Roman the Great, Prince of Novgorod, Rex Rusiae

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prince Roman Мстиславич Mstislavich

Russian: великий князь Киевский Роман Мстиславич Галицкий, Polish: Roman Mścisławowicz, Lithuanian: kn. Romanas Didysis, Czech: 295 Роман II Мстиславич, Grand Prince of Kiev
Also Known As: "самодержец всея Руси"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Galich, Stanislav, Ukraine
Death: June 19, 1205 (51-52)
Vladimir, Volynsk, Volyn, Ukraine
Immediate Family:

Son of Mstislav II of Kiev and princess Agnieska of Poland
Husband of Euphrosyne Angelina
Ex-husband of Predslava daugh.of Rurik Rostislavich
Father of Feodora Romanovna Vladimiro-Volynska; Olena Maria of Chernigov; Salomea Romanovna Galitzki; Vasylko Romanovich and Daniel, King of Galicia
Brother of Святослав Мстиславович Галицкий; Владимир Мстиславович Галицкий and prince Vsevolod of Volhynia

Occupation: Prince of Novgorod 1168-70, Prince of Volynia 1173-87 and 1188-1205. Prince of Galicia 1187-88 and 1199-1205, Storfurste i Kiev 1203-05
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Roman the Great, Prince of Novgorod, Rex Rusiae

https://finnholbek.dk/getperson.php?personID=I27980&tree=2

Wikipedia: English, Polski, Русский

Roman Mstislavich (Russian and Ukrainian: Роман Мстиславич), also Roman Mstyslavych or Roman the Great, born sometime after 1160, died at Zawichost, October 14, 1205

Married:

  1. Vasilkovna
  2. Predslawa Rjurikowna Kijewskaja
  3. Anna Исааковна of Byzantium

Roman the great and Predslawa had three children:

  1. Princess Feodora of Galicia
  2. Princess Maria of Galicia
  3. Solomea of Galitzki

Roman the Great and Anna of Byzantium had two children:

  1. Daniel Romanovich of Galicia, 1st King of Ruthenia
  2. Prince Vasiliko Romanovich

Roman the Great was the son of Mstislav II Izyaslavich and Agnes of Poland.

Roman the Great was a Rus’ prince, Grand Prince of Kiev (a member of the Rurik dynasty).

He was prince of Novgorod (1168–1170), of Vladimir-in-Volhynia (1170–1189, 1189–1205), and of Halych (1189, 1198/99–1205). By seizing the throne of Halych, he became the master of all western Rus’

Roman died in a battle with the Poles. He founded the Romanovich dynasty that would rule Vladimir-in-Volhynia and Halych until 1340.

Genealogy: Rurik of Russia


Roman Mstislavich[1][2] (Russian and Ukrainian: Роман Мстиславич), also Roman Mstyslavych[3] or Roman the Great,[4] (c. 1152 – Zawichost, October 14, 1205) was a Rus’ prince, Grand Prince of Kiev (a member of the Rurik dynasty).[3]

He was prince of Novgorod (1168–1170), of Vladimir-in-Volhynia (1170–1189, 1189–1205), and of Halych (1189, 1198/99–1205).[2] By seizing the throne of Halych, he became the master of all western Rus’.[5] In the early 13th century, the Byzantine imperial title, "autocrate" (αύτοκράτωρ) was applied by the chroniclers to him, but there is no evidence that he assumed it officially.[5]

He waged two successful campaigns against the Cumans, from which he returned with many rescued captives.[3] The effect of Roman’s victory was, however, undermined by new dissensions among the princes of Rus’.[5]

Roman died in a battle with the Poles.[5] He founded the Romanovich dynasty[3] that would rule Vladimir-in-Volhynia and Halych until 1340.[6]

Early years

He was the eldest son of Mstislav Izyaslavich (who was prince of Vladimir-in-Volhynia at that time), and Agnes, a daughter of Duke Bolesław III of Poland.[1]

After the Novgorodians had expelled their prince, Svyatoslav IV Rostislavich, Roman was sent to Novgorod on April 14, 1168 by his father (who had earlier occupied Kiev).[2] However, the princes of Smolensk (Svyatoslav IV Rostislavich’s brothers) and Prince Andrey Yuryevich of Vladimir (who had supported Svyatoslav IV Rostislavich’s rule in Novgorod) spent the rest of the year conspiring and forming alliances against Mstislav Izyaslavich.[2]

Following the death of Mstislav Iziaslavich on August, 1170, the Novgorodians expelled Roman and invited Andrey Yuryevich to be prince, and the latter sent Ryurik Rostislavich to rule Novgorod.[2]
Prince of Vladimir-in-Volhynia

When his father died, Roman was bequeathed the Principality of Vladimir-in-Volhynia.[3] He subdued the Yatvingians, and harnessed the captives instead of oxen to drag the plows on his estates.[5]

Roman married Predslava Ryurikovna, a daughter of Ryurik Rostislavich (who had followed him in Novgorod).[1] Their eldest daughter was married to Vasilko Vladimirovich, a grandson of Prince Yaroslav Volodimerovich Osmomysl of Halych, but later she was repudiated.[1]

Following the death of Yaroslav Osmomysl on October 1, 1187, trouble began in the Principality of Halych, due to the strife between his two sons,[5] Oleg and Vladimir Yaroslavich.[2] Roman urged the Galicians to evict Vladimir Yaroslavich and make him their prince.[2] But they failed either to expel Vladimir Yaroslavich or to kill him.[2] When, however, the Galicians threatened to kill his wife, Vladimir Yaroslavich took her and fled to King Béla III of Hungary (1172–1196).[2] According to a late chronicle, Oleg Yaroslavich was appointed by Duke Casimir II of Poland (1177–1194) to rule in Halych, but the Galicians poisoned him and invited Roman to be their prince.[2] When accepting their offer, Roman gave his patrimony of Vladimir-in-Volhynia to his brother, Vsevolod Mstislavich.[2]

But King Béla III marched against Roman intending to reinstate Vladimir Yaroslavich,[2] and the Hungarians seized the principality.[5] But King Béla III, instead of returning Halych to Vladimir Yaroslavich, proclaimed his own son, Andrew ruler of the principality.[5]

Roman was obliged to flee to Vladimir-in-Volhynia, but his brother, Vsevolod Mstislavich refused him entry.[2] He therefore went to the Poles, but when they refused to help him, Roman rode to his father-in-law, Ryurik Rostislavich in Belgorod.[2] Roman solicited military aid from his father-in-law, but the Hungarian troops repelled his attack.[2] Ryurik Rostislavich, therefore, helped Roman to drive out Vsevolod Mstislavich from Vladimir-in-Volhynia and return to his patrimony.[2]

Meanwhile Vladimir Yaroslavich succeeded in escaping from his dungeon in Hungary; Duke Casimir II also sent Polish troops to Halych to support Vladimir Yaroslavich’s claims.[5] At the approach of the expedition, the townspeople rose against the Hungarians and expelled Andrew in 1190.[5] Vladimir Yaroslavich requested his uncle Prince Vsevolod III Yuryevich of Vladimir to support his rule.[5] Vsevolod Yuryevich demanded that all the Rus’ princes, among them Roman, pledge not to challenge Vladimir Yaroslavich in Halych and they agreed.[2]

On May 17, 1195, Grand Prince Ryurik Rostislavich (Roman’s father-in-law) allocated domains in the Kievan lands to the princes in Monomakh’s dynasty, and Roman received Torchesk, Trypillia, Korsun, Bohuslav, and Kaniv.[2] Vsevolod III Yuryevich, however, threatened to wage war when he learnt of the allocations, and therefore Roman agreed to relinquish the towns in exchange for comparable domains or a suitable payment in kuny.[2] Ryurik Rostislavich therefore gave the five towns to Vsevolod III Yuryevich, who, in turn, handed over Torchesk to his son-in-law, Rostislav Rurikovich (who was the brother of Roman’s wife).[2] On learning that his brother-in-law had received Torchesk, Roman accused his father-in-law, Ryurik Rostislavich of contriving to give the domain to his son from the very start.[2] Ryurik Rostislavich also warned Roman that they could not afford to alienate Vsevolod III Yuryevich because all the princes in Monomakh’s dynasty recognized him as their senior prince.[2]

Roman refused to be mollified and conspired against his father-in-law, and turned to Prince Yaroslav II Vsevolodovich of Chernigov who agreed to join him.[2] When Ryurik Rostislavich learnt how Roman had persuaded Yaroslav II Vsevolodovich to seize Kiev, he informed Vsevolod III Yuryevich.[2] Fearing retribution, Roman rode to the Poles where he was wounded in battle; he therefore asked Ryurik Rostislavich for clemency.[2] Metropolitan Nikifor reconciled the two princes, and Ryurik Rostislavich gave Roman the town of Polonyy (southwest of Kamianets) and a district on the river Ros’.[2]

In the autumn of 1196 Roman ordered his lieutenants to use Polonyy as their base for raiding the domains belonging to his father-in-law’s brother (Prince David Rostislavich of Smolensk) and son (Prince Rostislav Rurikovich of Torchesk).[2] Ryurik Rostislavich retaliated by sending his nephew, Prince Mstislav Mstislavich of Trepol to Vladimir Yaroslavich of Halych instructing him to join Mstislav Mstislavich in attacking Roman’s lands.[2] Accordingly, Vladimir Yaroslavich and Mstislav Mstislavich razed Roman’s district around Peremil, while Rostislav Ryurikovich and his force attacked Roman’s district near Kamianets.[2] At about that time, Roman began repudiating his wife, Ryurik Rostislavich’s daughter, and threatening to confine her to a monastery.[2] Prince of Halych and Vladimir-in-Volhynia

In 1198 (or 1199)[1] Vladimir II Yaroslavich of Halych died, and his death created a political vacuum that a number of claimants were eager to fill.[2] Ryurik Rostislavich could now claim that, after the dynasty of Halych became defunct, the territory reverted to the jurisdiction of the prince of Kiev; the princes of the two branches of the Olgovichi (the princes of Chernigov) could argue that their marriage ties with the defunct dynasty gave them the right to rule Halych; and the Hungarians had already made a bid for the domain ten years earlier.[2] The Galicians asked Ryurik Rostislavich for his son Rostislav Ryurikovich, but Roman rode to Duke Leszek I of Poland (1194–1227), promising to be at his beck and call if the Polish ruler helped him to win Halych.[2] When the citizens refused to welcome Roman, Duke Leszek I besieged the town, and after capturing it, he forced the townspeople to accept Roman as prince.[2] Roman promised to be subservient to the duke of Poland and to live in peace with his new subjects.[2]

Roman turned his attention to the Cumans, who were threatening Byzantine interests in the Balkan Peninsula, and agreed to come to the assistance of Emperor Alexios III Angelos (1195–1203) and a severe blow was administered to the nomads.[5] In 1200, he married Anna, a Byzantine princess, a relative of Emperor Isaac II Angelos.[5] The relation with Byzantium helped to stabilize Galicia's relations with the Rusian population of the Lower Dniester and the Lower Danube.[7]

Shortly afterwards, Roman began wreaking havoc on domains belonging to Ryurik Rostislavich and other princes.[2] In 1201, Ryurik Rostislavich summoned the Olgovichi to campaign against Roman.[2] Roman pre-empted their attack by rallying the troops of his principality.[2] The Monomashichi and the Black Caps also joined him.[2] The Kievans opened the gates of the podol’ to Roman.[2] He forced Ryurik Rostislavich and the Olgovichi to capitulate; he gave Kiev, with the consent of Vsevolod III Yuryevich, to Prince Ingvar Yaroslavich of Lutsk.[2] However, Ryurik Rostislavich and the Olgovichi re-captured Kiev already on January 2, 1203.[2]

Roman asked Vsevolod III Yuryevich to be pacified with the Olgovichi, and after he had concluded peace with them, he marched against Ryurik Rostislavich in Ovruch on February 16, 1203.[2] Ryurik Rostislavich submitted to Roman and Vsevolod III Yuryevich, and promised to sever relations with the Olgovichi and the Cumans.[2] After that, Roman also advised him to ask Vsevolod III Yuryevich to reinstate him in Kiev and promised to support his request.[2] Consequently, Vsevolod III Yuryevich forgave Ryurik Rostislavich and reappointed him to the town.[2]

That winter Ryurik Rostislavich, Roman and other princes attacked the Cumans and took many captives.[2] After the expedition, they met at Trypillia to allocate domains in accordance with the services that each had rendered in the defense of Rus’.[2] But they quarreled, and Roman seized Ryurik Rostislavich, sent him to Kiev, and had him tonsured as a monk.[2] He also forced Ryurik Rostislavich’s wife and daughter (his own wife whom he had repudiated) to become nuns; and he took Ryurik Rostislavich’s sons (Rostislav and Vladimir Rurikovich) with him to Halych.[2]

Meanwhile, the relations between Roman and Duke Leszek I of Poland deteriorated for both religious and personal reasons.[5] Leszek I was a devout Roman Catholic and it was probably at his suggestion that Pope Innocent III sent his envoys to Roman in 1204, urging him to accept Roman Catholicism and promising to place him under the protection of St Peter’s sword.[5] Roman’s answer, as recorded in the Radziwill chronicle, was characteristic enough: pointing to his own sword he asked the envoys, “Is the Pope’s sword similar to mine? So long as I carry mine, I need no other.”[5]

Duke Leszek I, supported by his brother Duke Konrad I of Masovia, undertook a sudden campaign against Roman.[5] The latter was caught unaware and killed in the first battle[5] at Zawichost.[1]

According to another version, Roman wanted to expand his realm at the expense of Poland and died in an ambush while entering Polish territory.[8] Marriage and children

1. Predslava Rurikovna, a daughter of Grand Prince Ryurik Rostislavich of Kiev and his wife, Anna Yuryevna of Turov[1]

       Fedora Romanovna (?–after 1200), wife of Vasilko Vladimirovich of Halych;[1]
       Elena Romanovna[2] (or Maria Romanovna) (?–after 1241), wife of Prince Mikhail Vsevolodovich of Chernigov[1]
       (?) Salomea Romanovna (?–before 1220), wife of Duke Swantopolk I of Pommerellen,[1] her mother is uncertain;[9]

2. (1197/1200): Anna-Euphrosine, a relative of Emperor Isaac II Angelos[1]

       King Daniel Romanovich of Halych (1201/1202–1264)[1]
       King Vasylko Romanovich of Halych (1203/1204–1269)[1]

See also

   List of Ukrainian rulers
   List of people known as The Great

Ancestors [show]Ancestors of Roman Mstislavich[1] Footnotes

Charles Cawley (2008-05-19). "Russia, Rurikids – Chapter 3: Princes of Galich C. Princes of Volynia, Princes and Kings of Galich". Medieval Lands. Foundation of Medieval Genealogy. Retrieved 2009-12-26. Dimnik, Martin. The Dynasty of Chernigov - 1146-1246. Roman Senkus (Managing Editor) (2001-XX-YY). "Roman Mstyslavych [Mstyslavy%C4%8D] (Romanko)". Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. Retrieved 2009-12-26. Check date values in: |date= (help) Subtelny, Orest. Ukraine: A History. Vernadsky, George. Kievan Russia. Roman Senkus (Managing Editor) (2001-XX-YY). "Romanovych dynasty [Romanovy%C4%8D]". Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. Retrieved 2009-12-26. Check date values in: |date= (help) Alexander V. Maiorov, The Alliance between Byzantium and Rus’ Before the Conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204,Russian History, Volume 42, Issue 3, pages 272 – 303. Publication Year : 2015 This desire to extend the boundaries of an already extensive realm proved to be the cause of his undoing. In 1205, while crossing into Polish territory, Roman was killed in an ambush. Orest Subtelny, Ukraine: a history, University of Toronto Press, 2000, p. 61.

   Monomakh branch (Volhynia) at Izbornik

Sources

   Dimnik, Martin: The Dynasty of Chernigov - 1146-1246; Cambridge University Press, 2003, Cambridge; ISBN 978-0-521-03981-9.
   Subtelny, Orest: Ukraine: A History; University of Toronto Press, 2000, Toronto, Buffalo & London; ISBN 0-8020-8390-0
   Vernadsky, George: Kievan Russia; Yale University Press, 1948, New Haven and London; ISBN 0-300-01647-6.


Roman Mstislavich; Ukrainian: Роман Мстиславич/Roman Mstyslavych), known as Roman the Great (c. 1152 – Zawichost, 19 June 1205) was a Rus’ prince, Grand Prince of Kyiv (a member of the Rurik dynasty).

He was prince of Novgorod (1168–1170), of Vladimir-in-Volhynia (1170–1189, 1189–1205), and of Halych (1189, 1198/99–1205). By seizing the throne of Halych, he became the master of all western Rus’. In the early 13th century, the Byzantine imperial title, "autocrate" (αύτοκράτωρ) was applied by the chroniclers to him, but there is no evidence that he assumed it officially.

He waged two successful campaigns against the Cumans, from which he returned with many rescued captives. The effect of Roman’s victory was, however, undermined by new dissensions among the princes of Rus’.

Roman died in a battle with the Poles at the Battle of Zawichost. He founded the Romanovich dynasty that would rule Vladimir-in-Volhynia and Halych until 1340.

He was the eldest son of Mstislav Izyaslavich (who was prince of Vladimir-in-Volhynia at that time), and Agnes, a daughter of Duke Bolesław III of Poland.

After the Novgorodians had expelled their prince, Svyatoslav IV Rostislavich, Roman was sent to Novgorod on 14 April 1168 by his father (who had earlier occupied Kiev). However, the princes of Smolensk (Svyatoslav IV Rostislavich’s brothers) and Prince Andrey Yuryevich of Vladimir (who had supported Svyatoslav IV Rostislavich’s rule in Novgorod) spent the rest of the year conspiring and forming alliances against Mstislav Izyaslavich.

Following the death of Mstislav Iziaslavich in August, 1170, the Novgorodians expelled Roman and invited Andrey Yuryevich to be prince, and the latter sent Ryurik Rostislavich to rule Novgorod.

When his father died, Roman was bequeathed the Principality of Vladimir-in-Volhynia. He subdued the Yotvingians, and harnessed the captives instead of oxen to drag the plows on his estates.

Roman married Predslava Ryurikovna, a daughter of Ryurik Rostislavich (who had followed him in Novgorod). Their eldest daughter was married to Vasilko Vladimirovich, a grandson of Prince Yaroslav Volodimerovich Osmomysl of Halych, but later she was repudiated.

Following the death of Yaroslav Osmomysl on 1 October 1187, trouble began in the Principality of Halych, due to the strife between his two sons, Oleg and Vladimir Yaroslavich. Roman urged the Galicians to evict Vladimir Yaroslavich and make him their prince. But they failed either to expel Vladimir Yaroslavich or to kill him. When, however, the Galicians threatened to kill his wife, Vladimir Yaroslavich took her and fled to King Béla III of Hungary (1172–1196). According to a late chronicle, Oleg Yaroslavich was appointed by Duke Casimir II of Poland (1177–1194) to rule in Halych, but the Galicians poisoned him and invited Roman to be their prince. When accepting their offer, Roman gave his patrimony of Vladimir-in-Volhynia to his brother, Vsevolod Mstislavich.

But King Béla III marched against Roman intending to reinstate Vladimir Yaroslavich, and the Hungarians seized the principality. But King Béla III, instead of returning Halych to Vladimir Yaroslavich, proclaimed his own son, Andrew ruler of the principality.

Roman was obliged to flee to Vladimir-in-Volhynia, but his brother, Vsevolod Mstislavich refused him entry. He therefore went to the Poles, but when they refused to help him, Roman rode to his father-in-law, Ryurik Rostislavich in Belgorod. Roman solicited military aid from his father-in-law, but the Hungarian troops repelled his attack. Ryurik Rostislavich, therefore, helped Roman to drive out Vsevolod Mstislavich from Vladimir-in-Volhynia and return to his patrimony.

Meanwhile, Vladimir Yaroslavich succeeded in escaping from his dungeon in Hungary; Duke Casimir II also sent Polish troops to Halych to support Vladimir Yaroslavich’s claims. At the approach of the expedition, the townspeople rose against the Hungarians and expelled Andrew in 1190. Vladimir Yaroslavich requested his uncle Prince Vsevolod III Yuryevich of Vladimir to support his rule. Vsevolod Yuryevich demanded that all the Rus’ princes, among them Roman, pledge not to challenge Vladimir Yaroslavich in Halych and they agreed.

On 17 May 1195, Grand Prince Ryurik Rostislavich (Roman’s father-in-law) allocated domains in the Kievan lands to the princes in Monomakh’s dynasty, and Roman received Torchesk, Trypillia, Korsun, Bohuslav, and Kaniv. Vsevolod III Yuryevich, however, threatened to wage war when he learnt of the allocations, and therefore Roman agreed to relinquish the towns in exchange for comparable domains or a suitable payment in kuny. Ryurik Rostislavich therefore gave the five towns to Vsevolod III Yuryevich, who, in turn, handed over Torchesk to his son-in-law, Rostislav Rurikovich (who was the brother of Roman’s wife). On learning that his brother-in-law had received Torchesk, Roman accused his father-in-law, Ryurik Rostislavich of contriving to give the domain to his son from the very start. Ryurik Rostislavich also warned Roman that they could not afford to alienate Vsevolod III Yuryevich because all the princes in Monomakh’s dynasty recognized him as their senior prince.

Roman refused to be mollified and conspired against his father-in-law, and turned to Prince Yaroslav II Vsevolodovich of Chernigov who agreed to join him. When Ryurik Rostislavich learnt how Roman had persuaded Yaroslav II Vsevolodovich to seize Kiev, he informed Vsevolod III Yuryevich. Fearing retribution, Roman rode to the Poles where he was wounded in battle; he therefore asked Ryurik Rostislavich for clemency. Metropolitan Nikifor reconciled the two princes, and Ryurik Rostislavich gave Roman the town of Polonyy (southwest of Kamianets) and a district on the river Ros’.

In the autumn of 1196 Roman ordered his lieutenants to use Polonyy as their base for raiding the domains belonging to his father-in-law’s brother (Prince David Rostislavich of Smolensk) and son (Prince Rostislav Rurikovich of Torchesk). Ryurik Rostislavich retaliated by sending his nephew, Prince Mstislav Mstislavich of Trepol to Vladimir Yaroslavich of Halych instructing him to join Mstislav Mstislavich in attacking Roman’s lands. Accordingly, Vladimir Yaroslavich and Mstislav Mstislavich razed Roman’s district around Peremil, while Rostislav Ryurikovich and his force attacked Roman’s district near Kamianets. At about that time, Roman began repudiating his wife, Ryurik Rostislavich’s daughter, and threatening to confine her to a monastery.

In 1198 (or 1199)[1] Vladimir II Yaroslavich of Halych died, and his death created a political vacuum that a number of claimants were eager to fill. Ryurik Rostislavich could now claim that, after the dynasty of Halych became defunct, the territory reverted to the jurisdiction of the prince of Kyiv; the princes of the two branches of the Olgovichi (the princes of Chernigov) could argue that their marriage ties with the defunct dynasty gave them the right to rule Halych; and the Hungarians had already made a bid for the domain ten years earlier. The Galicians asked Ryurik Rostislavich for his son Rostislav Ryurikovich, but Roman rode to Duke Leszek I of Poland (1194–1227), promising to be at his beck and call if the Polish ruler helped him to win Halych. When the citizens refused to welcome Roman, Duke Leszek I besieged the town, and after capturing it, he forced the townspeople to accept Roman as prince. Roman promised to be subservient to the duke of Poland and to live in peace with his new subjects.

Roman turned his attention to the Cumans, who were threatening Byzantine interests in the Balkan Peninsula, and agreed to come to the assistance of Emperor Alexios III Angelos (1195–1203) and a severe blow was administered to the nomads.[5] In 1200, he married Anna, a Byzantine princess, a relative of Emperor Isaac II Angelos. The relation with Byzantium helped to stabilize Galicia's relations with the Rusian population of the Lower Dniester and the Lower Danube.

Shortly afterwards, Roman began wreaking havoc on domains belonging to Ryurik Rostislavich and other princes.[2] In 1201, Ryurik Rostislavich summoned the Olgovichi to campaign against Roman.[2] Roman pre-empted their attack by rallying the troops of his principality. The Monomashichi and the Black Caps also joined him. The Kievans opened the gates of the podol’ to Roman. He forced Ryurik Rostislavich and the Olgovichi to capitulate; he gave Kiev, with the consent of Vsevolod III Yuryevich, to Prince Ingvar Yaroslavich of Lutsk.However, Ryurik Rostislavich and the Olgovichi re-captured Kiev already on 2 January 1203.

Roman asked Vsevolod III Yuryevich to be pacified with the Olgovichi, and after he had concluded peace with them, he marched against Ryurik Rostislavich in Ovruch on 16 February 1203. Ryurik Rostislavich submitted to Roman and Vsevolod III Yuryevich, and promised to sever relations with the Olgovichi and the Cumans.[2] After that, Roman also advised him to ask Vsevolod III Yuryevich to reinstate him in Kiev and promised to support his request. Consequently, Vsevolod III Yuryevich forgave Ryurik Rostislavich and reappointed him to the town.

That winter Ryurik Rostislavich, Roman and other princes attacked the Cumans and took many captives. After the expedition, they met at Trypillia to allocate domains in accordance with the services that each had rendered in the defense of Rus’. But they quarreled, and Roman seized Ryurik Rostislavich, sent him to Kiev, and had him tonsured as a monk. He also forced Ryurik Rostislavich’s wife and daughter (his own wife whom he had repudiated) to become nuns; and he took Ryurik Rostislavich’s sons (Rostislav and Vladimir Rurikovich) with him to Halych.

Meanwhile, the relations between Roman and Duke Leszek I of Poland deteriorated for both religious and personal reasons. Leszek I was a devout Roman Catholic and it was probably at his suggestion that Pope Innocent III sent his envoys to Roman in 1204, urging him to accept Roman Catholicism and promising to place him under the protection of St Peter’s sword. Roman’s answer, as recorded in the Radziwill chronicle, was characteristic enough: pointing to his own sword he asked the envoys, “Is the Pope’s sword similar to mine? So long as I carry mine, I need no other.”

Duke Leszek I, supported by his brother Duke Konrad I of Masovia, undertook a sudden campaign against Roman. The latter was caught unaware and killed in the first battle at Zawichost.

According to another version, Roman wanted to expand his realm at the expense of Poland and died in an ambush while entering Polish territory.

1. Predslava Rurikovna, a daughter of Grand Prince Ryurik Rostislavich of Kiev and his wife, Anna Yuryevna of Turov Fedora Romanovna (?–after 1200), wife of Vasilko Vladimirovich of Halych; Elena Romanovna[2] (or Maria Romanovna) (?–after 1241), wife of Prince Mikhail Vsevolodovich of Chernigov (?) Salomea Romanovna (?–before 1220), wife of Duke Swantopolk I of Pommerellen, her mother is uncertain;

2. (1197/1200): Anna-Euphrosine, a relative of Emperor Isaac II Angelos King Daniel Romanovich of Halych (1201/1202–1264) King Vasylko Romanovich of Halych (1203/1204–1269)


Роман Мстиславич, або Роман Великий (у хрещенні Борис; бл.1152 — 19 червня 1205) — Великий князь Київський (1204-1205), князь новгородський (1168—1170), володимирський (1170—1187, з 1188), галицький (1188, з 1199) з династії Рюриковичів. Засновник Галицько-Волинського князівства і патріарх тамтешнього правлячого роду Романовичів. Вважався сучасниками наймогутнішим з усіх руських (давньоукраїнських) князів кінця XII — початку XIII століття, за що був прозваний «Великим».

Роман Мстиславич був сином великого київського князя Мстислава II Ізяславича та його дружини Агнешки — дочки польського князя Болеслава III Кривоустого.

Між 1168 та 1169 роками правив у Новгородському князівстві. Після смерті Мстислава II Ізяславовича волинські землі були поділені між його синами: Роман одержав Володимир-Волинський, Всеволод — Белз, Святослав — Червен, Володимир — Берестя. Незабаром, завдяки своїм особистим якостям, Роману вдалося добитися домінантного впливу в усіх волинських землях. По смерті останнього галицького князя з династії Ростиславичів — Володимира, сина Ярослава Осмомисла, — приєднав Галицьке князівство до Волинського (1199), створивши Галицько-Волинську державу. Здібний політик і добрий полководець, жорстоко приборкавши непокірних бояр, мав підтримку у міщанства. У двох походах 1201-1202 і 1203-1204 років його війська розбили половців і визволили чимало бранців. Вершиною його успіхів було взяття Києва та включення його у сферу своїх впливів. У зовнішній політиці Роман Мстиславович підтримував тісний союз із Візантією та Угорщиною, мав тісні зв'язки з Римським Папою Інокентієм ІІІ, перемагав неспокійних сусідів — половців і литовські племена, втрутився в справи німецьких князів, через свою другу дружину Єфросинію-Анну був споріднений з імператором Священої римської імперії Філіпом Швабським, який був одружений з сестрою Єфросинії — Іриною Ангеліною.

Роман Мстиславович намагався подолати роздрібненість Київської Русі. Був ініціатором зміни порядку престолонаслідування на основі принципу майорату. Проте передчасна смерть не дозволила реалізувати йому амбіційні плани.

1204 року Папа Римський Інокентій ІІІ вислав до Великого князя Київського Романа посольство й запропонував надати йому королівську корону та титул Короля Русі, одначе Роман відмовився й пішов війною на Польщу. Він просив благословення від Володимирського єпископа на цю війну, проте єпископ не підтримав дії князя.

Підтримував тісні зв'язки з бенедиктинцями монастиря св. Петра в Ерфурті.

У 1205 році Роман з якоїсь причини розірвав багаторічний союз з Лешком Білим і його братом Конрадом, вторгся в Малопольщу, взяв два міста і зупинився на Віслі поблизу Завихоста. Тут, від'їхавши з малим загоном від головних сил, Роман несподівано був атакований поляками і загинув в бою. Уява польських хроністів перетворило цю сутичку в грандіозна битва (битва при Завихості).

Був тимчасово похований у церкві святого Якова на передмісті Сандомира. Ян Длугош стверджував про викуп тіла за 1000 фунтів срібла. Теофіль Коструба твердив, що князь мав бути похований в Успенському соборі Володимира. І. Крип'якевич на основі праць Я. Длугоша, Л. Войтович підтримали варіант поховання у Володимирі. Б. Томенчук, Д. Домбровський вважали, що князь був похований у невідомому монастирі Володимира, де пізніше поховали дружину. В Суздальському літописі стверджується про поховання князя в Успенському соборі Галича. О. Головко припускає, що князь міг бути похований в збудованій за його сприяння Церкві святого Пантелеймона (тепер с. Шевченкове), біля якої нещодавно після розкопок знайшли залишки його резиденції.

Після смерті у Романа Мстиславича залишилось двоє малолітніх синів Данила (4 роки) та Василька (2 роки). Одразу після його смерті невдоволене галицьке боярство вигнало малолітніх князів з їхньої матір'ю та запросило на князювання сіверських князів Ігоревичів. Романовичі не змирилися з цим і почали боротьбу за свою спадщину, яка тривала близько 40 років, і завершилась їхнім утвердженням в Галицько-Волинському князівстві.

Сучасний Роману Мстиславичу літописець, оцінюючи його заслуги у справі з'єднання більшості руських земель, називає його «самодержцем усієї Руси»[2]. Також власне Галицько-Волинський літопис починається половецькою казкою про Романа:

« По смерті ж великого князя Романа, вікопомного самодержця всеї Русі, який одолів усі поганські народи, мудрістю ума додержуючи заповідей божих, [*...] Він бо кинувся був на поганих, як той лев, сердитий же був, як та рись, і губив [%D1%97%D1%85], як той крокодил, і переходив землю їх, як той орел, а хоробрий був, як той тур, бо він ревно наслідував предка свого Мономаха, що погубив поганих ізмаїльтян, тобто половців, вигнав [%D1%85%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B0 їхнього] Отрока в Обези за Залізнії ворота, а [%D1%85%D0%B0%D0%BD] Сирчан зостався коло Дону, рибою живлячись. »

У Татіщева Роман має таку характеристику:[6]

« Сей Роман Мстиславич, онук Ізяславів, на зріст був хоча не дуже великий, але широкий і понад міру сильний; з лиця гарний, очі чорні, ніс великий з горбом, волосся чорне і коротке; вельми ярий був у гніві; запинався, коли сердився, довго не міг слова вимовити; багато веселився з вельможами, але п'яним ніколи не був. Багатьох жінок любив, але жодна ним не володіла. Воїн був хоробрий і вмілий на військові виправи; найпаче [%D1%86%D0%B5] він показав, коли угрів велике військо з малим своїм розбив. Усе життя своє у війнах провадив, багато перемог здобув, а в одній був переможений. Через те всім навколишнім був страшний. Коли йшов на поляків, то сказав: «Або поляків подолаю і підкорю, або сам не вернусь!» І збулося останнє »

Ян Длугош у своїй Хроніці описує Романа як жорстокого тирана і насильника, однак у Длугоша практично всі українські діячі мають негативні характеристики, оскільки були ворогами поляків.

« Зневаживши клятву і договір, він закликає до себе і хапає перших з галичан, які нічого дурного від нього не чекали, з яких кого публічно страчує мечем, кого закопує і засипає піском, кого на очах у всіх розриває на частини, з кого здирає шкіру, у кого вириває нутрощі, багатьох, прив'язавши як мішень до стовпа, розстрілює стрілами і умертвляє різними [%D1%96%D0%BD%D1%88%D0%B8%D0%BC%D0%B8] стратами. Рідні, близькі та сини убитих воїнів і майже вся знать, приголомшені такою жахливою жорстокістю, втекли в сусідні землі, покладаючи у своїх квилінні і скаргах всю провину на польського князя Лестко і поляків, що поставили над ними настільки лютого князя, що не має, крім людського вигляду, нічого людського. Тоді Роман, вживши свою хитрість, перебільшеними ласками і обіцянками знову закликає їх і, протримавши недовго в честі і милості, зрештою вбиває, піддавши різним тортурам. Він винищує своїм тиранством майже всю галицьку знать, маючи звичай, на виправдання своїх злочинів, вживати прислів'я, що стала [%D0%B4%D0%BB%D1%8F нього] свого роду урочистим оракулом небес: „Ніхто не зможе спокійно насолодитися медом, якщо спершу не прігнітить бджолиний рій“. Своєю лютістю і тиранством він навів не тільки на своїх, але й на сусідів такий страх, здобув собі за короткий час таку славу і владу, що з легкістю володів усіма руськими областями і всі князі Русі були його данниками і підданими. Це часто пригнічувало поляків, що не пішло б діло до їх смерті, [%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%B5] вони найчастіше мовчали, побоюючись, щоб загроза тиранії Романа коли-небудь не впала і на них.

About Roman Halicki (Polski)

Roman Mścisławowicz, Roman II halicki (ukr. Роман Мстиславич) - (ur. między 1155 a 1162, zm. 19 czerwca 1205, okolice Zawichostu) – książę Nowogrodu Wielkiego w latach 1168-1170, książę włodzimiersko-wołyński w latach 1170-1199, od 1199 książę halicko-włodzimierski, od 1203 władca Kijowa, syn Mścisława II Iziasławicza z dynastii Rurykowiczów.

Wikipedia PL

Wikipedia UA

Wikipedia: English, Polski, Русский

Roman Mstislavich (Russian and Ukrainian: Роман Мстиславич), also Roman Mstyslavych or Roman the Great, born sometime after 1160, died at Zawichost, October 14, 1205

Married:

  1. Vasilkovna
  2. Predslawa Rjurikowna Kijewskaja
  3. Anna Исааковна of Byzantium

Roman the great and Predslawa had three children:

  1. Princess Feodora of Galicia
  2. Princess Maria of Galicia
  3. Solomea of Galitzki

Roman the Great and Anna of Byzantium had two children:

  1. Daniel Romanovich of Galicia, 1st King of Ruthenia
  2. Prince Vasiliko Romanovich

Roman the Great was the son of Mstislav II Izyaslavich and Agnes of Poland.

Roman the Great was a Rus’ prince, Grand Prince of Kiev (a member of the Rurik dynasty).

He was prince of Novgorod (1168–1170), of Vladimir-in-Volhynia (1170–1189, 1189–1205), and of Halych (1189, 1198/99–1205). By seizing the throne of Halych, he became the master of all western Rus’

Roman died in a battle with the Poles. He founded the Romanovich dynasty that would rule Vladimir-in-Volhynia and Halych until 1340.

Genealogy: Rurik of Russia


Roman Mstislavich[1][2] (Russian and Ukrainian: Роман Мстиславич), also Roman Mstyslavych[3] or Roman the Great,[4] (c. 1152 – Zawichost, October 14, 1205) was a Rus’ prince, Grand Prince of Kiev (a member of the Rurik dynasty).[3]

He was prince of Novgorod (1168–1170), of Vladimir-in-Volhynia (1170–1189, 1189–1205), and of Halych (1189, 1198/99–1205).[2] By seizing the throne of Halych, he became the master of all western Rus’.[5] In the early 13th century, the Byzantine imperial title, "autocrate" (αύτοκράτωρ) was applied by the chroniclers to him, but there is no evidence that he assumed it officially.[5]

He waged two successful campaigns against the Cumans, from which he returned with many rescued captives.[3] The effect of Roman’s victory was, however, undermined by new dissensions among the princes of Rus’.[5]

Roman died in a battle with the Poles.[5] He founded the Romanovich dynasty[3] that would rule Vladimir-in-Volhynia and Halych until 1340.[6]

Early years

He was the eldest son of Mstislav Izyaslavich (who was prince of Vladimir-in-Volhynia at that time), and Agnes, a daughter of Duke Bolesław III of Poland.[1]

After the Novgorodians had expelled their prince, Svyatoslav IV Rostislavich, Roman was sent to Novgorod on April 14, 1168 by his father (who had earlier occupied Kiev).[2] However, the princes of Smolensk (Svyatoslav IV Rostislavich’s brothers) and Prince Andrey Yuryevich of Vladimir (who had supported Svyatoslav IV Rostislavich’s rule in Novgorod) spent the rest of the year conspiring and forming alliances against Mstislav Izyaslavich.[2]

Following the death of Mstislav Iziaslavich on August, 1170, the Novgorodians expelled Roman and invited Andrey Yuryevich to be prince, and the latter sent Ryurik Rostislavich to rule Novgorod.[2]
Prince of Vladimir-in-Volhynia

When his father died, Roman was bequeathed the Principality of Vladimir-in-Volhynia.[3] He subdued the Yatvingians, and harnessed the captives instead of oxen to drag the plows on his estates.[5]

Roman married Predslava Ryurikovna, a daughter of Ryurik Rostislavich (who had followed him in Novgorod).[1] Their eldest daughter was married to Vasilko Vladimirovich, a grandson of Prince Yaroslav Volodimerovich Osmomysl of Halych, but later she was repudiated.[1]

Following the death of Yaroslav Osmomysl on October 1, 1187, trouble began in the Principality of Halych, due to the strife between his two sons,[5] Oleg and Vladimir Yaroslavich.[2] Roman urged the Galicians to evict Vladimir Yaroslavich and make him their prince.[2] But they failed either to expel Vladimir Yaroslavich or to kill him.[2] When, however, the Galicians threatened to kill his wife, Vladimir Yaroslavich took her and fled to King Béla III of Hungary (1172–1196).[2] According to a late chronicle, Oleg Yaroslavich was appointed by Duke Casimir II of Poland (1177–1194) to rule in Halych, but the Galicians poisoned him and invited Roman to be their prince.[2] When accepting their offer, Roman gave his patrimony of Vladimir-in-Volhynia to his brother, Vsevolod Mstislavich.[2]

But King Béla III marched against Roman intending to reinstate Vladimir Yaroslavich,[2] and the Hungarians seized the principality.[5] But King Béla III, instead of returning Halych to Vladimir Yaroslavich, proclaimed his own son, Andrew ruler of the principality.[5]

Roman was obliged to flee to Vladimir-in-Volhynia, but his brother, Vsevolod Mstislavich refused him entry.[2] He therefore went to the Poles, but when they refused to help him, Roman rode to his father-in-law, Ryurik Rostislavich in Belgorod.[2] Roman solicited military aid from his father-in-law, but the Hungarian troops repelled his attack.[2] Ryurik Rostislavich, therefore, helped Roman to drive out Vsevolod Mstislavich from Vladimir-in-Volhynia and return to his patrimony.[2]

Meanwhile Vladimir Yaroslavich succeeded in escaping from his dungeon in Hungary; Duke Casimir II also sent Polish troops to Halych to support Vladimir Yaroslavich’s claims.[5] At the approach of the expedition, the townspeople rose against the Hungarians and expelled Andrew in 1190.[5] Vladimir Yaroslavich requested his uncle Prince Vsevolod III Yuryevich of Vladimir to support his rule.[5] Vsevolod Yuryevich demanded that all the Rus’ princes, among them Roman, pledge not to challenge Vladimir Yaroslavich in Halych and they agreed.[2]

On May 17, 1195, Grand Prince Ryurik Rostislavich (Roman’s father-in-law) allocated domains in the Kievan lands to the princes in Monomakh’s dynasty, and Roman received Torchesk, Trypillia, Korsun, Bohuslav, and Kaniv.[2] Vsevolod III Yuryevich, however, threatened to wage war when he learnt of the allocations, and therefore Roman agreed to relinquish the towns in exchange for comparable domains or a suitable payment in kuny.[2] Ryurik Rostislavich therefore gave the five towns to Vsevolod III Yuryevich, who, in turn, handed over Torchesk to his son-in-law, Rostislav Rurikovich (who was the brother of Roman’s wife).[2] On learning that his brother-in-law had received Torchesk, Roman accused his father-in-law, Ryurik Rostislavich of contriving to give the domain to his son from the very start.[2] Ryurik Rostislavich also warned Roman that they could not afford to alienate Vsevolod III Yuryevich because all the princes in Monomakh’s dynasty recognized him as their senior prince.[2]

Roman refused to be mollified and conspired against his father-in-law, and turned to Prince Yaroslav II Vsevolodovich of Chernigov who agreed to join him.[2] When Ryurik Rostislavich learnt how Roman had persuaded Yaroslav II Vsevolodovich to seize Kiev, he informed Vsevolod III Yuryevich.[2] Fearing retribution, Roman rode to the Poles where he was wounded in battle; he therefore asked Ryurik Rostislavich for clemency.[2] Metropolitan Nikifor reconciled the two princes, and Ryurik Rostislavich gave Roman the town of Polonyy (southwest of Kamianets) and a district on the river Ros’.[2]

In the autumn of 1196 Roman ordered his lieutenants to use Polonyy as their base for raiding the domains belonging to his father-in-law’s brother (Prince David Rostislavich of Smolensk) and son (Prince Rostislav Rurikovich of Torchesk).[2] Ryurik Rostislavich retaliated by sending his nephew, Prince Mstislav Mstislavich of Trepol to Vladimir Yaroslavich of Halych instructing him to join Mstislav Mstislavich in attacking Roman’s lands.[2] Accordingly, Vladimir Yaroslavich and Mstislav Mstislavich razed Roman’s district around Peremil, while Rostislav Ryurikovich and his force attacked Roman’s district near Kamianets.[2] At about that time, Roman began repudiating his wife, Ryurik Rostislavich’s daughter, and threatening to confine her to a monastery.[2] Prince of Halych and Vladimir-in-Volhynia

In 1198 (or 1199)[1] Vladimir II Yaroslavich of Halych died, and his death created a political vacuum that a number of claimants were eager to fill.[2] Ryurik Rostislavich could now claim that, after the dynasty of Halych became defunct, the territory reverted to the jurisdiction of the prince of Kiev; the princes of the two branches of the Olgovichi (the princes of Chernigov) could argue that their marriage ties with the defunct dynasty gave them the right to rule Halych; and the Hungarians had already made a bid for the domain ten years earlier.[2] The Galicians asked Ryurik Rostislavich for his son Rostislav Ryurikovich, but Roman rode to Duke Leszek I of Poland (1194–1227), promising to be at his beck and call if the Polish ruler helped him to win Halych.[2] When the citizens refused to welcome Roman, Duke Leszek I besieged the town, and after capturing it, he forced the townspeople to accept Roman as prince.[2] Roman promised to be subservient to the duke of Poland and to live in peace with his new subjects.[2]

Roman turned his attention to the Cumans, who were threatening Byzantine interests in the Balkan Peninsula, and agreed to come to the assistance of Emperor Alexios III Angelos (1195–1203) and a severe blow was administered to the nomads.[5] In 1200, he married Anna, a Byzantine princess, a relative of Emperor Isaac II Angelos.[5] The relation with Byzantium helped to stabilize Galicia's relations with the Rusian population of the Lower Dniester and the Lower Danube.[7]

Shortly afterwards, Roman began wreaking havoc on domains belonging to Ryurik Rostislavich and other princes.[2] In 1201, Ryurik Rostislavich summoned the Olgovichi to campaign against Roman.[2] Roman pre-empted their attack by rallying the troops of his principality.[2] The Monomashichi and the Black Caps also joined him.[2] The Kievans opened the gates of the podol’ to Roman.[2] He forced Ryurik Rostislavich and the Olgovichi to capitulate; he gave Kiev, with the consent of Vsevolod III Yuryevich, to Prince Ingvar Yaroslavich of Lutsk.[2] However, Ryurik Rostislavich and the Olgovichi re-captured Kiev already on January 2, 1203.[2]

Roman asked Vsevolod III Yuryevich to be pacified with the Olgovichi, and after he had concluded peace with them, he marched against Ryurik Rostislavich in Ovruch on February 16, 1203.[2] Ryurik Rostislavich submitted to Roman and Vsevolod III Yuryevich, and promised to sever relations with the Olgovichi and the Cumans.[2] After that, Roman also advised him to ask Vsevolod III Yuryevich to reinstate him in Kiev and promised to support his request.[2] Consequently, Vsevolod III Yuryevich forgave Ryurik Rostislavich and reappointed him to the town.[2]

That winter Ryurik Rostislavich, Roman and other princes attacked the Cumans and took many captives.[2] After the expedition, they met at Trypillia to allocate domains in accordance with the services that each had rendered in the defense of Rus’.[2] But they quarreled, and Roman seized Ryurik Rostislavich, sent him to Kiev, and had him tonsured as a monk.[2] He also forced Ryurik Rostislavich’s wife and daughter (his own wife whom he had repudiated) to become nuns; and he took Ryurik Rostislavich’s sons (Rostislav and Vladimir Rurikovich) with him to Halych.[2]

Meanwhile, the relations between Roman and Duke Leszek I of Poland deteriorated for both religious and personal reasons.[5] Leszek I was a devout Roman Catholic and it was probably at his suggestion that Pope Innocent III sent his envoys to Roman in 1204, urging him to accept Roman Catholicism and promising to place him under the protection of St Peter’s sword.[5] Roman’s answer, as recorded in the Radziwill chronicle, was characteristic enough: pointing to his own sword he asked the envoys, “Is the Pope’s sword similar to mine? So long as I carry mine, I need no other.”[5]

Duke Leszek I, supported by his brother Duke Konrad I of Masovia, undertook a sudden campaign against Roman.[5] The latter was caught unaware and killed in the first battle[5] at Zawichost.[1]

According to another version, Roman wanted to expand his realm at the expense of Poland and died in an ambush while entering Polish territory.[8] Marriage and children

1. Predslava Rurikovna, a daughter of Grand Prince Ryurik Rostislavich of Kiev and his wife, Anna Yuryevna of Turov[1]

       Fedora Romanovna (?–after 1200), wife of Vasilko Vladimirovich of Halych;[1]
       Elena Romanovna[2] (or Maria Romanovna) (?–after 1241), wife of Prince Mikhail Vsevolodovich of Chernigov[1]
       (?) Salomea Romanovna (?–before 1220), wife of Duke Swantopolk I of Pommerellen,[1] her mother is uncertain;[9]

2. (1197/1200): Anna-Euphrosine, a relative of Emperor Isaac II Angelos[1]

       King Daniel Romanovich of Halych (1201/1202–1264)[1]
       King Vasylko Romanovich of Halych (1203/1204–1269)[1]

See also

   List of Ukrainian rulers
   List of people known as The Great

Ancestors [show]Ancestors of Roman Mstislavich[1] Footnotes

Charles Cawley (2008-05-19). "Russia, Rurikids – Chapter 3: Princes of Galich C. Princes of Volynia, Princes and Kings of Galich". Medieval Lands. Foundation of Medieval Genealogy. Retrieved 2009-12-26. Dimnik, Martin. The Dynasty of Chernigov - 1146-1246. Roman Senkus (Managing Editor) (2001-XX-YY). "Roman Mstyslavych [Mstyslavy%C4%8D] (Romanko)". Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. Retrieved 2009-12-26. Check date values in: |date= (help) Subtelny, Orest. Ukraine: A History. Vernadsky, George. Kievan Russia. Roman Senkus (Managing Editor) (2001-XX-YY). "Romanovych dynasty [Romanovy%C4%8D]". Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. Retrieved 2009-12-26. Check date values in: |date= (help) Alexander V. Maiorov, The Alliance between Byzantium and Rus’ Before the Conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204,Russian History, Volume 42, Issue 3, pages 272 – 303. Publication Year : 2015 This desire to extend the boundaries of an already extensive realm proved to be the cause of his undoing. In 1205, while crossing into Polish territory, Roman was killed in an ambush. Orest Subtelny, Ukraine: a history, University of Toronto Press, 2000, p. 61.

   Monomakh branch (Volhynia) at Izbornik

Sources

   Dimnik, Martin: The Dynasty of Chernigov - 1146-1246; Cambridge University Press, 2003, Cambridge; ISBN 978-0-521-03981-9.
   Subtelny, Orest: Ukraine: A History; University of Toronto Press, 2000, Toronto, Buffalo & London; ISBN 0-8020-8390-0
   Vernadsky, George: Kievan Russia; Yale University Press, 1948, New Haven and London; ISBN 0-300-01647-6.


Roman II Mścisławowicz Halicki (z d. Rurykowicz) Urodzony: 1153 Zmarł: 19 cze 1205 (w wieku ‎~52‏) W: okolice Zawichostu

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Wikipedia: English, Polski, Русский

Roman Mstislavich; Ukrainian: Роман Мстиславич/Roman Mstyslavych), known as Roman the Great (c. 1152 – Zawichost, 19 June 1205) was a Rus’ prince, Grand Prince of Kyiv (a member of the Rurik dynasty).

He was prince of Novgorod (1168–1170), of Vladimir-in-Volhynia (1170–1189, 1189–1205), and of Halych (1189, 1198/99–1205). By seizing the throne of Halych, he became the master of all western Rus’. In the early 13th century, the Byzantine imperial title, "autocrate" (αύτοκράτωρ) was applied by the chroniclers to him, but there is no evidence that he assumed it officially.

He waged two successful campaigns against the Cumans, from which he returned with many rescued captives. The effect of Roman’s victory was, however, undermined by new dissensions among the princes of Rus’.

Roman died in a battle with the Poles at the Battle of Zawichost. He founded the Romanovich dynasty that would rule Vladimir-in-Volhynia and Halych until 1340.

He was the eldest son of Mstislav Izyaslavich (who was prince of Vladimir-in-Volhynia at that time), and Agnes, a daughter of Duke Bolesław III of Poland.

After the Novgorodians had expelled their prince, Svyatoslav IV Rostislavich, Roman was sent to Novgorod on 14 April 1168 by his father (who had earlier occupied Kiev). However, the princes of Smolensk (Svyatoslav IV Rostislavich’s brothers) and Prince Andrey Yuryevich of Vladimir (who had supported Svyatoslav IV Rostislavich’s rule in Novgorod) spent the rest of the year conspiring and forming alliances against Mstislav Izyaslavich.

Following the death of Mstislav Iziaslavich in August, 1170, the Novgorodians expelled Roman and invited Andrey Yuryevich to be prince, and the latter sent Ryurik Rostislavich to rule Novgorod.

When his father died, Roman was bequeathed the Principality of Vladimir-in-Volhynia. He subdued the Yotvingians, and harnessed the captives instead of oxen to drag the plows on his estates.

Roman married Predslava Ryurikovna, a daughter of Ryurik Rostislavich (who had followed him in Novgorod). Their eldest daughter was married to Vasilko Vladimirovich, a grandson of Prince Yaroslav Volodimerovich Osmomysl of Halych, but later she was repudiated.

Following the death of Yaroslav Osmomysl on 1 October 1187, trouble began in the Principality of Halych, due to the strife between his two sons, Oleg and Vladimir Yaroslavich. Roman urged the Galicians to evict Vladimir Yaroslavich and make him their prince. But they failed either to expel Vladimir Yaroslavich or to kill him. When, however, the Galicians threatened to kill his wife, Vladimir Yaroslavich took her and fled to King Béla III of Hungary (1172–1196). According to a late chronicle, Oleg Yaroslavich was appointed by Duke Casimir II of Poland (1177–1194) to rule in Halych, but the Galicians poisoned him and invited Roman to be their prince. When accepting their offer, Roman gave his patrimony of Vladimir-in-Volhynia to his brother, Vsevolod Mstislavich.

But King Béla III marched against Roman intending to reinstate Vladimir Yaroslavich, and the Hungarians seized the principality. But King Béla III, instead of returning Halych to Vladimir Yaroslavich, proclaimed his own son, Andrew ruler of the principality.

Roman was obliged to flee to Vladimir-in-Volhynia, but his brother, Vsevolod Mstislavich refused him entry. He therefore went to the Poles, but when they refused to help him, Roman rode to his father-in-law, Ryurik Rostislavich in Belgorod. Roman solicited military aid from his father-in-law, but the Hungarian troops repelled his attack. Ryurik Rostislavich, therefore, helped Roman to drive out Vsevolod Mstislavich from Vladimir-in-Volhynia and return to his patrimony.

Meanwhile, Vladimir Yaroslavich succeeded in escaping from his dungeon in Hungary; Duke Casimir II also sent Polish troops to Halych to support Vladimir Yaroslavich’s claims. At the approach of the expedition, the townspeople rose against the Hungarians and expelled Andrew in 1190. Vladimir Yaroslavich requested his uncle Prince Vsevolod III Yuryevich of Vladimir to support his rule. Vsevolod Yuryevich demanded that all the Rus’ princes, among them Roman, pledge not to challenge Vladimir Yaroslavich in Halych and they agreed.

On 17 May 1195, Grand Prince Ryurik Rostislavich (Roman’s father-in-law) allocated domains in the Kievan lands to the princes in Monomakh’s dynasty, and Roman received Torchesk, Trypillia, Korsun, Bohuslav, and Kaniv. Vsevolod III Yuryevich, however, threatened to wage war when he learnt of the allocations, and therefore Roman agreed to relinquish the towns in exchange for comparable domains or a suitable payment in kuny. Ryurik Rostislavich therefore gave the five towns to Vsevolod III Yuryevich, who, in turn, handed over Torchesk to his son-in-law, Rostislav Rurikovich (who was the brother of Roman’s wife). On learning that his brother-in-law had received Torchesk, Roman accused his father-in-law, Ryurik Rostislavich of contriving to give the domain to his son from the very start. Ryurik Rostislavich also warned Roman that they could not afford to alienate Vsevolod III Yuryevich because all the princes in Monomakh’s dynasty recognized him as their senior prince.

Roman refused to be mollified and conspired against his father-in-law, and turned to Prince Yaroslav II Vsevolodovich of Chernigov who agreed to join him. When Ryurik Rostislavich learnt how Roman had persuaded Yaroslav II Vsevolodovich to seize Kiev, he informed Vsevolod III Yuryevich. Fearing retribution, Roman rode to the Poles where he was wounded in battle; he therefore asked Ryurik Rostislavich for clemency. Metropolitan Nikifor reconciled the two princes, and Ryurik Rostislavich gave Roman the town of Polonyy (southwest of Kamianets) and a district on the river Ros’.

In the autumn of 1196 Roman ordered his lieutenants to use Polonyy as their base for raiding the domains belonging to his father-in-law’s brother (Prince David Rostislavich of Smolensk) and son (Prince Rostislav Rurikovich of Torchesk). Ryurik Rostislavich retaliated by sending his nephew, Prince Mstislav Mstislavich of Trepol to Vladimir Yaroslavich of Halych instructing him to join Mstislav Mstislavich in attacking Roman’s lands. Accordingly, Vladimir Yaroslavich and Mstislav Mstislavich razed Roman’s district around Peremil, while Rostislav Ryurikovich and his force attacked Roman’s district near Kamianets. At about that time, Roman began repudiating his wife, Ryurik Rostislavich’s daughter, and threatening to confine her to a monastery.

In 1198 (or 1199)[1] Vladimir II Yaroslavich of Halych died, and his death created a political vacuum that a number of claimants were eager to fill. Ryurik Rostislavich could now claim that, after the dynasty of Halych became defunct, the territory reverted to the jurisdiction of the prince of Kyiv; the princes of the two branches of the Olgovichi (the princes of Chernigov) could argue that their marriage ties with the defunct dynasty gave them the right to rule Halych; and the Hungarians had already made a bid for the domain ten years earlier. The Galicians asked Ryurik Rostislavich for his son Rostislav Ryurikovich, but Roman rode to Duke Leszek I of Poland (1194–1227), promising to be at his beck and call if the Polish ruler helped him to win Halych. When the citizens refused to welcome Roman, Duke Leszek I besieged the town, and after capturing it, he forced the townspeople to accept Roman as prince. Roman promised to be subservient to the duke of Poland and to live in peace with his new subjects.

Roman turned his attention to the Cumans, who were threatening Byzantine interests in the Balkan Peninsula, and agreed to come to the assistance of Emperor Alexios III Angelos (1195–1203) and a severe blow was administered to the nomads.[5] In 1200, he married Anna, a Byzantine princess, a relative of Emperor Isaac II Angelos. The relation with Byzantium helped to stabilize Galicia's relations with the Rusian population of the Lower Dniester and the Lower Danube.

Shortly afterwards, Roman began wreaking havoc on domains belonging to Ryurik Rostislavich and other princes.[2] In 1201, Ryurik Rostislavich summoned the Olgovichi to campaign against Roman.[2] Roman pre-empted their attack by rallying the troops of his principality. The Monomashichi and the Black Caps also joined him. The Kievans opened the gates of the podol’ to Roman. He forced Ryurik Rostislavich and the Olgovichi to capitulate; he gave Kiev, with the consent of Vsevolod III Yuryevich, to Prince Ingvar Yaroslavich of Lutsk.However, Ryurik Rostislavich and the Olgovichi re-captured Kiev already on 2 January 1203.

Roman asked Vsevolod III Yuryevich to be pacified with the Olgovichi, and after he had concluded peace with them, he marched against Ryurik Rostislavich in Ovruch on 16 February 1203. Ryurik Rostislavich submitted to Roman and Vsevolod III Yuryevich, and promised to sever relations with the Olgovichi and the Cumans.[2] After that, Roman also advised him to ask Vsevolod III Yuryevich to reinstate him in Kiev and promised to support his request. Consequently, Vsevolod III Yuryevich forgave Ryurik Rostislavich and reappointed him to the town.

That winter Ryurik Rostislavich, Roman and other princes attacked the Cumans and took many captives. After the expedition, they met at Trypillia to allocate domains in accordance with the services that each had rendered in the defense of Rus’. But they quarreled, and Roman seized Ryurik Rostislavich, sent him to Kiev, and had him tonsured as a monk. He also forced Ryurik Rostislavich’s wife and daughter (his own wife whom he had repudiated) to become nuns; and he took Ryurik Rostislavich’s sons (Rostislav and Vladimir Rurikovich) with him to Halych.

Meanwhile, the relations between Roman and Duke Leszek I of Poland deteriorated for both religious and personal reasons. Leszek I was a devout Roman Catholic and it was probably at his suggestion that Pope Innocent III sent his envoys to Roman in 1204, urging him to accept Roman Catholicism and promising to place him under the protection of St Peter’s sword. Roman’s answer, as recorded in the Radziwill chronicle, was characteristic enough: pointing to his own sword he asked the envoys, “Is the Pope’s sword similar to mine? So long as I carry mine, I need no other.”

Duke Leszek I, supported by his brother Duke Konrad I of Masovia, undertook a sudden campaign against Roman. The latter was caught unaware and killed in the first battle at Zawichost.

According to another version, Roman wanted to expand his realm at the expense of Poland and died in an ambush while entering Polish territory.

1. Predslava Rurikovna, a daughter of Grand Prince Ryurik Rostislavich of Kiev and his wife, Anna Yuryevna of Turov Fedora Romanovna (?–after 1200), wife of Vasilko Vladimirovich of Halych; Elena Romanovna[2] (or Maria Romanovna) (?–after 1241), wife of Prince Mikhail Vsevolodovich of Chernigov (?) Salomea Romanovna (?–before 1220), wife of Duke Swantopolk I of Pommerellen, her mother is uncertain;

2. (1197/1200): Anna-Euphrosine, a relative of Emperor Isaac II Angelos King Daniel Romanovich of Halych (1201/1202–1264) King Vasylko Romanovich of Halych (1203/1204–1269)


Роман Мстиславич, або Роман Великий (у хрещенні Борис; бл.1152 — 19 червня 1205) — Великий князь Київський (1204-1205), князь новгородський (1168—1170), володимирський (1170—1187, з 1188), галицький (1188, з 1199) з династії Рюриковичів. Засновник Галицько-Волинського князівства і патріарх тамтешнього правлячого роду Романовичів. Вважався сучасниками наймогутнішим з усіх руських (давньоукраїнських) князів кінця XII — початку XIII століття, за що був прозваний «Великим».

Роман Мстиславич був сином великого київського князя Мстислава II Ізяславича та його дружини Агнешки — дочки польського князя Болеслава III Кривоустого.

Між 1168 та 1169 роками правив у Новгородському князівстві. Після смерті Мстислава II Ізяславовича волинські землі були поділені між його синами: Роман одержав Володимир-Волинський, Всеволод — Белз, Святослав — Червен, Володимир — Берестя. Незабаром, завдяки своїм особистим якостям, Роману вдалося добитися домінантного впливу в усіх волинських землях. По смерті останнього галицького князя з династії Ростиславичів — Володимира, сина Ярослава Осмомисла, — приєднав Галицьке князівство до Волинського (1199), створивши Галицько-Волинську державу. Здібний політик і добрий полководець, жорстоко приборкавши непокірних бояр, мав підтримку у міщанства. У двох походах 1201-1202 і 1203-1204 років його війська розбили половців і визволили чимало бранців. Вершиною його успіхів було взяття Києва та включення його у сферу своїх впливів. У зовнішній політиці Роман Мстиславович підтримував тісний союз із Візантією та Угорщиною, мав тісні зв'язки з Римським Папою Інокентієм ІІІ, перемагав неспокійних сусідів — половців і литовські племена, втрутився в справи німецьких князів, через свою другу дружину Єфросинію-Анну був споріднений з імператором Священої римської імперії Філіпом Швабським, який був одружений з сестрою Єфросинії — Іриною Ангеліною.

Роман Мстиславович намагався подолати роздрібненість Київської Русі. Був ініціатором зміни порядку престолонаслідування на основі принципу майорату. Проте передчасна смерть не дозволила реалізувати йому амбіційні плани.

1204 року Папа Римський Інокентій ІІІ вислав до Великого князя Київського Романа посольство й запропонував надати йому королівську корону та титул Короля Русі, одначе Роман відмовився й пішов війною на Польщу. Він просив благословення від Володимирського єпископа на цю війну, проте єпископ не підтримав дії князя.

Підтримував тісні зв'язки з бенедиктинцями монастиря св. Петра в Ерфурті.

У 1205 році Роман з якоїсь причини розірвав багаторічний союз з Лешком Білим і його братом Конрадом, вторгся в Малопольщу, взяв два міста і зупинився на Віслі поблизу Завихоста. Тут, від'їхавши з малим загоном від головних сил, Роман несподівано був атакований поляками і загинув в бою. Уява польських хроністів перетворило цю сутичку в грандіозна битва (битва при Завихості).

Був тимчасово похований у церкві святого Якова на передмісті Сандомира. Ян Длугош стверджував про викуп тіла за 1000 фунтів срібла. Теофіль Коструба твердив, що князь мав бути похований в Успенському соборі Володимира. І. Крип'якевич на основі праць Я. Длугоша, Л. Войтович підтримали варіант поховання у Володимирі. Б. Томенчук, Д. Домбровський вважали, що князь був похований у невідомому монастирі Володимира, де пізніше поховали дружину. В Суздальському літописі стверджується про поховання князя в Успенському соборі Галича. О. Головко припускає, що князь міг бути похований в збудованій за його сприяння Церкві святого Пантелеймона (тепер с. Шевченкове), біля якої нещодавно після розкопок знайшли залишки його резиденції.

Після смерті у Романа Мстиславича залишилось двоє малолітніх синів Данила (4 роки) та Василька (2 роки). Одразу після його смерті невдоволене галицьке боярство вигнало малолітніх князів з їхньої матір'ю та запросило на князювання сіверських князів Ігоревичів. Романовичі не змирилися з цим і почали боротьбу за свою спадщину, яка тривала близько 40 років, і завершилась їхнім утвердженням в Галицько-Волинському князівстві.

Сучасний Роману Мстиславичу літописець, оцінюючи його заслуги у справі з'єднання більшості руських земель, називає його «самодержцем усієї Руси»[2]. Також власне Галицько-Волинський літопис починається половецькою казкою про Романа:

« По смерті ж великого князя Романа, вікопомного самодержця всеї Русі, який одолів усі поганські народи, мудрістю ума додержуючи заповідей божих, [*...] Він бо кинувся був на поганих, як той лев, сердитий же був, як та рись, і губив [%D1%97%D1%85], як той крокодил, і переходив землю їх, як той орел, а хоробрий був, як той тур, бо він ревно наслідував предка свого Мономаха, що погубив поганих ізмаїльтян, тобто половців, вигнав [%D1%85%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B0 їхнього] Отрока в Обези за Залізнії ворота, а [%D1%85%D0%B0%D0%BD] Сирчан зостався коло Дону, рибою живлячись. »

У Татіщева Роман має таку характеристику:[6]

« Сей Роман Мстиславич, онук Ізяславів, на зріст був хоча не дуже великий, але широкий і понад міру сильний; з лиця гарний, очі чорні, ніс великий з горбом, волосся чорне і коротке; вельми ярий був у гніві; запинався, коли сердився, довго не міг слова вимовити; багато веселився з вельможами, але п'яним ніколи не був. Багатьох жінок любив, але жодна ним не володіла. Воїн був хоробрий і вмілий на військові виправи; найпаче [%D1%86%D0%B5] він показав, коли угрів велике військо з малим своїм розбив. Усе життя своє у війнах провадив, багато перемог здобув, а в одній був переможений. Через те всім навколишнім був страшний. Коли йшов на поляків, то сказав: «Або поляків подолаю і підкорю, або сам не вернусь!» І збулося останнє »

Ян Длугош у своїй Хроніці описує Романа як жорстокого тирана і насильника, однак у Длугоша практично всі українські діячі мають негативні характеристики, оскільки були ворогами поляків.

« Зневаживши клятву і договір, він закликає до себе і хапає перших з галичан, які нічого дурного від нього не чекали, з яких кого публічно страчує мечем, кого закопує і засипає піском, кого на очах у всіх розриває на частини, з кого здирає шкіру, у кого вириває нутрощі, багатьох, прив'язавши як мішень до стовпа, розстрілює стрілами і умертвляє різними [%D1%96%D0%BD%D1%88%D0%B8%D0%BC%D0%B8] стратами. Рідні, близькі та сини убитих воїнів і майже вся знать, приголомшені такою жахливою жорстокістю, втекли в сусідні землі, покладаючи у своїх квилінні і скаргах всю провину на польського князя Лестко і поляків, що поставили над ними настільки лютого князя, що не має, крім людського вигляду, нічого людського. Тоді Роман, вживши свою хитрість, перебільшеними ласками і обіцянками знову закликає їх і, протримавши недовго в честі і милості, зрештою вбиває, піддавши різним тортурам. Він винищує своїм тиранством майже всю галицьку знать, маючи звичай, на виправдання своїх злочинів, вживати прислів'я, що стала [%D0%B4%D0%BB%D1%8F нього] свого роду урочистим оракулом небес: „Ніхто не зможе спокійно насолодитися медом, якщо спершу не прігнітить бджолиний рій“. Своєю лютістю і тиранством він навів не тільки на своїх, але й на сусідів такий страх, здобув собі за короткий час таку славу і владу, що з легкістю володів усіма руськими областями і всі князі Русі були його данниками і підданими. Це часто пригнічувало поляків, що не пішло б діло до їх смерті, [%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%B5] вони найчастіше мовчали, побоюючись, щоб загроза тиранії Романа коли-небудь не впала і на них.

О Романе Мстиславиче Галицком (русский)

Роман Мстиславич Галицкий, в крещении Бориc — князь новгородский (1168–1170), князь волынский (1170–1187, 1188–1199), галицкий (1188), первый князь галицко-волынский (1199–1205), великий князь Киевский (1201, 1204).

Жены: Предслава Рюриковна, Анна Византийская

Сыновья: Даниил, Василько Дочери: Феодора, Елена, Саломея

БРАК: 1-Я ЖЕНА: ДОЧЬ РЮРИКА РОСТИСЛАВИЧА, ВЕЛИКОГО КНЯЗЯ КИЕВСКОГО. 2-Я ЖЕНА: С 1197 АННА . ДЕТИ: дочь ФЕОДОРА дочь ОЛЁНА сын ДАНИИЛ РОМАНОВИЧ ГАЛИЦКИЙ (1201—1264), КНЯЗЬ ГАЛИЦКО-ВОЛЫНСКИЙ, КОРОЛЬ РУСИ С 1254 сын ВАСИЛЬКО РОМАНОВИЧ (1203—1269) — КНЯЗЬ

Получил от отца сперва новгородское, а затем - волынское княжество (1170). По смерти последнего галицкого князя, объединил Галичину с Волынью (1199), создав Галицко-Волынскую державу. Завершением его успехов было завоевание Киева и включение его в сферу своего влияния. Своей столицей он избрал Галич. В течение недолгих шести лет пребывания на великокняжеском престоле (1199—1205) Роман самоотверженно сражался против степных кочевников и прилагал усилия к восстановлению былого единства Древнерусского государства.

Во внешней политике Роман Мстиславович установил хорошие отношения с Венгрией, Византией, Германией. Объединив в своих руках огромные владения, Роман начал новую войну с Рюриком Ростиславичем. В 1202 году во главе галицко-волынского войска он захватил Киев, выгнал из него Рюрика Ростиславича, а на его место посадил своего двоюродного брата князя луцкого Игоря Ярославича. Спустя некоторое время Рюрик сумел помириться с Романом и вновь стал киевским князем. Однако примирение было временным. В 1203 году они вместе ходили на половцев, поссорились из-за добычи, Роман захватил в плен Рюрика, его жену, и дочь, свою бывшую жену, и всех троих постриг в монахи. В руках у него оказались и Киев, и Галич, и Владимир-Волынский. Роман стал самым могущественным князем Киевской Руси. Летописцы даже называют его “самодержцем”.

В 1205 Г. ОН ПОГИБ ВБЛИЗИ ПОЛЬСКОГО ГОРОДА ЗАВИХОСТА В ПОХОДЕ ПРОТИВ ПОЛЬСКОГО КНЯЗЯ ЛЕШЕКА КРАКОВСКОГО. ЦЕЛЬЮ ЖЕ ПОХОДА РОМАНА В 1205 ГОДА, В СЛУЧАЕ УСПЕХА В ПОЛЬШЕ, БЫЛА САКСОНИЯ.===

YouTube: ІСТОРІЯ УКРАЇНИ - Роман Мстиславич, князь галицький

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Roman the Great, Prince of Novgorod, Rex Rusiae's Timeline

1153
1153
Galich, Stanislav, Ukraine
1185
1185
1191
1191
Galitzki, Hungary
1194
1194
Галич, Галицкое Княжество
1201
1201
Halych, Halyts'kyi district, Ivano-Frankivs'ka oblast, Ukraine
1203
1203
Halych-Volhynia, Poland
1205
June 19, 1205
Age 52
Vladimir, Volynsk, Volyn, Ukraine