Mohammad Khodabandeh Oljeitu Nikolah

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Oljeitu Nikolah Mohammad Khodabandeh Ilkhan

Persian: سلطان محمد خدابنده اولجایتو, Russian: Харбандэ
Also Known As: "Ghurbati - Urab Ti", "kharbande | asinaio | khodabande | schiavo di Dio | Khodabande"
Birthdate:
Death: December 16, 1316 (35-36)
Soltaniyeh, Iran
Immediate Family:

Son of Arghun Khan (Arghavan) (Muhammad) Khan and Uruk Khatun
Husband of Buluqan Khatun Khorasani, Ghazan's and Oljaitu's wife; Terjughan Khatun; Despina Palaiologos and Qutlug Shah Khatoun (Hajji Khatun) of the Oirat
Father of Bistam son of Oljaitu; Sati Beg b.1300-d.1345 SATI (Ilkhan) t.1338-1339; Abu Said Khan Bahadur r.1316-1335) Ilkhan - succeeded by Arpa Kaun and Dowlandi Khatun daughter of Oljeitu (Khodabandeh)
Brother of Shaotsu Khan
Half brother of Delanji; Baghdad Khatun (Arghun Khan's daughter) of the Ilkhanate; Öljetey Khatun Ara daughter of Arghun Khan; Ghazan - Sultan Mahmoud Ghazan succeeded by Mohammad Khodabande Uljeitu; Ysa and 1 other

Occupation: 8th Ilkhan 1303 - 1316
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Mohammad Khodabandeh Oljeitu Nikolah

https://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%DA%86%D8%B1%DA%AF%D8%B1

8th Ilkhan

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Öljaitü had six sons:

Bastam (1297 - 1309) - with Eltuzmish Khatun; Bayazid (1300 - 1308) - with Eltuzmish Khatun; Tayghur - with Eltuzmish Khatun; Sulayman Shah - with Adil Shah Khatun; Abu'l Khayr - with Oljatai Khatun; Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan - with Hajji Khatun; Öljaitü also allegedly had an additional son, Ilchi who was claimed as an ancestor of the Arghun and Tarkhan dynasties of Afghanistan and India

Öljaitü had three daughters:

Dowlandi Khatun (died 1314) - with Terjughan Khatun, married on 30 September 1305 to Amir Chupan; Sati Beg Khatun - with Eltuzmish Khatun, married firstly on 6 September 1319 to Amir Chupan, married secondly in 1336 to Arpa Ke'un, married thirdly in 1339 to Suleiman Khan; Sultan Khatun - with Qutlugh Shah Khatun;

His capital is moved from Tabriz to Soltanieh

Oljaitu is also known as Ghurbati Urab Ti

Oljaitu Khan was initially baptized as a Christian, named Nicholas after Pope Nicholas IV [ Nicholas IV died in Rome on 4 April 1292 ] . However, like most Mongols, he seems to have had quite lax attitudes towards religion, later believing in Buddhism, before converting to Islam. Even in this, he was quite easy going, moving between various sects, including supporting the Shi’ite theologian, Allameh Helli. In continuing the usual Ilkhan policy of invading Syria, Oljaitu sent several embassies to the various Christian kingdoms of western Europe, looking for support. His promises seem to have been real enough to tempt Philip IV of France to want to rise for a new Crusade, although none of these in fact ever came to fruition. He did, however, marry a daughter of Andronikos II of Byzantium and helped him cope with the early rise of the Ottomans to power. The increased connections with Europe, including the several embassies sent, brought enough information about Europe to Iran for Rashid od-Din Fazlollah to compose the first ever Persian work of history which also covered the history of Europe.

Oljaitu died in 1316, leaving the throne to his son, Abu Sa’id Bahador Khan.

"The country was flourishing and the army well organized" ref page 262 The Mongols in Iran

Pendant son regne, commence la dynastie des Injuides [...The Injuids gained control of parts of Persia, mostly Fars, in 1304 at the beginning of the reign of the Ilkhan Öljeitü. The Ilkhan had given Sharaf al-Din Mahmud Shah control of the injü (or inji; the Mongol word for the royal estates). Sharaf al-Din was reportedly descended from 'Abd-Allah Ansari, an 11th-century mystic of Herat. His son, Amir Ghiyas al-Din Kai-Khusrau, assisted another family, the Muzaffarids, in their takeover of Yazd. By 1325 Sharaf al-Din had gained nearly an absolute grip on the region. His power displeased Öljeitü's successor Abu Sa'id, who ordered Sharaf al-Din removed and sent a Sheikh Hussein ibn Juban (Cobin) to replace him. Kai-Khusrau, who ruled Shiraz for his father, resisted; and Sheikh Hussein (Cobin) was forced to return with an Ilkhan army. Also during Abu Sa'id's lifetime, Sharaf al-Din was imprisoned in Tabriz for a failed attempt to murder his successor.]

Enthroned at Aljan 19 Jul 1295 with the title Ghiyas-al-din MUHAMMAD Khudabanda Oljaitu

https://www.academia.edu/788646/_A_Mongol_Princess_Making_Hajj_the_Biography_of_El_Qutlugh_Daughter_of_Abagha_Ilkhan_r._1265-82_Journal_of_Royal_Asiatic_Society_JRAS_21_3_2011_pp._331-359

Öljeitü, Oljeitu, Olcayto or Uljeitu, Öljaitu, Ölziit (Mongolian: ᠦᠯᠵᠡᠢᠲᠦ ᠺᠬᠠᠨ, Өлзийт хаан), also known as Muhammad Khodabandeh (Persian: محمد خدابنده - اولجایتو‎‎, khodābandeh from Persian meaning the "man of God" or "servant of God"; 1280 - December 16, 1316), was the eighth Ilkhanid dynasty ruler in Tabriz, Iran from 1304 to 1316. His name "Ölziit" means "blessed" in the Mongolian language.

He was the son of the Ilkhan ruler Arghun, brother and successor of Mahmud Ghazan (5th successor of Genghis Khan), and great-grandson of the Ilkhanate founder Hulagu.

"Arghun had one of his sons baptized, Khordabandah, the future Oljaitu, and in the Pope's honour, went as far as giving him the name Nicholas", Histoire de l'Empire Mongol, Jean-Paul Roux, p.408

Khodabandeh renforce l'Islam dans tout son territoire. Reconnu souverain par les russes, le Khawrazm (Turkmenistan et Uzbekistan actuels), Belgrade, le Sultanat de Rome, la Syrie du Karakorum, la Sind et l'Iraq.

Noble et pieux, il meurt apres 13 ans de regne. Il a fait construite la ville de Sultaniyeh.la proclame sa capitale et y a sa sepulture.

Ḡāzān’s successor Öljeitü (r. 1304-1316) set out for Baghdad in 1309, on the way visiting the Ayvān-e Madāʾen (the remains of the Sassanian palace at Ctesiphon), where he knelt three times in front of the Ṭāq-e Kesrā. In Baghdad, at the instigation of Saʿd-al-Din Sāvaji, he committed Aṣil-al-Din to be tortured, bringing to an end the influence of the family of Ḵᵛāja Naṣer-al-Din Ṭusi. Öljeitü’s devotional shift from Sunnism to Shiʿism occurred at this time (see Eqbāl, pp. 318-9; Boyle, pp. 401-2).


About Mohammad Khodabandeh Oljeitu Nikolah (Persian)

ماجراي تشيع سلطان محمد خدابنده

ما در سلطان محمد خدابنده مسيحي بود و او را در كودكي غسل تعميد داده و نيكلا ناميد ولي خدابنده پس از مرگ مادر با زني مسلمان ازدواج کرد و همان آن او را مسلمان نمود. خدابنده بر اثر نفوذ علماي حنفي خراسان، شعبه حنفي از مذاهب اربعه تسنن را پذيرفت و رسماً مسلمان شد؛ و نام خليفه اول را بر مسكوكات نقش نموده؛ به تشويق علماي اين شعبه پرداخت.

علاقه اولجايتو به مذهب حنفي به تدريج علماي اين مذهب را در اظهار و بدگوئي به مذاهب ديگر اسلام و آزار پيروان

http://library.tebyan.net/fa/Viewer/Read/69709/

محمد خدابنده الجایتو سومین پسر ارغون خان بود، از طرف مادر نوادهٔ برادر دوقوزخاتون محسوب می‌شد.

س از مرگ غازان‌خان به ایلخانی مغول در ایران رسید. الجایتو نام ایرانی محمد خدابنده را برای خود برگزید. الجایتو پس از رسیدن به فرمان‌روایی، دستور به قتل آلافرنک پسر گیخاتو داد. او پسرش ابوسعید را به فرمان‌روایی خراسان فرستاد. بعد از آن رعایت قانون اسلام و یاسای غازانی را الزام کرد. الجایتو شهر سلطانیه را به وجود آورد (این کار را پپشتر پدرش ارغون آغاز کرده بود) و آن را پایتخت خود قرار داد. او دیلم (گیلان) را که با وجود گذشت پنجاه سال از برقراری ایلخانیان هنوز کاملاً مطیع نشده بود فتح کرد، اما سپاهش در این راه متحمل تلفات زیادی شد.

الجایتو نیز همچون ایلخانان پیشین برای کسب حمایت اروپاییان در برابر مملوکان مصر با پاپ نوشت و خواند داشت اما نتوانست در عمل کمکی از آنان برای جنگ با مصریان دریافت کند، سرانجام در سال ۷۱۲ ه. ق. / ۱۳۱۲ م. به تشویق گروهی از امرای ناراضی سوریه رهسپار موصل شد، از فرات گذشت و در کنار فرات، شهر رحبه‌الشام را به محاصره درآورد اما موفق به فتح آن نشد، اهل شهر در برابر مهاجمان سرسختانه مقاومت کردند و چون مغولان متحمل تلفات سنگین گردیدند و نیز آذوقه آنان تمام شده بود دست از محاصره شهر برداشتند و از طریق فرات مراجعت نمودند و بدین ترتیب تاریخ پنجاه ساله مبارزه مغولان و ممالیک بر سر تصرف سوریه پایان یافت.

شیعه شدن الجایتو که در کودکی با نام مسیحی نیکولا تعمید یافته بود پس از چندی به آیین بودایی درآمد و سرانجام قبول اسلام کرد و پیرو مذهب ابوحنیفه گردید، ظاهراً مناظره زشتی که در حضور ایلخان بین فقهای مذاهب حنفی و شافعی درگرفت در تغییر مذهب الچایتو به شیعه بی‌تاثیر نبوده‌است. نمایندگان این مکاتب فقهی آنچنان اتهامات زشت و ناروایی بر یکدیگر وارد ساختند که الجایتو از هردو رنجیده خاطر گشت.[%DB%B1] پس از مناظره با علامه حلی و نظام‌الدین مراغه‌ای مذهب تشیع را اختیار کرد. الجایتو نخست دستور داد که نام ابوبکر، عمر و عثمان از خطبه‌های نماز جمعه و از سکه‌ها برداشته شود. الجایتو در سن سی و شش سالگی وفات یافت و پیکرش در سلطانیه به خاک سپرده شد.

https://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%DA%86%D8%B1%DA%AF%D8%B1