Historical records matching Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise
About Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise
- United States Jewry, 1776-1985: The Germanic Period/, Part 2
- Isaac Mayer Wise: the founder of American Judaism; a biography By Max Benjamin May
- Isaac Mayer Wise - Wikipedia
During his lifetime Isaac Mayer Wise was regarded as the most prominent Reform Jew of his time in the United States. His genius for organization was of a very high order; and he was masterful, rich in resources, and possessed of an inflexible will. More than of any of his contemporaries, it may be said of him that he left the impress of his personality upon the development of Reform Judaism in the United States.
Isaac Mayer Wise (March 29, 1819, Steingrub (now Lomnička), Bohemia, Austrian Empire - March 26, 1900, Cincinnati), was an American Reform rabbi, editor, and author.
The son of Rabbi Leo Wise, a school-teacher, Isaac received his early Hebrew education from his father and grandfather, later continuing his Hebrew and secular studies in Prague. He received the hattarat hora'ah from the Prague bet din, composed of Rabbis Rapoport, Samuel Freund, and E. L. Teweles. In 1843 he was appointed rabbi at Radnitz (now Radnice, by Pilsen), Bohemia, where he remained for about two years.
Move to the United States
Wise emigrated to the United States in 1846. He arrived in New York on July 23, and in October was appointed rabbi of the Congregation Beth-El of Albany. He soon began agitating for reforms in the service, and his was the first Jewish congregation in the United States to introduce family pews in the synagogue. A mixed choir, and confirmation were also among the innovations introduced by Wise, who even went so far as to count women in forming a minyan or religious quorum.
"Minhag America" Prayer-Book
In 1847, at the suggestion of Max Lilienthal, who was at that time stationed in New York, a bet din was formed, which was to act in the capacity of an advisory committee to the congregations of the country, without, however, exercising hierarchic powers. As members of this bet din, Lilienthal named Wise and two others, besides himself. At a meeting held in the spring of 1847 Wise submitted to the bet din the manuscript of a prayer-book, to be entitled the "Minhag America", and to be used by all the congregations of the country. Nothing definite was done in the matter, however, until the Cleveland Conference of 1855, when a committee consisting of Wise, Rothenberg, and Kalisch was appointed to edit such a prayer-book. This book appeared under the title "Minhag America", and was practically Wise's work; it was adopted by most of the congregations of the Western and Southern states. So pronounced was Wise's desire for union, that when in 1894 the Union Prayer Book was published by the Central Conference of American Rabbis, he voluntarily retired the Minhag America from his own congregation.
As early as 1848 Wise issued a call to the "ministers and other Israelites" of the United States, urging them to form a union which might put an end to the prevalent religious anarchy. His call appeared in the columns of the "Occident," and was ably seconded by its editor, Isaac Leeser. Wise suggested that a meeting be held in the spring of 1849 at Philadelphia, to establish a union of the congregations of the entire country. This meeting did not take place; but the originator of the idea never ceased advocating it, especially after he had established his own newspaper, "The Israelite" (July 1854, restyled "The American Israelite" July 1874), in the columns of which he tirelessly expounded his views upon the subject. His persistence won its reward when in 1873, twenty-five years after he had first broached the idea, the Union of American Hebrew Congregations was organized at Cincinnati.
Problems in Albany, move to Cincinnati
In 1850, a fistfight between Wise and the synagogue's president caused a split in the Albany community, and the consequent formation of a new congregation, the Anshe Emeth, by the friends and supporters of Wise. Wise remained with this congregation until April, 1854, when he became rabbi of the Bene Yeshurun congregation of the Lodge Street Synagogue of Cincinnati, Ohio, where he officiated for the remaining forty-six years of his life. Wise was above all an organizer, and called numerous institutions into being. He organized the building of the Plum Street Temple in 1866. The temple, noted for its architectural grandeur, was renamed the Isaac M. Wise Temple in his honor.
Hebrew Union College
Earnest as he was in proclaiming the necessity for union among the congregations, he was equally indefatigable in insisting upon the pressing need of a theological seminary for the training of rabbis for American pulpits. In his Reminiscences he gives a vivid picture of the incompetency of many of the men who posed as spiritual guides of the congregations during the early days of his residence in the United States. He had scarcely arrived in Cincinnati when, with his characteristic energy, he set to work to establish a college in which young men could receive a Jewish education. He enlisted the interest and support of a number of influential Jews of Cincinnati and adjacent towns, and in 1855 founded the Zion Collegiate Association. The venture, however, proved a failure, and the society did not succeed in opening a college. Not daunted, Wise entered upon a literary campaign, and year in and year out he presented the subject in the columns of "The American Israelite". His indomitable perseverance was crowned with success when, on October 3, 1875, the Hebrew Union College opened its doors for the reception of students, four of whom were ordained eight years later.
The first outcome of Wise's agitation for union among the Jews was the Cleveland Conference held in 1855, and convened at his initiative. This conference was unfortunate, for, instead of uniting the rabbis of all parts of the country in a bond of fellowship, it gave rise to strained relations between Wise and his followers on one side, and prominent rabbis in the eastern part of the country on the other side. These differences were partly removed during the rabbinical conference of Philadelphia (1869), which Wise attended. The New York conference of 1870, and the Cincinnati conference of 1871 were efforts in the same direction; but a controversy ensuing from the latter served only to widen the breach. Yet was the great "unionist" not discouraged. He continued agitating for a synod which was to be the central body of authority for American Judaism. In 1881 he submitted to the meeting of the Rabbinical Literary Association a report urging the formation of a synod; but the matter never passed beyond the stage of discussion. However, he lived to see the establishment of the Central Conference of American Rabbis in 1889, which was the third enduring offspring of his tireless energy and unfailing perseverance. During the last eleven years of his life he served as president of the conference which he had called into existence.
Besides the arduous labors that the organization of these national institutions entailed, Wise was active in many other ways. In 1857, when a new treaty was to be concluded between the United States and Switzerland, he visited Washington as chairman of a delegation to protest against the ratification of this treaty unless Switzerland should cease its discriminations against American Jews. In his own city, besides officiating as rabbi of the Bene Yeshurun congregation and as president of the Hebrew Union College, he edited the "American Israelite" and the "Deborah," served as an examiner of teachers applying for positions in public schools, and was also a member of the board of directors of the University of Cincinnati. He traveled throughout the United States, lecturing, dedicating synagogues, and enlisting the interest of the Jewish communities in his plans and projects.
Wise was the author of the following works: "The History of the Israelitish Nation from Abraham to the Present Time," Albany, 1854; "The Essence of Judaism," Cincinnati, 1861; "The Origin of Christianity, and a Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles," 1868; "Judaism, Its Doctrines and Duties," 1872; "The Martyrdom of Jesus of Nazareth: a Historico-Critical Treatise on the Last Chapter of the Gospel," 1874; "The Cosmic God," 1876; "History of the Hebrews' Second Commonwealth," 1880; "Judaism and Christianity, Their Agreements and Disagreements," 1883; "A Defense of Judaism vs. Proselytizing Christianity," 1889; and "Pronaos to Holy Writ," 1891. In his early years he wrote a number of novels, which appeared first as serials in the "Israelite," and later in book form; these were: "The Convert," 1854; "The Catastrophe of Eger," "The Shoemaker's Family," "Resignation and Fidelity, or Life and Romance," and "Romance, Philosophy, and Cabalah, or the Conflagration in Frankfort-on-the-Main," 1855; "The Last Struggle of the Nation," 1856; "The Combat of the People, or Hillel and Herod," 1858; and "The First of the Maccabees." He wrote also a number of German novels, which appeared as serials in the "Deborah"; among these may be mentioned: "Die Juden von Landshuth"; "Der Rothkopf, oder des Schulmeisters Tochter"; and "Baruch und Sein Ideal." In addition to all these works Wise published in the editorial columns of the "Israelite" numerous studies on various subjects of Jewish interest. He even wrote a couple of plays, "Der Maskirte Liebhaber" and "Das Glück Reich zu Sein."
- ^ Wall of the Historically Noteworthy, jewishgen.org
- ^ Sommer, J.G. Kingdom of Bohemia, vol. 15, 1847
- ^ Wlaschek, R.M. Juden im Böhmen, 1997
- JewishEncyclopedia, by Cyrus Adler & David Philipson
- Bibliography: I. M. Wise, Reminiscences, transl. from the German and ed. by David Philipson, Cincinnati, 1901;
- Selected Writings of Isaac M. Wise, with a biography by David Philipson and Louis Grossmann, ib. 1900;
- The American Israelite, 1854-1900, passim, and the Jubilee number, June 30, 1904.
INTRODUCTION Prior to the creation of this microfilm edition, the American Jewish Archives (AJA) and the Klau Library of Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion held almost all extant papers and writings of Isaac Mayer Wise. No attempt had been made to organize, describe, and make widely accessible these materials as a unified collection for the benefit of scholars and others interested in Wise's life and work. Monographs and bound newspaper volumes were cataloged and stored in the Library's book stacks. Wise's correspondence and other manuscript items had accumulated for many years and were held in the AJA's collections. In addition, a number of other repositories held important letters that were unknown to many researchers.
In 1977, Mrs. Arthur Hays Sulzberger, grandaughter of Rabbi Wise, provided a generous bequest to the AJA to assemble and microfilm this entire collection. The microfilm edition of the Writings of Isaac Mayer Wise, produced by the American Jewish Archives and Bell & Howell, brings together a great variety of materials, reaching beyond the usual scope of a collection of personal papers to encompass both archival and library holdings.
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH top
Isaac Mayer Wise was born in Steingrub, Bohemia in 1819. After studying in various yeshivot in Prague, Czechoslovakia and Vienna, Austria he became a rabbi in Radnitz, Bohemia. Because of the poor prospects in Europe at the time, Wise immigrated in 1846 to New York. He shortly thereafter became the rabbi at Congregation Beth El in Albany. There he became an advocate for reforms such as confirmation, choral singing and mixed pews. Wise's reforms were not popular with his Albany congregation. He broke off in the early 1850s to form Anshe Emeth Congregation in Albany. Wise considered taking a pulpit in Charleston, South Carolina but in 1854 moved to Cincinnati, Ohio. He remained at Congregation B'nai Jeshurun in that city for the remainder of his life.
Wise remained actively involved in the creation of an "American Judaism." Shortly after his arrival in Cincinnati, he created the weekly paper known as The Israelite and a German supplement entitled Die Deborah. He also started the Zion College- a school for Hebrew and secular studies. It folded a short time later. In 1855, Wise was a leader at a conference in Cleveland, Ohio that drew fire from both Orthodox communities and the reform radicals. They were discussing a possible union of American Jewish congregations.
Isaac Mayer Wise is known as the founder of the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1875. This was one part of his larger goal of establishing a union of congregations. Wise was president of HUC until his death- ordaining more than 60 rabbis and outgrowing their first campus. He was involved in the formation of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations.
Wise died in 1900. He was married to Therese Bloch by whom he had 10 children. She died in 1874. He then married Selma Bondi, by whom he had four children, among them Rabbi Jonah B. Wise.
Related AJA Collections
Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise's Timeline
March 29, 1819
Plesná, Cheb, Karlovarský kraj, Czechia
March 14, 1845
February 22, 1846
Radnice, Radnice, Plzeň Region, Czech Republic
New York, New York County, New York, United States
October 28, 1849
Albany, Albany County, New York, United States
Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, United States
May 7, 1860
Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, United States