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Dr. Sigmund (Salomon Sigismund) Šlomo Freud

Also Known As: "Sigismund Schlomo Freud"
Birthdate: (83)
Birthplace: Příbor, Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic
Death: Died in London, England, UK
Cause of death: jaw cancer
Place of Burial: London, Greater London, United Kingdom
Immediate Family:

Son of Jacob Kalman Freud and Amelie Malka Freud
Husband of Martha Bernays
Father of Mathilde Freud; Jean-Martin Freud; Oliver Freud; Ernst Ludwig Freud; Sophie Freud and 1 other
Brother of Julius Freud; Anna Bernays; Regina (Rosa) Deborah Graf; Maria (Mitzi) Freud; Esther (Dolfi) Adolfine Freud and 2 others
Half brother of Emanuel Freud and Philip Freud

Occupation: psychiatre, père de la psychanalyse, Dr. neurologist, founded the psychoanalytic school of psychiatry, Neurologe, Tiefenpsychologe, Kulturrethoriker und Religionskritiker, psychoanalyst
Managed by: Gene Daniell
Last Updated:

About Sigmund Freud

Google Doodle May 6, 2016

Sigmund Freud, born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939), was a Jewish Austrian neurologist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychiatry.

Freud is best known for his theories of the unconscious mind and the defense mechanism of repression, and for creating the clinical practice of psychoanalysis for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient, technically referred to as an "analysand", and a psychoanalyst. Freud is also renowned for his redefinition of sexual desire as the primary motivational energy of human life, as well as for his therapeutic techniques, including the use of free association, his theory of transference in the therapeutic relationship, and the interpretation of dreams as sources of insight into unconscious desires. He was an early neurological researcher into cerebral palsy, and a prolific essayist, drawing on psychoanalysis to contribute to the history, interpretation and critique of culture.

While many of Freud's ideas have fallen out of favor or been modified by Neo-Freudians, and modern advances in the field of psychology have shown flaws in some of his theories, Freud's work remains influential in clinical approaches, and in the humanities and social sciences. He is considered one of the most prominent thinkers of the first half of the 20th century, in terms of originality and intellectual influence.

LINKS

Biography

Article

Jung vs Freud Movie

Freud Museum, London

Freud Museum, Vienna

PBS: Freud's Family and Childhood


Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Freud Family

Manuscripts and Letters

Videos, Photos, Writings

Family Tree

YouTube 1938 Audio Clip

Quotes

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Geni Wiki Jewish Dynasties


Sigmund Freud, born Sigismund Schlomo Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud was born to Galician Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna. Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902. Freud lived and worked in Vienna, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud left Austria to escape the Nazis. He died in exile in the United Kingdom in 1939.

In creating psychoanalysis, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud's redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory. His analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the underlying mechanisms of repression. On this basis Freud elaborated his theory of the unconscious and went on to develop a model of psychic structure comprising id, ego and super-ego. Freud postulated the existence of libido, an energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, and a death drive, the source of compulsive repetition, hate, aggression and neurotic guilt. In his later work Freud developed a wide-ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture.

In 1902, Freud at last realised his long-standing ambition to be made a university professor. The title "professor extraordinarius" was important to Freud for the recognition and prestige it conferred, there being no salary or teaching duties attached to the post (he would be granted the enhanced status of "professor ordinarius" in 1920). Despite support from the university, his appointment had been blocked in successive years by the political authorities and it was secured only with the intervention of one of his more influential ex-patients, a Baroness Marie Ferstel, who had to bribe the minister of education with a painting.

By the end of the month, arrangements for Freud's own departure for London had become stalled, mired in a legally tortuous and financially extortionate process of negotiation with the Nazi authorities. The Nazi-appointed Kommissar put in charge of his assets and those of the IPA proved to be sympathetic to Freud's plight. Anton Sauerwald had studied chemistry at Vienna University under Professor Josef Herzig, an old friend of Freud's, and evidently retained, notwithstanding his Nazi Party allegiance, a respect for Freud's professional standing. Expected to disclose details of all Freud's bank accounts to his superiors and to follow their instructions to destroy the historic library of books housed in the offices of the IPA, in the event Sauerwald did neither, removing evidence of Freud's foreign bank accounts to his own safe-keeping and arranging the storage of the IPA library in the Austrian National Library where it remained until the end of the war. Princess Bonaparte arrived towards the end of June to discuss the fate of Freud's four elderly sisters left behind in Vienna. Her subsequent attempts to get them exit visas failed and they would all die in Nazi concentration camps.

Sauerwald was tried and imprisoned in 1945 by an Austrian court for his activities as a Nazi Party official. Responding to a plea from his wife, Anna Freud wrote to confirm that Sauerwald "used his office as our appointed commissar in such a manner as to protect my father". Her intervention helped secure his release from jail in 1947.

Three days after his death Freud's body was cremated at the Golders Green Crematorium in North London, with Harrods acting as funeral directors, on the instructions of his son, Ernst. Funeral orations were given by Ernest Jones and the Austrian author Stefan Zweig. Freud's ashes were later placed in the crematorium's Ernest George Columbarium. They rest on a plinth designed by his son, Ernst, in a sealed ancient Greek krater painted with Dionysian scenes that Freud had received as a gift from Princess Bonaparte and which he had kept in his study in Vienna for many years. After his wife, Martha, died in 1951, her ashes were also placed in the urn.

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Sigmund Freud's Timeline

1856
May 6, 1856
Příbor, Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic
1887
October 16, 1887
Age 31
Vienna, Austria
1889
December 7, 1889
Age 33
Vienna, Austria
1891
January 19, 1891
Age 34
Vienna, Wien, Wien
1892
April 6, 1892
Age 35
Vienna, Wien, Austria
1893
April 12, 1893
Age 36
Vienna
1895
December 3, 1895
Age 39
Vienna, Vienna, Austria