Sir George Downing, 1st Baronet

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About Sir George Downing, 1st Baronet

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_George_Downing,_1st_Baronet

  • 'Sir George Downing, 1st Baronet (1623 – July 1684) was an Anglo-Irish soldier, statesman, and diplomat. Downing Street in London is named after him. As Treasury Secretary he is credited with instituting major reforms in public finance. His influence was substantial on the passage and substance of the mercantilist Navigation Acts. The Acts strengthened English commercial and Naval power, contributing to the security of the English state and its ability to project its power abroad. More than any other man he was responsible for arranging the acquisition of New York from the Dutch, and is remembered there in the name of Downing Street, Brooklyn, New York.
  • 'He was the son of Emmanuel Downing, barrister, and of Lucy Winthrop, sister of Massachusetts Bay Governor John Winthrop. He was born in Dublin, Ireland. While Downing Street, London, is named after him, Downing College, Cambridge derives its name from his grandson, Sir George Downing, 3rd Baronet. The title became extinct when Sir Jacob Downing, 4th Baronet, died in 1764.
  • 'His family joined Winthrop in America in 1638, settling in Salem, Massachusetts. Downing attended Harvard College and was one of nine students in the first graduating class of 1642. He was hired by Harvard as the college's first tutor. In 1645 he sailed for the West Indies with slaves in-tow, as a preacher and instructor of the seamen, and arrived in England some time afterwards, becoming chaplain to Colonel John Okey's regiment (who had originally sponsored Downing's education in America).
  • 'Subsequently he seems to have abandoned preaching for a military career, and in 1650 he was scout-master-general of Cromwell's forces in Scotland, and as such received in 1657 a salary of £365 and £500 as a Teller of the Exchequer.
  • 'His marriage in 1654 with Frances, daughter of Sir William Howard of Naworth, and sister of Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Carlisle, aided his advancement. In Cromwell's parliament of 1654 he represented Edinburgh, and Carlisle in those of 1656 and 1659. He was one of the first to urge Cromwell to take the royal title and restore the old constitution. In 1655 he was sent to France to remonstrate on the massacre of the Protestant Vaudois. Later in 1657 he was appointed resident at The Hague, to effect a union of the Protestant European powers, to mediate between Portugal and the Dutch Republic and between Sweden and Denmark, to defend the interests of the English traders against the Dutch, and to inform the government concerning the movements of the exiled royalists.
  • 'He showed himself in these negotiations an able diplomat. He was maintained in his post during the interregnum subsequent to the fall of Richard Cromwell, and was thus enabled in April 1660 to make his peace with Charles II, to whom he communicated Thurloe's despatches, and declared his abandonment of "principles sucked in" in New England of which he now "saw the error". At the Restoration, therefore, Downing was knighted (May 1660), was continued in his embassy in Holland, was confirmed in his tellership of the exchequer, and was further rewarded with a valuable piece of land adjoining St. James's Park for building purposes, now known as Downing Street.
  • 'He engineered the arrest in Holland of the regicides John Barkstead, Miles Corbet and John Okey, his former commander and sponsor. Samuel Pepys, who characterised his conduct as odious though useful to the king, calls him a "perfidious rogue" and remarks that "all the world took notice of him for a most ungrateful villain for his pains."
  • 'On 1 July 1663 he was created a baronet.
  • 'Downing had from the first been hostile to the Dutch as the commercial rivals of England. He had strongly supported the Navigation Act of 1660, and he now deliberately drew on the fatal and disastrous Second Anglo-Dutch War, in the first year of which, 1665, he was expelled by the Dutch because of his intrigues and spying activities. During its continuance he took part at home in the management of the treasury, introduced the appropriation of supplies (meaning that Parliament gained the right to specify that taxes should be used only for a particular purpose, rather than spent as the government saw fit), opposed strongly by Clarendon as an encroachment on the prerogative, and in May 1667 was made secretary to the commissioners, his appointment being much welcomed by Pepys.
  • 'He had been returned for Morpeth in the Convention Parliament of April 1660, a constituency that he represented in every ensuing parliament till his death, and he spoke with ability on financial and commercial questions. He was appointed a commissioner of the customs in 1671. The same year he was again sent to Holland to replace Sir William Temple, to break up the policy of the Triple Alliance and incite another war between the Dutch Republic and England in furtherance of the French policy. His unpopularity there was extreme, and after three months' residence Downing fled to England, in fear of the fury of the mob. For this unauthorised step he was sent to the Tower on 7 February 1672, but released some few weeks afterwards. He defended the Declaration of Indulgence the same year, and made himself useful in supporting the court policy.
  • 'He died in July 1684 having acquired a substantial fortune and was considered to be the largest landowner in Cambridgeshire( critics claimed he amassed the fortune partly through his exceptional meanness about money).
  • 'Downing was undoubtedly a man of great political, diplomatic, and financial ability, but his character has often been maligned by his enemies because of his willingness to make the most of changing political circumstances. Today his reputation is undergoing a revival among scholars of the period as his contributions as a financial reformer and diplomat are again recognised. On the other hand his least attractive personal quality- miserliness- is well documented.
  • 'He published a large number of declarations and discourses, mostly in Dutch, enumerated in Sibley's biography, and wrote also "A True Relation of the Progress of the Parliament's Forces in Scotland" (1651), Thomason Tracts, Brit. Mus., E 640 (5).
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_George_Downing,_1st_Baronet
  • --------------------
  • 'Genealogical gleanings in England (1901) Vol. 1
  • http://www.archive.org/details/genealogicalglea01byuwate
  • http://www.archive.org/stream/genealogicalglea01byuwate#page/35/mode/1up
  • ' Sir George Downing of East Hatley, in the County of Cambridge, Knight and Baronet; 24 August, 1683, with codicil added 7 July, 1684; proved 19 July, 1684. My body to be interred in the vault which I have made uuder the chancel at Crawden, alias Croyden, in the county of Cambridge, by the body of my wife Frances. Son George Downing, Esq., and son William named. Houses in or near King Street, in the city of Westminster, lately called Hampden House, which I hold by long lease from the Crown, and Peacock Court there, which I hold by lease from the Collegiate Church of St. Peter, Westminster ; all which are now demolished and rebuilt, or rebuilding, and called Downing Street. To Edward Lord Viscount Morpeth and Sir Henry Pickering,* Baronet, my son-in-law, in trust, &c. Bequests to sons Charles and William Downing, and to three daughters, Lucy, Mary and Anne, at age of twenty-one years or day of marriage. The guardianship and custody of the persons of these three daughters entrusted to my dear daughter Frances Cotton. Bequests to daughter Cotton's children, Francis, John and Thomas, and to Elizabeth and Frances, the two daughters of my late daughter Pickering deceased ; also to nephew John Peters, niece Lucy Spicer, nephew Joshua Downing and Mr Edmond Woodroffe, one of my clerks in my office in the Exchequer. Hare, 139.
  • * This Sir Henry Pickering was son and heir of Sir Henry Pickering of Whaddon, who was created a Baronet 2 January, 1660. He was of Barbados in 1695, and had two wives, Philadelphia, daughter of Sir George Downing, by whom he had two daughters, Mary and Anne (who both died without issue), and secondly, Grace, daughter of Constant Silvester, Esq. (See Reg. xxxvii. 385.) At his death, iu 1705, the title became extinct. (See Add. MS. 24493, British Museum.)— H. F. W.
  • ______________________________________________
  • 'Genealogy of the Downing family and immediate collateral relations: (1901)
  • http://www.archive.org/details/genealogyofdowni00down
  • http://www.archive.org/stream/genealogyofdowni00down#page/12/mode/1up
  • Ill GENERATION:
  • Calybut Downyng of Sherrington, County Gloucester, born June 1, 1574: married (first), January 8, 1594, Elizabeth Wingfield (Morrison) — she having been previously married to Edward Morrison — daughter of Robert Wingfield of Upton, County Northampton, by Elizabeth Cecil, daughter of Richard Cecil and sister of William Cecil, Lord Burleigh, who, for forty years, was principal Secretary of State, and confidential friend and adviser of Queen Elizabeth, which position he held until the day of his death, August 4, 1598.
  • He married (second), August 8, 1604, Anne Hogan, daughter of Edmund Hogan of Hackney.
  • He died February 3, 1642.
  • The marriages of Geoffrey Downyng (I) and Calybut Downyng (III) brought about the direct descent from the Plantagenets (King Henry III) as shown by the genealogical chart (page 5) and the following pedigree : ....
  • http://www.archive.org/stream/genealogyofdowni00down#page/14/mode/1up
  • IV GENERATION:
  • Emanuel Downyng of Sherrington, County Gloucester; Dublin, Ireland; Salem, Mass.; and London, England; born December 10, 1594; married (first), June 7, 1614, Miss Ware of Dublin, Ireland, daughter of Sir James Ware. They had several children, but no records can be found. He married (second). April 10, 1622, Lucy Winthrop, daughter of Adam Winthrop, of Groton, County Suffolk, and sister of Governor John Winthrop of Massachusetts. Upon the invitation of Governor John Winthrop (his brother-in-law), he and his family came to New England in 1638. His children attended the public school at Salem, Mass., afterwards (George, Nicholas and Henry) at Harvard College, of which George Downing (1642) was the second graduate. In 1646, they returned to England. It is doubtful, however, whether the children by his first wife (Miss Ware) returned with him.
  • He died July 26, 1676.
  • http://www.archive.org/stream/genealogyofdowni00down#page/15/mode/1up
  • Issue :
    • ' 1. George Downing, born 1623 ; married 1654 ; died 1684.
    • 2. Nicholas Downing, born 1627; died 1698; unmarried. He bequeathed his entire estate, in Drummond, County Derry, Ireland, to his nephews (the children of his brother, Henry), Adam, John, George and Daniel.
    • 3. Henry Downing, born 1630; married 1665 ; died 1698 (see page 37).
  • ' GEORGE DOWNING of East Hatley, County Cambridge, born 1623, was fortunate to gain as his wife, in 1654, a lady greatly distinguished for her birth and beauty: FRANCES HOWARD, fourth daughter of Sir William Howard, Knt., of Naworth Castle, County Cumberland, and sister of Colonel Charles Howard, first Earl of Carlisle, and a descendant of that unfortunate Thomas Howard, fourth Duke of Norfolk, who was arraigned and convicted upon charges of high treason and rebellion, and beheaded, by order of Queen Elizabeth, on June 2, 1572, for
  • http://www.archive.org/stream/genealogyofdowni00down#page/16/mode/1up
  • 'tenderness shown to, and arrangements made to marry, Mary, Queen of Scots.
  • ' Sir George Downing's progress to power was undoubtedly greatly advanced by his matrimonial union with "the blood of all the Howards."
  • ' He was Knighted in May, 1660, and created a Baronet July I, 1663.
  • ' He died July 2, 1684.
  • Issue:
    • 1. George Downing (Sir) Second Baronet of East hatley, county Cambridge, one of the Tellers of the Exchequer, time of King James II (1685); married, 1682, Catharine Cecil, eldest daughter of James Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, and had an only son: ....
    • http://www.archive.org/stream/genealogyofdowni00down#page/18/mode/1up
    • 2. William Downing -- died without issue.
    • 3. Charles Downing, Comptroller of Customs, married Sarah Garrard, daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas Garrard, Baronet, and died April 15, 1740, leaving a son: ....
    • 4. Frances Downing married John Cotton, son and heir of Sir John Cotton, Baronet.
    • 5. Philadelphia Downing married Sir Henry Pickering, Baronet.
    • 6. Lucy Dowing married Sir Richard Bulkeley, Baronet.
    • 7. Mary Downing married Thomas Barnardiston, Esq.
    • 8. Anne Downing (no further trace).
  • http://www.archive.org/stream/genealogyofdowni00down#page/37/mode/1up
  • V GENERATION :
  • Henry Downing of East Hatley, County Cambridge, born March 10, 1630 (third son of Emanuel Downyng: see page 15); married, June 2, 1665, Jane Clotworthy, of a very ancient Devonshire family. He held a commission in the guards of King Charles II, and was living in London, in 1666.
  • He died September 25, 1698.
  • __________________________
  • 'Sir George Downing, 1st Bt.1
  • 'M, #188921, b. circa 1624
  • Last Edited=8 Jul 2011
  • ' Sir George Downing, 1st Bt. was born circa 1624 at Dublin, County Dublin, Ireland.2 He married Frances Howard in 1654.2
  • ' He was the son of Emanuel Downing and Lucy Winthrop.2 He was created 1st Baronet Downing in 1663.
  • 'Child of Sir George Downing, 1st Bt.
    • 1.Frances Downing+3
  • 'Child of Sir George Downing, 1st Bt. and Frances Howard
    • 1.Lucy Downing1 b. c 1666, d. 9 Oct 1711
  • Citations
  • 1.[S15] George Edward Cokayne, editor, The Complete Baronetage, 5 volumes (no date (c. 1900); reprint, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 1983), volume IV, page 207. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Baronetage.
  • 2.[S5430] Ryan Englund, "re: Downing Family," e-mail message to Darryl Roger LUNDY (101053), 3 July 2011. Hereinafter cited as "re: Downing Family."
  • 3.[S229] Burke John and John Bernard Burke, A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies of England (1841, reprint; Baltimore, Maryland, USA: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1985), page 138. Hereinafter cited as Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies of England.
  • http://www.thepeerage.com/p18893.htm#i188921
  • __________________
  • 'DOWNING, SIR GEORGE, Bart. (c. 1624-1684), English soldier and diplomatist, son of Emmanuel Downing, barrister, and of Lucy, sister of Governor John Winthrop, was born in England about 1624.* His family joined Winthrop in America in 1638, settling in Salem, Massachusetts, and Downing studied at Harvard College. In 1645 ne sailed for the West Indies as a preacher and instructor of the seamen, and arrived in England some time afterwards, becoming chaplain to Colonel John Okey's regiment. Subsequently he seems to have abandoned his religious vocation for a military career, and in 1650 he was scout-master-general of Cromwell's forces in Scotland, and as such received in 1657 a salary of 365 and 300 as a teller of the exchequer. His marriage in 1654 with Frances, daughter of Sir William Howard of Naworth, and sister of the 1st earl of Carlisle, aided his advancement. In Cromwell's parliament of 1654 he represented Edinburgh, and Carlisle in those of 1656 and 1659. He was one of the first to urge Cromwell to take the royal title and restore the old constitution.
  • In 1655 he was sent to France to remonstrate on the massacre of the Protestant Vaudois. Later in 1657 he was appointed resident at The Hague, to effect a union of the Protestant European powers, to mediate between Portugal and Holland and between Sweden and Denmark, to defend the interests of the English traders against the Dutch, and to inform the government concerning the movements of the exiled royalists.
  • He showed himself in these negotiations an able diplomatist. He was maintained in his post during the interregnum subsequent to the fall of Richard Cromwell, and was thus enabled in April 1660 to make his peace with Charles II., to whom he communicated Thurloe's despatches, and declared his abandonment of " principles sucked in " in New England, of which he now "saw the error." At the Restoration, therefore, Downing was knighted (May 1660), was continued in his embassy in Holland, was confirmed in his tellership of the exchequer, and was further rewarded with a valuable piece of land adjoining St James's Park for building purposes, now known as Downing Street.2 Considering his past, he showed a very indecent zeal in arresting in Holland and handing over for execution the regicides Barkstead, Corbet and Okey. Pepys, who characterized his conduct as odious though useful to the king, calls him a " perfidious rogue," and remarks that " all the world took notice of him for a most ungrateful villain for his pains."3 On the ist of July 1663 he was created a baronet. Downing had from the first been hostile to the Dutch as the commercial rivals of England. He had strongly supported the Navigation Act of 1660, and he now deliberately drew on the fatal and disastrous war. During its continuance he took part at home in the management of the treasury, introduced the appropriation of supplies, opposed strongly by Clarendon as an encroachment on the prerogative, and in May 1667 was made secretary to the commissioners, his appointment being much welcomed by Pepys.4 He had been returned for Morpeth in the convention parliament of April 1660, a constituency which he represented in every ensuing parliament till his death, and he spoke with ability on financial and commercial questions. He was appointed a commissioner of the customs in 1671. The same year he was again sent to Holland to replace Sir William Temple, to break up the policy of the Triple alliance and incite another war between Holland and England in furtherance of the French policy. His unpopularity there was extreme, and after three months' residence Downing fled to England, in fear of the fury of the mob. For this unauthorized step he was sent to the Tower on the 7th of February 1672, but released some few weeks afterwards. He defended the Declaration of Indulgence the same year, and made himself useful in supporting the court policy. He died in July 1684. Downing Street, London, is named after him, while Downing College, Cambridge, derived its name from his grandson, the 3rd baronet. The title became extinct when the 4th baronet, Sir Jacob G. Downing, died in 1764.
  • Downing was undoubtedly a man of great political and diplomatic ability, but his talents were rarely employed for the advantage of his country and his character was marked by all the mean vices, treachery, avarice, servility and ingratitude. " A George Downing " became a proverbial expression in New England to denote a false man who betrayed his trust.6 He published a large number of declarations and discourses, mostly in Dutch, enumerated in Sibley's biography, and wrote also " A True Relation of the Progress of the Parliament's Forces in Scotland" (1651), Thomason Tracts, Brit. Mus., E 640 (5).
  • FOOTNOTES:
  • [1] The date of his birth is variously given as 1623, 1624 and 1625 (Sibley's _Harvard Graduates_, 1883).
  • [2] _Cal. of St Pap._; _Dom._ (1661-1662) p. 408; _Notes and Queries_, ix. ser. vii. 92.
  • [3] _Diary_, March 12, 17, 1662.
  • [4] Ib. May 27, 1667.
  • [5] Sibley, i. 46.
  • http://www.gutenberg.org/files/32758/32758.txt
  • _____________________

THERE ARE SOME CONTRADICTIONS IN THIS BOOK ABOUT THE PARENTAGE OF THOMAS NATHANIEL EDWARD'S WIFE ISABELLA / ELIZABETH WHETHER SHE IS THE DAU. OF SIR GEORGE DOWNING OR EMMANUEL DOWNING. SINCE IT LISTS SIR GEORGE AS BEING BORN 1623, EMMANUEL WAS GEORGE'S FATHER, I SUSPECT THEY WERE IN ERROR AND IT MAYBE GEORGE, GRANDSON OF EMMANUAL AND SON OF GEORGE WHO IS ISABELLA'S FATHER

  • 'Cipher/Code of Dishonor; Aaron Burr, an American Enigma By Alan J. Clark M. D., Alan J. Clark
  • http://books.google.com/books?id=huV6qTlRgEcC&pg=PA210&lpg=PA210&dq=Sarah+Isabella+Downing&source=bl&ots=ex-U00jBhZ&sig=Y45W1u3s81K7JlA3oLra2_SUj2Q&hl=en&ei=fBiwTuXNJ6iZiQKg79TqDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDcQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=Sarah%20Isabella%20Downing&f=false
  • Pg. 36
  • Senator Timothy Pickering was descended from Sir Henry Pickering (born 1634) whose wife was Philadelphia Downing. Her father, 'Sir George Downing's (b. 1623) sister', Mary Downing (husband Anthony Stoddard was ancestor of Aaron Burr's mother Esther Edwards.
  • Pg. 42
  • Both the Robert Edwards and Timothy Edwards families came from Hartford, Connecticut and were related back in England through Mary Downing Stoddard (husband Anthony), 'half sister of Sir George Downing of 10 Downing Street'.
  • Pg. 141
  • These Edwards were from Edwards Hall in Glamorganshire, Wales. Thomas Edward's grandson, Sir Thomas Nathaniel Edwards, son of Robert, married Elizabeth Downing whose father was 'Sir George Thomas Downing, born 1623, M.P. (Member of Parliament), who was keeper of ' ..... Pages 142 to 143 are not shown in this preview.
  • Pg. 210
    • Robert Edwards Family
  • WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR (1066-1087)+Matilda of Flanders
  • I
  • Henry I+(Edith) Matilda of Scotland
  • Geoffrey Downing+Elizabeth Wingfield 1st Earl of Gloucester, Robert de Caen (Edwards)
  • Geo. Downing+Dorcas Blois I Thomas Hall+Elizabeth Drury, m2 Anna Metford-Quick+m1 Wm. Quick
  • George Downing+Bellamy Thomas Edwards+Elizabeth Hall
  • Emmanuel Downing+Lucy Winthrop Robert Edwards+Margaret Cruelin
  • 'Sir George Downing', Mary Dowing, Isabella Downing+Thomas Edwards
  • '+Francis Howard' +Anthony Stoddard Robert Edwards, Joshua E., Thomas E.,
  • Philadelphia Downing+Sir Henry Pickering I William E., Leonard E., Jacob E., Martha (Frankie) E.
  • John Pickering+Elizabeth Prudden I
  • I Rev. Solomon Stoddard b. 1640 William Edwards+Agnes+Mary Eure
  • I +Esther Warren Richard Edwards+Elizabeth Tuttle John Pierpont+Thankful Stowe
  • Timothy Pickering Esther Stoddard+Timothy Edwards Rev. James Pierpont + Mary Hooker+Abigail Davenport+Sarah Haynes
  • Rev. Jonathan Edwards+Sarah Pierpont
  • Esther Edwards+Rev. Aaron Burr
  • Tapping Reeves+Sally Burr, Aaron Burr+Theodosia Bartow Prevost+Elizabeth Jumel Bowne
  • Theodosia Burr+Joseph Alston
  • Aaron Burr Alston
  • Theodosia Burr dau. of Aaron Burr+Theodosia Bartow Prevost+Elizabeth Jumel Bowne
    • Aaron Burr son of Esther Edwards+Rev. Aaron Burr
      • Esther Edwards dau. of Rev. Jonathan Edwards+Sarah Pierpont
        • Rev. Jonathan Edwards son of Esther Stoddard+Timothy Edwards
          • Timothy Edwards son of Richard Edwards+Elizabeth Tuttle
            • Richard Edwards son of William Edwards+Agnes+Mary Eure
              • William Edwards son of Thomas Edwards+Isabella Downing
                • Thomas Edwards son of Robert Edwards+Margaret Cruelin
          • Esther Stoddard dau. of Rev. Solomon Stoddard b. 1640 + Esther Warren
            • Rev. Solomon Stoddard b. 1640 son of Mary Downing + Anthony Stoddard
              • Mary Downing dau. of Emmanuel Downing+Lucy Winthrop
              • Isabella Downing dau. of Emmanuel Downing+Lucy Winthrop
                • Emmanuel Downing son of George Downing+ Bellamy
                  • George Downing son of Geo. Downing+Dorcas Blois
                    • Geo. Downing son of Geoffrey Downing+Elizabeth Wingfield
  • ________________

SEE ALSO

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=brown-gwinn-wv&id=I8991

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Sir George Downing, 1st Baronet's Timeline

1608
1608
Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom
1622
1622
London, Cornhill, England
1656
1656
Age 34
Westminster, London, , England
1660
1660
Age 38
1664
1664
Age 42
1684
July 22, 1684
Age 62
Cambridgeshire, England
1684
Age 62
????
????