd had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): BORGHILD Olavsdatter

  • b) MAGNUS Sigurdsson ([1115]-murdered Holmengrå, Svinesund 12 Nov 1139, bur Oslo, Halvards Church). Snorre records the birth of Magnus son of King Sigurd and Borghild, stating that he "was sent immediately to Halogaland to be fostered at Bjarkey by Vidkun Jonson"[421]. Morkinskinna names “Magnus” as the son of King Sigurd and his concubine “Borghildr, the daughter of Óláfr of Dalr”, adding that he was “raised in his youth north on Bjarkey with Vidkunnr Jónsson”[422]. He succeeded his father in 1130 as MAGNUS "Blinde/the Blind" King of Norway, deposed 1135. Snorre records that Magnus was proclaimed king on the death of his father, commenting that he was "a great drinker, greedy of money, hard and obstinate", but that he was opposed by Harald "Gille" although an agreement was reached 3 Oct 1130 to divide the country between them[423]. Snorre records that King Magnus was taken prisoner by King Harald's forces, who later blinded him, cut off one of his feet and castrated him[424]. In a later passage, he recounts that Magnus "went north to Nidaros…went into the cloister on the holm and assumed the monk's dress"[425]. Snorre records that Sigurd "Slembidjakn", after murdering King Harald, took ex-king Magnus from his monastery "to make his cause appear better" but that, after his forces were defeated, Magnus fled "eastward to Gautland and then to Denmark" where he was well received by King Erik "Emun" who agreed to invade Norway[426]. Snorre describes how ex-king Magnus was killed at Hvalar, near Holm the Grey, the day after Martinmas[427]. married (1133, repudiated 1133) KIRSTIN Knudsdatter of Denmark, daughter of KNUT "Lavard" Duke of South Jutland/Sønderjylland [Schleswig] and King of the Obotriten & his wife Ingeborg Mstislavna of Kiev ([1118]-). Snorre refers to the wife of King Magnus as "a daughter of Knut Lavard…sister of the Danish King Valdemar" and records that her husband sent her back to Denmark[428]. Morkinskinna records that King Magnus married “Kirstín, the daughter of Knút lávardr and the sister of the Danish king Váldimarr” but adds that he sent her back to Denmark[429].

Queen Malmfrid

By The NORWEGIAN BIOGRAPHICAL LEXICON

Queen. Parents: Russian great ruler Mstislav (Harald) (1075–1132) and Queen Kristina (dead 1122). Married 1) no earlier than 1116 to King Sigurd 1 Magnusson Jorsalfare (1089–1130); 2) approx. 1132 with Danish King Erik Emune (dead 1137), son of King Erik Ejegod (dead 1103). Sister-in-law of Margrete Fredkolla (c. 1085 – c. 1135); mother of Kristin Sigurdsdatter (c. 1125–1178); grandmother of Magnus 5 Erlingsson (1156–84); aunt to Kristin Knutsdatter (mentioned 1131–41).

Malmfrid was first Norwegian and later Danish queen. Her aunt and predecessor as a Norwegian queen, Margrete Fredkolla, had been the same. This shows how closely the Scandinavian royal houses were.

These kinship connections can also be seen in a wider Northern European perspective: Not only did Malmfrid have Swedish mother and Russian father; her father, Mstislav, had an English mother (daughter of King Harald Godvinsson). Mstislav's paternal grandfather, the great prince Jaroslav, had been married to Ingegerd, daughter of the then Swedish king; she was the sister of Olav the Queen of the Saints, Astrid. Jaroslav and Ingegerd had their daughter Ellisiv, who was married to Harald Hardråde. This means that for generations there had been close connections between all the Northern European royal houses - while at the same time becoming particularly extensive in the first half of the 12th century.

We do not know what year Sigurd Jorsalfare and Malmfrid got married, but it must have been sometime between 1116 and 1120. It is a fair guess that Margrete Fredkolla, Malmfrid's aunt, helped to make the marriage come to an end. She played a pivotal role in Danish and international Nordic dynasty politics at this time and used the marital relations as an instrument of political stabilization.

The Norwegian-Icelandic royal sagas tell almost nothing about Malmfrid's stay in Norway. She and King Sigurd had their daughter Kristin, but no sons. Kristin was later married to the countryman Erling Skakke and the mother of King Magnus Erlingsson. Towards the end of his life, according to Morkinskinna, Sigurd must have undergone - under ecclesiastical opposition - a morganatic marriage to a certain Cecilia, who is said to have been from Viken or Western Norway. There is nothing about how Malmfrid reacted to this. But neither the author of Fagrskinna nor Snorre have mentioned this episode - probably because they did not trust it.

After King Sigurd's death, Malmfrid married Erik Emune, son of the former Danish king Erik Ejegod. The marriage was probably entered into in 1132. Erik Emune was the brother of Knud Lavard, who had been killed in 1131. Knud had been married to Malmfrid's sister Ingeborg. Erik joined the Danish throne war and was Danish king from 1134 until he was killed in 1137. For three years, Malmfrid was thus Danish queen. After that, we no longer hear about her.

Wikipedia English Norsk Dansk

Sources

  • Nils Petter Thuesen (1991). The queens of Norway for a thousand years, Oslo: Time Norwegian Publishing House. pp. 29-30. ISBN 82-10034-58-8.
  • HKR.
  • NFH, vol. 2
  • H. Koht: biography in NBL1, vol. 9, 1940
  • Dansk Biografisk Leksikon og Malmfrid Mstislavlsdatter
  • Erik Ejegod (c. 1055 in Slangerup - July 10, 1103 in Paphos, Cyprus) was king of Denmark 1095-1103.
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