Moytoy, of Tellico

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Moytoy, of Tellico

Also Known As: "Amatoya", "Trader Carpenter", "Rain or Water Conjuror", "Amoadawehi", "Amahetai", "Head warrior of Tellico of the Overhills", "Trader", "Water Conjurer", ""Trader" Carpenter the 1st Moytoy Chief of Chota", "Rain Maker", "Amo-adawehi", "CHIEF OF TELLICO", "SUPREME CHIEF OF TH..."
Birthdate: (54)
Birthplace: Tellico, Cherokee Nation (current East Tennessee)
Death: 1741 (50-58)
Place of Burial: Nikwasi, Franklin, North Carolina
Immediate Family:

Husband of NN partner of Moytoy
Father of Amouskositte Moytoy, Uku of Great Tellico

Occupation: Headman of Tellico, Chief of all Cherokees 1675, Chief of cherokee nation 1730-1760, Principal chief Wolf Clan
Managed by: Pam Wilson
Last Updated:

About Moytoy, of Tellico

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CURATOR's NOTE: Please read the following update by Kathryn Forbes, a Cherokee genealogical expert:

The ‘Am-a-do-ya Moytoy’ tree [often] starts with a man named Amadoya Moytoy, born about 1647. He is listed with a wife and five children. Looks good, except here’s the catch: Plain and simple, there is no mention in any record of a Cherokee person named or called, “Moytoy” or anything similar, until 1729. As noted above, there aren’t many early records which mention any Cherokee by name, and ‘Moytoy’ doesn’t exist in the ones that do. Not in the account of Needham and Arthur (1674), the first English men to travel to the Cherokee Nation and return to tell about it. Not in the 1684 Treaty with Virginia. Not in the Colonial Records of South Carolina, 1710-1718. Not in the journals of trade commissioner George Chicken’s travels among the Cherokee (1715-16 and 1725). Not in the records associated with the Cherokee treaty and trade agreement with South Carolina of 1721 (which resulted in the naming of a chief named Wrosetasataw as ‘Emperor’ of the Cherokee). Not in the journal of John Herbert (1727-28), South Carolina Commissioner for Indian Affairs. Not in the correspondence of Ludovic Grant, who settled among the Cherokee about 1727.

The first contemporaneous mention of Moytoy is in the “Journal of Sir Alexander Cuming” who travelled in the Cherokee Nation in 1729-30. Cuming wrote on March 29, 1729, “… arrived at Great Telliquo, in the upper Settlements, 200 miles up from Keeakwee. Moytoy the head Warrior here, told him, that the Year before, the Nation design’d to have made him Head over all;” Cuming wrote later, “Moytoy of Telliquo presides at present as Emperor over the whole; he was chose at Nequassie, April 3, 1730, and had an absolute unlimited Power given him…” Cuming hoped to take Moytoy and some other Cherokee back to England with him to demonstrate their loyalty to the English King: “He ask’d Moytoy, if the Indians could travel there [to Charleston] in so short a Time on Foot, who told him that it might be done, and that he [Moytoy] would have waited on him himself, but that his Wife was dangerously ill, and therefore desired Sir Alexander to chuse whom he pleased to attend him.” Attakullakulla, one of the seven Cherokee who went to England with Cuming later recounted the events to the South Carolina Governor (through a translator). “At night Mr Wiggan the Interpreter came to the house where I was, and told me the Warrior {Moytoy] had a particular favour for me, and that if I would Consent to go he would be indifferent whither any other Went; and Mr. Wiggan pressed me very much to accept of his invitation.”

Cuming’s account of the selection of the travelers says, “Sir Alexander chose as Evidence of the Truth of what had happened, the head Warrior of Tassetchee, a Man of great Power and Interest, who has a Right to be King, and is called Oukah Ulah (that is the King that is to be) Skallelockee, the second Warrior, otherwise Kettagustah, (or Prince) Tathtowie, the third Warrior, and Collannah, a fourth Warrior; and from Tannassie, the remotest Town of the Country, he took Clogoittah and Oukanaekah [later known as Attakullakulla] Warriors.” The seventh man met them en route to Charleston and joined the group. There is nothing to suggest in any of these accounts that the men selected were related in any way.

James Adair wrote that he came to the Cherokee in 1736. He did not mention Moytoy by name, but as “their old Archi-magus,” made emperor by Christian Priber. Grant wrote in regard to the English attempt to arrest Christian Priber, “I therefore endeavored to prevail with Moytoy who was then the head of the Nation to Give Orders to some of his people to seize him [Priber] and I promised him a very great present for it. He thanked me and said he would accept of the present…”

Several modern histories suggest [without sources] that Moytoy’s name was actually “Ama-edohi” [Conley, A Cherokee Encyclopedia[ or “Amo-adaw-ehi” [Brown, Old Frontiers], meaning variously “Water-goer,” “Water-walker,” “Water-conjouror,” or “Rainmaker”.

As to Moytoy’s family, we know from his own words that he had a wife, and from other records, at least one son. We are told that Moytoy died in battle in 1741, and “At Moytoy’s death, his son Amo-Scossite (Bad Water) claimed his father’s title.” [Brown, Old Frontiers, p.46] Although the Cherokee refused to accept Amoscossite as ‘Emperor’, he became chief at Tellico and headed delegations including a meeting with Virginia trade representatives in 1756. He [Amoscossite] is believed to have died shortly thereafter, leaving no known descendants.

What about those children in the second generation of the ‘A-ma-do-ya’ tree? One of them is the ‘real’ Moytoy, who died in 1741. Two of them, Tistoe and Oukah-Oula were among the seven men who went to England with Cuming. As noted above, there is nothing to suggest that they were related in any way. They came from different towns and in none of the contemporary records are they listed as brothers, cousins, or relatives of any kind. The fourth person listed is supposedly the mother of Nan-ye-hi, Nancy Ward. Nancy’s parents are completely unknown. All that we know about her parents is that her mother was from the Wolf Clan, and, according to a great-grandson, her father may have been an adopted Delaware Indian. The last person, ‘Old Hop’ (who lived at Chota) was a prominent Cherokee chief, a contemporary of the ‘real’ Moytoy. Records show that he became de facto head of the Cherokee Nation after the death of Moytoy and a political struggle with the chiefs of Tellico. Nothing is known of his parents or his wife, but he apparently had sisters since he stated that he had two nephews, Attakullakulla and Willenawa. He also remarked that he had sons, whose names are unknown.

Transcripts of primary sources:

  • Adair, James. The History of the American Indians. London, 1775; reprint with introduction by Robert F. Berkhofer, Jr. Johnson, New York: Reprint Corp, 1968.
  • Alvord, Clarence Waltworth, and Lee Bidgood. The First Explorations of the Trans-Allegheny Region by the Virginians, 1650-1674. Cleveland, Arthur H. Clark, 1912. Includes transcripts of early accounts.
  • Bartram, William. Travels in North America. New Haven, Yale University Press
  • Bonnefoy, Antoine. Journal. Transcript in Williams; Bonnefoy was a captive of the Cherokee in 1741-42.
  • Chicken, George. Journals 1715-1716 and 1725
  • Cuming, Alexander. Journal of Sir Alexander Cuming. Transcript in Williams.
  • Grant, Ludovic. Historical Relation of the Facts. 1755. Transcript included in the “Journal of Cherokee Studies” Vol. XXVI, pp. 2-23.
  • Herbert, John. Journal of Colonel John Herbert, commissioner Indian affairs for the province of South Carolina, October 17, 1727, to March 1927/8
  • Timberlake, Henry The Memoirs of Lt. Henry Timberlake. Duane King, ed. Museum of the Cherokee Indian Press, Cherokee, N.C., 2007
  • Williams, Samuel Cole. Early Travels in the Tennessee Country, 1580-1800 Johnson City, Tennessee, Watauga Press, 1928
  • Calendar of Virginia State Papers
  • Colonial Records of North Carolina – multiple volumes published by the North Carolina Archives.
  • Native Americans in Early North Carolina – ed. Dennis Isenbarger, published by the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, Department of Archives and History, 2013. Includes transcripts of primary documents from the 17th and 18th centuries.
  • Villainy Often Goes Unpunished – Indian Records from the North Carolina General Assembly Sessions 1685-1789. William L. Byrd, III, Heritage Books 2012. Transcripts of General Assembly records.
  • Colonial Records of South Carolina – multiple volumes published by the South Carolina Archives. Series 2 are the Indian Papers.

Other references:

  • Brown, John P. Old Frontiers. Southern Publishers, Inc. Kingsport, TN 1938
  • Conley, Robert. A Cherokee Encyclopedia and The Cherokee Nation: a History. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 2007
  • [Note: Conley’s books are easier to read than the more scholarly texts listed, but also are not as well-researched and contain more factual errors.]
  • Hoig, Stanley. The Cherokees and their Chiefs. University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville 1998
  • Mooney, James. History, Myths, and Sacred Formulas of the Cherokee. American Bureau of Ethnology 1891 & 1900, reprint Historical Images, Inc. Asheville, N.C. 1992

Kathryn Forbes November, 2017

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NOTE: MOST OF THE MATERIAL ON THE INTERNET ABOUT MOYTOY IS INACCURATE AND INCORRECT AS FAR AS RELATIONSHIPS AND DATES

Amatoya Moytoy of Chota (pronounced mah-tie) was a Cherokee town chief of the early eighteenth century in the area of present-day Tennessee. He held a prominent position among the Cherokee, and held the hereditary title Ama Matai (From the French matai and Cherokee ama--water), which meant "Water Conjurer."

Amatoya was taught by his father to witch for water with a willow stick. He had become so adept at water witching that the Cherokee called him "water conjurer" or Ama Matai (Ama is Cherokee for water). Ama Matai eventually became pronounced as Amatoya. It was later shortened to Moytoy€, so he is known as Moytoy I. He ruled the town of Chota sometime between the beginning of the eighteenth century and 1730.

In 1680, Amatoya married Quatsie of Tellico. Many of their descendants went on to become prominent leaders, founding a family that effectively ruled the Cherokee for a century.

http://thejamesscrolls.blogspot.com/2009/03/indian-trail-from-amatoya-moytoy-to-my.html


As the Headman of Tellico, Amatoya Moytoy held the title of Amedohi-The Water Traveler, often recorded as Moytoy. In his council were seven Beloved Men, elder statesmen, each representing one of the seven clans.

Moytoy presided over the council, who concerned themselves with the management of lands, the public granary, and laws. Chosen by the people, he was also a religious leader. He had veto power over the selection of the War Chief.

In 1730, Sir Alexander Cuming, unoffically an envoy of the English King, George II, made an alliance with Moytoy and gained acknowledgment of complete sovereignty of the King over the Cherokee people. On April 3, 1730, Cuming named Moytoy "Emperor of the Cherokees".

In the Cherokee town of Nequassee the Cherokee national council agreed to accept Moytoy as their "emperor" and to give their allegiance to King George II. This was accompanied by a great deal of ceremony and dancing.

Moytoy sent seven prominent members of the tribe to London to meet the King...

http://domania.us/Wizzard/1-DJW/Keys-Family/page2.html


From the Cherokee Heritage Documentation Center (http://cherokeeregistry.firstlightonline.org)

Cherokee and the Moytoy

Thomas Pasmere Carpenter at 20 years old came to Jamestown, Virginia from England in 1627. Thomas was the son of Robert Carpenter (1578 – 1651) and Susan Pasmere Jeffery (1579 – 1651). He had a ten acre lease in Virginia, but it was later given to someone else because of his age, so he went to live with the Shawnee and made his home in a cave. Thomas was called "Cornplanter" by the Shawnee, derived from their sign language that matched as near as possible to the work of a carpenter. He married a Shawnee woman named "Pride" and bore a son around 1635 named Trader Carpenter, and a daughter Pasmere Carpenter, about 1637. Together with partners John Greenwood and Thomas Watts they began a thriving fur business.

Trader was taught to “witch” for water with a willow stick by the Shawnee. He was later known by the Cherokee as the "water conjurer" or Ama Matai (Ama is Cherokee for water). Ama Matai eventually became pronounced as Amatoya. It was also shortened to “Moytoy”, so he is known as Moytoy I.

The clan grew quickly. Trader (Amatoya / Moytoy I) married a Shawnee named Locha in 1658. Pasmere married the grandfather of Cornstalk Hokolesqua (Shawnee) in 1660. The same year the clan was driven south by the Iroquois. They moved along the Tennessee river, starting the villages of Running Water (where Thomas died in 1675), Nickajack, Lookout Mountain, Crowtown and Chota. Chota was created as a merging place of refuge for people of all tribes, history or color. It became similar to a capital for the Cherokee nation. These villages grew to about 2000 people by 1670 when the Carpenter clan moved to Great Tellico. Here Trader (Amatoya / Motoy I) married Quatsy of the Wolf Clan in 1680. They bore a daughter Nancy in 1683.

Though Amatoya (Trader) was chief of the above mentioned villages, it was his son Moytoy II (sometimes called "Trader-Tom") who was the one who actually became a Cherokee principle chief. In 1730, Trader-Tom (Moytoy II) took over as Chief, receiving what was described as the “Crown of Tannassy”. Tanasi was where the previous Chief resided and the traditional headdress was passed on to him.

Several tribes, including the Cherokee, assisted colonists in driving out their mutual enemy, the Tuscarora, in a war that lasted from 1711-1713. However, with the Tuscarora out of the way, the tribes begin to address their grievances with the colonists -- primarily the sale of Native Americans into slavery despite agreements to discontinue this practice.

The result was a war, in 1715, in which the combined tribes in the region threatened to wipe-out the South Carolina Colony.

Ultimately, the colonists were able to mass their forces and after achieving several victories the tribes began to sue for peace. Peace was made with the Cherokee who were given a large quantity of guns and ammunition in exchange for their alliance with the colony.

In 1721, a treaty was signed with South Carolina. It also established a fixed boundary between the Cherokee and the colony. Although allied with the English, the Cherokee began to favor the French who had established Fort Toulouse near present Montgomery AL. The French showed greater respect for the Indians than the British who considered them an inferior race.

To prevent a Cherokee alliance with the French, Sir Alexander Cuming visited the prominent Cherokee towns and convinced the Cherokee to select an "emperor", Chief Moytoy of Tellico, to represent the tribe in all dealings with the British. In addition, he escorted seven Cherokees to England who met with the King and swore allegiance to the crown.

A treaty was signed obligating the Cherokee to trade only with the British, return all runaway slaves, and to expel all non-English whites from their territory. In return, the Cherokee received a substantial amount of guns, ammunition, and red paint.

Although the seven Cherokee who made the trip were presented the to the king as "chiefs", only one could be considered a prominent Cherokee -- the others being young men who went for the adventure. The chiefs of the tribe declined due to their responsibilities for hunting and defense. However, one of the young men was Attacullakulla, known as "Little Carpenter", who later became a powerful and influential

According to Chief Attakullakulla's ceremonial speech to the Cherokee Nation in 1750, we traveled here from "the rising sun" before the time of the stone age man.


MOYTOY Born: before 1700. The Cherokee term for Moytoy was Amoadawehi (Amahetai) or Rain or Water Conjuror. He was from Great Hiwassee or Little Hiwassee of the Valley. He later became the head warrior of Tellico of the Overhills. In 1730, he was appointed the Emperor (British medal chief) of the Cherokee Nation by British imperialists. He died in battle in 1741. This was the same year of Caulunna's death (see Family of Oconostota). Caulunna was a significant Cherokee leader in the era of Moytoy, and was Oconostota's uncle, and Quatsis' brother It has been speculated by some that Caulunna and Moytoy were the same person- In fact, many secondary sources state that Oconostota and Attakullakulla were brothers. Attakullakulla's mother was the sister of Moytoy, and Old Hop was their brother, If Moytoy was Caulunna, he would have been both Oconostota and Attakullakulla's older uncle. He would have been responsible for the upbringing of both through manhood, This may ex-plain why some historians conclude that Oconostota and Attakullakulla were relatives. Yet, neither family ever mentioned being kin to one another. Also, Old Hop stated that Attakullakulla was his nephew. In the same statement, Old Hop mentions Oconostota without calling him his relative. There are no documented records to prove that Caulunna and Moytoy were the same person Moytoy was a Cherokee man. See: Caulunna and Old Hop.

http://www.prophecykeepers.com/chickamaugacherokee/heartoftheeagle.html



Moytoy of Tellico (d. 1741 or 1760?) was a Cherokee leader from Great Tellico, recognized by British colonial authorities as the "Emperor of the Cherokee"; the Cherokee themselves used the title "First Beloved Man". His name is derived from Amo-adawehi, "rainmaker," although it is unclear whether this was his personal name or a title he held.

In 1730 Sir Alexander Cuming, a Scottish adventurer with no particular authority, arranged for Moytoy to be crowned emperor over all of the Cherokee towns. He was crowned in Nikwasi with a headdress Cuming called the "Crown of Tannassy."

Cuming arranged to take Moytoy and a group of Cherokee to England to meet King George. Moytoy declined to go, saying that his wife was ill. Attakullakulla (Little Carpenter) volunteered to go in his place. The "Crown" was laid at King George's feet along with four scalps.

Some European sources refer to Moytoy's wife as a woman named Go-sa-du-isga, and title her the "Queen of the Cherokee." On his death the British recognized his 13 year old son Amouskositte as Emperor. He had little real authority among the elder-dominated Cherokee, and by 1753 Kanagatucko (Old Hop) of Chota had emerged as the dominant leader.

Old Frontiers, by John P. Brown, also details a Moytoy of Settico who was rampaging through VA after the death of "Emperor" Moytoy of Tellico, and in the Colonial Records of South Carolina, 1754-1765, a letter dated 1/31/1757 references a "Moyatoya, son to the Mankiller of Highwassey deceased". (Moytoy's son Raven of Hiwassee had a son called Moytoy who could be this Moytoy of Settico)

BACKGROUND:

From http://cherokeehistory.com/1700thro.html

As tribes acquired firearms from Europeans and used them against neighboring tribes, a "weaponry race" began. Tribes accelerated trade to acquire firearms for military purposes. Initially the guns were purchased with furs and skins. The South Carolina Colony, established in 1670, was encouraging the tribes to trade their Native American prisoners of war which were then sold into slavery. In 1705, there were complaints from North Carolina that the South Carolina governor's trade in Native American slaves had so angered the tribes that an Indian war was inevitable.

Several tribes, including the Cherokee, assisted colonists in driving out their mutual enemy, the Tuscarora, in a war that lasted from 1711-1713. However, with the Tuscarora out of the way, the tribes begin to address their grievances with the colonists -- primarily the sale of Native Americans into slavery despite agreements to discontinue this practice.

The result was a war, in 1715, in which the combined tribes in the region threatened to wipe-out the South Carolina Colony. Ultimately, the colonists were able to mass their forces and after achieving several victories the tribes began to sue for peace. Peace was made with the Cherokee who were given a large quantity of guns and ammunition in exchange for their alliance with the colony.

In 1721, a treaty was signed with South Carolina to systematize trade but the most significant condition was the establishment of a fixed boundary between the Cherokee and the colony which was the first land cession made by the Cherokee to the Europeans. The population of the Cherokee Nation was probably 16,000-17,000 including 6,000 warriors. Although allied with the English, the Cherokee began to favor the French who had established Fort Toulouse near present Montgomery AL. The French showed greater respect for the Indians than the British who considered them an inferior race. (It should be noted that the English also considered non-English whites as inferior).

To prevent a Cherokee alliance with the French, Sir Alexander Cuming visited the prominent Cherokee towns and convinced the Cherokee to select an "emperor", Chief Moytoy of Tellico, to represent the tribe in all dealings with the British. In addition, he escorted seven Cherokees to England who met with the King and swore allegiance to the crown.

A treaty was signed obligating the Cherokee to trade only with the British, return all runaway slaves, and to expel all non-English whites from their territory. In return, the Cherokee received a substantial amount of guns, ammunition, and red paint.

Although the seven Cherokee who made the trip were presented to the king as "chiefs", only one could be considered a prominent Cherokee -- the others being young men who went for the adventure. The chiefs of the tribe declined due to their responsibilities for hunting and defense. However, one of the young men was Attacullakulla, known as "Little Carpenter", who later became a powerful and influential chief.


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From http://www.telliquah.com/Moytoy.htm (written by Lowell Kirk) 

In 1730 an unofficial envoy of King George II appointed" Moytoy, the chief of Great Tellico, "emperor" of the Cherokees. Moytoy, in return, recognized the English king's sovereignty over the Cherokees. The Cherokee had developed significant trade arrangements with no other European settlements except South Carolina.

But the British had already fought two colonial wars with the French and were on the verge of another. The French were beginning to open, trade with the Cherokee from their recently constructed Fort Tolouse on the Alabama River. Since the 1689-97 King William's War, the French and English had been involved in warfare and international rivalry. In the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-13)

France had yielded Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and the Hudson Bay region to Great Britain. The Spanish had been forced to yield their missions to the British in Georgia and North Florida. English forces with Indian allies destroyed the bulk of the Spanish missions there. The French made peace with the Iroquois in the north, and encouraged them to make raids on the Cherokee to the south who were allies with the British. The French hoped to recoup their losses to the British in the north by making alliances with the Cherokee in the south. So the British and the French both began to woo the Cherokee.

Both English and French were edging their colonial claims closer and closer toward each other's claims in America, and the Cherokee were caught up in the middle of the conflict. As the French claimed the land drained by rivers flowing into the Mississippi River, the British wanted to cement as many alliances with the Indians who inhabited the upper Tennessee River as quickly as possible. Economic rivalry for the American Indian fur trade was becoming fierce. Added to that was the fact that the French generally had a much better relationship with Indian tribes than did the British. Control of the Indian trade on the head waters of the Tennessee River was very important to the British economy, especially to its' colony of South Carolina.

William Steele's book, The Cherokee Crown of Tannassy is an excellent description of how Moytoy of Great Tellico was appointed Emperor of the Cherokee in 1730. Sir Alexander Cuming successfully persuaded Moytoy to recognize and give his allegiance to the British king. Steele's work is based on Cuming's own journal. Cuming arrived in Tellico, guided by the Scottish trader, Ludovick Grant, by following the trail over Ooneekawy Mountain. Moytoy, headman of Great Tellico, gave Cuming a tour of the palisaded town. Moytoy pointed out scalps of enemy French Indians which hung on poles in front of the houses of warriors. Cuming was introduced to the powerful Tellico priest, Jacob the Conjurer. While at Great Tellico, Jacob took Cuming to petrifying cave filled with stalactites and stalagmites. In the cave was Jacob's Uktena crystal, which was kept in the cave and fed the blood of small animals twice a week and the blood of a deer twice a year. The Cherokee town of Chatuga was also enclosed in the palisades.

From Great Tellico, Ludovick Grant led Cuming along a 16-mile trail to Tannassy, in order to convince the Warrior of Tannassy to accept Moytoy as Emperor of the Cherokee. At Tannassy, Grant introduced Cuming to Eleazer Wiggan, another Carolina trader who lived in Tannassy. The Warrior of Tannassy submitted his homage to King George 11 and gave Cuming his crown of dyed opossum hair. Cuming returned to Great Tellico and on the last day of March, 1730, departed Great Tellico with Moytoy, Jacob the Conjurer and a great many other attendants back up the Ooneekawy Mountain to the Valley towns. It was in the Cherokee town of Nequassee that the Cherokee national council formally agreed to accept Moytoy as their "emperor" and to give their allegiance to King George II. This was accomplished with a great deal of ceremony and dancing.

Under the agreement made with Moytoy, the Cherokee would trade with no other European nation, the Cherokee would be rewarded for the return of fugitive slaves to English masters, and the Cherokee were promised military assistance if England went to war with any foreign powers. Specifically, this meant the French. Seven Cherokee were taken to London by Cuming and wined and dined. For twenty years after their return these seven Cherokee told stories of British power and majesty which helped to maintain cordial relationships between the Cherokee and the British.

One of the Cherokees taken to England was Attakullakulla, known to the British as "the Little Carpenter", For the next three decades Attakullakulla, who became a "white" or "peace" chief, used his exceptional speaking skill to discourage Cherokee alignment with the French. Attakullakulia's son, Dragging Canoe, would play an important role in the conflicts that occurred in East Tennessee during and after the American Revolution.

When Moytoy of Great Tellico died, his son inherited the title of "Emperor". But Cherokee central authority soon moved toward Old Hop, another "white" or "peace" chief who presided over the Cherokee "empire" from his town of Chota. Chota was located about five miles upriver on the Little Tennessee from the mouth of the Tellico River. By 1750 a "red" or "wae' chief, Oconostota, became influential within the Cherokee "empire". It was during this time that another smallpox epidemic spread devastation in the Cherokee country and Oconostota charged that the disease had been brought by the English with their trade goods, When his own face remained pock-marked by the disease, he became increasingly hostile to the English and sought to align the tribe with the French, who were seriously interested in wooing the Cherokee away from the British.

from James Hicks:

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from Don Chesnut's web page; www.users.mis.net/~chesnut/pages/cherokee.htm

Moytoy: a Cherokee chief recognized by the English as "emperor" in 1730. Both the correct form and the meaning of the name are uncertain; the name occurs again as Moyatoy in a document of 1793; a boy upon the East Cherokee reservation a few years ago bore the name of Ma’tayi, for which no meaning can be found or given.

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Old Frontiers, by John P Brown, also details a Moytoy of Settico who was rampaiging through VA after the death of "Emperor" Moytoy of Tellico, and in the Colonial Records of South Carolina, 1754-1765, a letter dated 1/31/1757 references a "Moyatoya, son to the Mankiller of Highwassey deceased". [Moytoy's son Raven of Hiwassee had a son called Moytoy who could be this Moytoy of Settico]

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from Wikipedia:

Moytoy of Tellico (d. 1741[1]) was a Cherokee leader from Great Tellico, recognized by British colonial authorities as the "Emperor of the Cherokee"; the Cherokee themselves used the title "First Beloved Man". His name is derived from Amo-adawehi, "rainmaker,"[2] although it is unclear whether this was his personal name or a title he held.

In 1730 Sir Alexander Cuming, a Scottish adventurer with no particular authority, arranged for Moytoy to be crowned emperor over all of the Cherokee towns. He was crowned in Nikwasi with a headdress Cuming called the "Crown of Tannassy."

Cuming arranged to take Moytoy and a group of Cherokee to England to meet King George. Moytoy declined to go, saying that his wife was ill. Attakullakulla (Little Carpenter) volunteered to go in his place. The "Crown" was laid at King George's feet along with four scalps.

Some European sources refer to Moytoy's wife as a woman named Go-sa-du-isga, and title her the "Queen of the Cherokee." On his death the British recognized his 13 year old son Amouskositte as Emperor. He had little real authority among the elder-dominated Cherokee, and by 1753 Kanagatucko (Old Hop) of Chota had emerged as the dominant leader.[3]

Notes

  1. ^ Gearing, Fred (1962). Priests and Warriors: Social Structures for Cherokee Politics in the 18th Century. 
  2. ^ Brown, p. 538
  3. ^ Hoig, Stan (1998). The Cherokees and Their Chiefs: In the Wake of Empire. University of Arkansas Press. 

Sources

   * Brown, John P. Old Frontiers. (Kingsport: Southern Publishers, 1938).
   * Haywood, W.H. The Civil and Political History of the State of Tennessee from its Earliest Settlement up to the Year 1796. (Nashville: Methodist Episcopal Publishing House, 1891).
   * Litton, Gaston L. "The Principal Chiefs of the Cherokee Nation", Chronicles of Oklahoma 15:3 (September 1937) 253-270 (retrieved August 18, 2006).
   * Mooney, James. Myths of the Cherokee and Sacred Formulas of the Cherokee. (Nashville: Charles and Randy Elder-Booksellers, 1982).
   * Ramsey, James Gettys McGregor. The Annals of Tennessee to the End of the Eighteenth Century. (Chattanooga: Judge David Campbell, 1926).
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Moytoy : a Cherokee chief recognized by the English as "emperor" in 1730. Both the correct form and the meaning of the name are uncertain; the name occurs again as Moyatoy in a document of 1793; a boy upon the East Cherokee reservation a few years ago bore the name of Matayi, for which no meaning can be found or given.

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MOYTOY Born: before 1700. The Cherokee term for Moytoy was Amoadawehi (Amahetai) or Rain or Water Conjuror. He was from Great Hiwassee or Little Hiwassee of the Valley. He later became the head warrior of Tellico of the Overhills. In 1730, he was appointed the Emperor (British medal chief) of the Cherokee Nation by British imperialists. He died in battle in 1741. This was the same year of Caulunna's death (see Family of Oconostota). Caulunna was a significant Cherokee leader in the era of Moytoy, and was Oconostota's uncle, and Quatsis' brother It has been speculated by some that Caulunna and Moytoy were the same person- In fact, many secondary sources state that Oconostota and Attakullakulla were brothers. Attakullakulla's mother was the sister of Moytoy, and Old Hop was their brother, If Moytoy was Caulunna, he would have been both Oconostota and Attakullakulla's older uncle. He would have been responsible for the upbringing of both through manhood, This may explain why some historians conclude that Oconostota and Attakullakulla were relatives. Yet, neither family ever mentioned being kin to one another. Also, Old Hop stated that Attakullakulla was his nephew. In the same statement, Old Hop mentions Oconostota without calling him his relative. There are no documented records to prove that Caulunna and Moytoy were the same person Moytoy was a Cherokee man. See: Caulunna and Old Hop.


Current scholarship on the impact of epidemics on American Indians is inadequate to explain how Indians survived. Too often Indians are given no credit for being able to combat emergent diseases, and too often epidemics are depicted as completely undermining native religious beliefs. This article, however, examines the response of Southeastern Indians to disease and shows that Native Americans were capable of successfully retarding mortality rates and curtailing the spread of contagions. Through their innovative responses to epidemiological crises, spiritual leaders reinforced tribal customs as well as their leadership position.

Kelton, Paul. "Avoiding the Smallpox Spirits: Colonial Epidemics and Southeastern Indian Survival." Ethnohistory 51.1 (2004): 45-71. Project MUSE. [Library name], [City], [State abbreviation]. 10 Jul. 2010 <http://muse.jhu.edu/>.


Moytoy was crowned with the "Crown of Tannassy," as described by Cuming (the name probably has origins with the traditional capital of Tanasi, near Chota). It is said to have been a traditional Cherokee hide cap covered in feathers and several hanging animal tails. The crown was later taken to England.

Some sources refer to Moytoy's wife as a woman named Go-sa-du-isga, and title her the "Queen of the Cherokee" (in fact there are no traditional consort titles, so this was a European distinction).

A son, Amo-Scossite, took the title "Emperor of the Cherokees" after his uncle Old Hop's death. However, his adoption of the European title alone held no political authority, and Attacullaculla was the de facto ruler. The imperial title fell out of use after 1761.

Litton, Gaston L. "The Principal Chiefs of the Cherokee Nation", Chronicles of Oklahoma 15:3 (September 1937) 253-270 (retrieved August 18, 2006


Headsman of Chota, Chief of all Cherokee in 1675, Full blood Cherokee, Chief of Cherokee Chief


Moytoy of Tellico (d. 1741) of the Wolf Clan, was a Cherokee leader from Great Tellico, recognized by British colonial authorities as the “Emperor of the Cherokee”; the Cherokee themselves used the title “First Beloved Man”. His name is derived from Amo-adawehi, “rainmaker,” although it is unclear whether this was his personal name or a title he held. Moytoy's ancestry is unknown as is the name of his wife(s). His only known child was his son Amouskositte who suceeded his father in 1741 as Principal Chief of the Cherokee at the age of 13. He was eventually replaced by Old Hop.

" In 1730 an unofficial envoy of King George II "appointed" Moytoy, the chief of Great Tellico, "emperor" of the Cherokees. Moytoy, in return, recognized the English king's sovereignty over the Cherokees. The Cherokee had developed significant trade arrangements with no other European settlements except South Carolina.

But the British had already fought two colonial wars with the French and were on the verge of another. The French were beginning to open, trade with the Cherokee from their recently constructed Fort Tolouse on the Alabama River. Since the 1689-97 King William's War, the French and English had been involved in warfare and international rivalry. In the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-13)

France had yielded Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and the Hudson Bay region to Great Britain. The Spanish had been forced to yield their missions to the British in Georgia and North Florida. English forces with Indian allies destroyed the bulk of the Spanish missions there. The French made peace with the Iroquois in the north, and encouraged them to make raids on the Cherokee to the south who were allies with the British. The French hoped to recoup their losses to the British in the north by making alliances with the Cherokee in the south. So the British and the French both began to woo the Cherokee.

Both English and French were edging their colonial claims closer and closer toward each other's claims in America, and the Cherokee were caught up in the middle of the conflict. As the French claimed the land drained by rivers flowing into the Mississippi River, the British wanted to cement as many alliances with the Indians who inhabited the upper Tennessee River as quickly as possible. Economic rivalry for the American Indian fur trade was becoming fierce. Added to that was the fact that the French generally had a much better relationship with Indian tribes than did the British. Control of the Indian trade on the head waters of the Tennessee River was very important to the British economy, especially to its' colony of South Carolina.

William Steele's book, The Cherokee Crown of Tannassy is an excellent description of how Moytoy of Great Tellico was appointed Emperor of the Cherokee in 1730. Sir Alexander Cuming successfully persuaded Moytoy to recognize and give his allegiance to the British king. Steele's work is based on Cuming's own journal. Cuming arrived in Tellico, guided by the Scottish trader, Ludovick Grant, by following the trail over Ooneekawy Mountain. Moytoy, headman of Great Tellico, gave Cuming a tour of the palisaded town. Moytoy pointed out scalps of enemy French Indians which hung on poles in front of the houses of warriors. Cuming was introduced to the powerful Tellico priest, Jacob the Conjurer. While at Great Tellico, Jacob took Cuming to petrifying cave filled with stalactites and stalagmites. In the cave was Jacob's Uktena crystal, which was kept in the cave and fed the blood of small animals twice a week and the blood of a deer twice a year. The Cherokee town of Chatuga was also enclosed in the palisades.

From Great Tellico, Ludovick Grant led Cuming along a 16-mile trail to Tannassy, in order to convince the Warrior of Tannassy to accept Moytoy as Emperor of the Cherokee. At Tannassy, Grant introduced Cuming to Eleazer Wiggan, another Carolina trader who lived in Tannassy. The Warrior of Tannassy submitted his homage to King George 11 and gave Cuming his crown of dyed opossum hair. Cuming returned to Great Tellico and on the last day of March, 1730, departed Great Tellico with Moytoy, Jacob the Conjurer and a great many other attendants back up the Ooneekawy Mountain to the Valley towns. It was in the Cherokee town of Nequassee that the Cherokee national council formally agreed to accept Moytoy as their "emperor" and to give their allegiance to King George II. This was accomplished with a great deal of ceremony and dancing.

Under the agreement made with Moytoy, the Cherokee would trade with no other European nation, the Cherokee would be rewarded for the return of fugitive slaves to English masters, and the Cherokee were promised military assistance if England went to war with any foreign powers. Specifically, this meant the French. Seven Cherokee were taken to London by Cuming and wined and dined. For twenty years after their return these seven Cherokee told stories of British power and majesty which helped to maintain cordial relationships between the Cherokee and the British.

One of the Cherokees taken to England was Attakullakulla, known to the British as "the Little Carpenter", For the next three decades Attakullakulla, who became a "white" or "peace" chief, used his exceptional speaking skill to discourage Cherokee alignment with the French. Attakullakulia's son, Dragging Canoe, would play an important role in the conflicts that occurred in East Tennessee during and after the American Revolution.

When Moytoy of Great Tellico died, his son inherited the title of "Emperor". But Cherokee central authority soon moved toward Old Hop, another "white" or "peace" chief who presided over the Cherokee "empire" from his town of Chota. Chota was located about five miles upriver on the Little Tennessee from the mouth of the Tellico River. By 1750 a "red" or "wae' chief, Oconostota, became influential within the Cherokee "empire". It was during this time that another smallpox epidemic spread devastation in the Cherokee country and Oconostota charged that the disease had been brought by the English with their trade goods, When his own face remained pock-marked by the disease, he became increasingly hostile to the English and sought to align the tribe with the French, who were seriously interested in wooing the Cherokee away from the British."[2] Legend has it that Amatoya was taught by his father to “witch” for water with a willow stick. He had become so adept at water witching that the Cherokee called him "water conjurer" or Ama Matai (Ama is Cherokee for water). Ama Matai eventually became pronounced as Amatoya. It was later shortened to “Moytoy”. He ruled the town of Chota sometime between the beginning of the eighteenth century and 1730. At that time, the Cherokee had no central chief but rather small town chiefs. Amatoya is considered to be the founder of a family of chiefs which ruled for over a century.[2]


Son Pride Shawnee and Thomas Corn planter Carpenter.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moytoy_of_Tellico
Moytoy of Tellico (d. 1741) of the Wolf Clan, was a Cherokee leader from Great Tellico, recognized by British colonial authorities as the “Emperor of the Cherokee”; the Cherokee themselves used the title “First Beloved Man”. His name is derived from Amo-adawehi, “rainmaker,” although it is unclear whether this was his personal name or a title he held. Moytoy's ancestry is unknown as is the name of his wife(s). His only known child was his son Amouskositte who suceeded his father in 1741 as Principal Chief of the Cherokee at the age of 13. He was eventually replaced by Old Hop.

" In 1730 an unofficial envoy of King George II "appointed" Moytoy, the chief of Great Tellico, "emperor" of the Cherokees. Moytoy, in return, recognized the English king's sovereignty over the Cherokees. The Cherokee had developed significant trade arrangements with no other European settlements except South Carolina.

But the British had already fought two colonial wars with the French and were on the verge of another. The French were beginning to open, trade with the Cherokee from their recently constructed Fort Tolouse on the Alabama River. Since the 1689-97 King William's War, the French and English had been involved in warfare and international rivalry. In the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-13)

France had yielded Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and the Hudson Bay region to Great Britain. The Spanish had been forced to yield their missions to the British in Georgia and North Florida. English forces with Indian allies destroyed the bulk of the Spanish missions there. The French made peace with the Iroquois in the north, and encouraged them to make raids on the Cherokee to the south who were allies with the British. The French hoped to recoup their losses to the British in the north by making alliances with the Cherokee in the south. So the British and the French both began to woo the Cherokee.

Both English and French were edging their colonial claims closer and closer toward each other's claims in America, and the Cherokee were caught up in the middle of the conflict. As the French claimed the land drained by rivers flowing into the Mississippi River, the British wanted to cement as many alliances with the Indians who inhabited the upper Tennessee River as quickly as possible. Economic rivalry for the American Indian fur trade was becoming fierce. Added to that was the fact that the French generally had a much better relationship with Indian tribes than did the British. Control of the Indian trade on the head waters of the Tennessee River was very important to the British economy, especially to its' colony of South Carolina.

William Steele's book, The Cherokee Crown of Tannassy is an excellent description of how Moytoy of Great Tellico was appointed Emperor of the Cherokee in 1730. Sir Alexander Cuming successfully persuaded Moytoy to recognize and give his allegiance to the British king. Steele's work is based on Cuming's own journal. Cuming arrived in Tellico, guided by the Scottish trader, Ludovick Grant, by following the trail over Ooneekawy Mountain. Moytoy, headman of Great Tellico, gave Cuming a tour of the palisaded town. Moytoy pointed out scalps of enemy French Indians which hung on poles in front of the houses of warriors. Cuming was introduced to the powerful Tellico priest, Jacob the Conjurer. While at Great Tellico, Jacob took Cuming to petrifying cave filled with stalactites and stalagmites. In the cave was Jacob's Uktena crystal, which was kept in the cave and fed the blood of small animals twice a week and the blood of a deer twice a year. The Cherokee town of Chatuga was also enclosed in the palisades.

From Great Tellico, Ludovick Grant led Cuming along a 16-mile trail to Tannassy, in order to convince the Warrior of Tannassy to accept Moytoy as Emperor of the Cherokee. At Tannassy, Grant introduced Cuming to Eleazer Wiggan, another Carolina trader who lived in Tannassy. The Warrior of Tannassy submitted his homage to King George 11 and gave Cuming his crown of dyed opossum hair. Cuming returned to Great Tellico and on the last day of March, 1730, departed Great Tellico with Moytoy, Jacob the Conjurer and a great many other attendants back up the Ooneekawy Mountain to the Valley towns. It was in the Cherokee town of Nequassee that the Cherokee national council formally agreed to accept Moytoy as their "emperor" and to give their allegiance to King George II. This was accomplished with a great deal of ceremony and dancing.

Under the agreement made with Moytoy, the Cherokee would trade with no other European nation, the Cherokee would be rewarded for the return of fugitive slaves to English masters, and the Cherokee were promised military assistance if England went to war with any foreign powers. Specifically, this meant the French. Seven Cherokee were taken to London by Cuming and wined and dined. For twenty years after their return these seven Cherokee told stories of British power and majesty which helped to maintain cordial relationships between the Cherokee and the British.

One of the Cherokees taken to England was Attakullakulla, known to the British as "the Little Carpenter", For the next three decades Attakullakulla, who became a "white" or "peace" chief, used his exceptional speaking skill to discourage Cherokee alignment with the French. Attakullakulia's son, Dragging Canoe, would play an important role in the conflicts that occurred in East Tennessee during and after the American Revolution.

When Moytoy of Great Tellico died, his son inherited the title of "Emperor". But Cherokee central authority soon moved toward Old Hop, another "white" or "peace" chief who presided over the Cherokee "empire" from his town of Chota. Chota was located about five miles upriver on the Little Tennessee from the mouth of the Tellico River. By 1750 a "red" or "wae' chief, Oconostota, became influential within the Cherokee "empire". It was during this time that another smallpox epidemic spread devastation in the Cherokee country and Oconostota charged that the disease had been brought by the English with their trade goods, When his own face remained pock-marked by the disease, he became increasingly hostile to the English and sought to align the tribe with the French, who were seriously interested in wooing the Cherokee away from the British."[2]

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Moytoy, of Tellico's Timeline

1687
1687
Tellico, Cherokee Nation (current East Tennessee)

Chota, Little Tennessee River, USA

1728
1728
Age 41
Cherokee Nation (current East Tennessee)
1730
1730
Age 43
Nikwasi, Franklin, North Carolina
1741
1741
Age 54