St. Lucius Lleuver Mawr, King of the Silures

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Lleuver Mawr ap Coilus, Saint, King of the Silures

Welsh: Lleiffer ap Coel, Saint, King of the Silures
Also Known As: "Lleiffer", "Lleurug Mawr", "Lucius", "Llewfer", "Lleuver", "King of the Britons", "the Great", "Lucius The Great", "the Great Blessed", "the Blessed"
Birthplace: Llanilid, Rhondda Cynon Taff, Wales, United Kingdom
Death: circa 181
St Mary Le Lode, Gloucestershire, England
Immediate Family:

Son of Coel (Coelus) King of Britain and Ystdrawl verch-Cynvelyn Gadeon, Catuvellauni Tribe
Husband of Gwladys "the Elder" verch Eurgen
Father of Cadwaladr . ap Lucius, of Colchester; Eurgen verch Lleuver Mawr and Gwladys of Britain (Silures tribe)
Brother of Saint Emerita verch Coel

Occupation: konge, Britisk konge (Silures tribe), King in Britian, King, Good King, aka Lleirwg (Lleuver Lleiffer Llewfer) of BRITAIN; (first Christian) King of BRITONS (SILURIA), Kung, King of Britain, Britisk konge, King of Bretagne, "Lucius the Great"
Managed by: Erin Spiceland
Last Updated:

About St. Lucius Lleuver Mawr, King of the Silures

born: 137 110 119 or 105, 140, 5/28/130, 160, c. 5/28/137 , 120

died: 201 180 or 181, 180, 12/3/201

Lleuver Mawr (Lucius the Great) , the Second Blessed Sovereign

(Cadwalader was the Third Blessed Sovereign), was baptized by his

father's first cousin, St. Timothy, who suffered martyrdom at age 90 on

August 22, 139. When in 170 A.D. Lucius succeeded to the throne of

Britain he became the first Christian king of the world. He married

Gladys, daughter of Eurgen, granddaughter of Marius and his wife, the

daughter of Boadicea (Victoria). Lucius founded the first church at

Llandaff and changed the established religion of Britain from Druidism

to Christianity. He died in 181, leaving an only one recorded child, a

daughter, Gladys.

See the WIKIPEDIA article on Lucius at:

Lleuver Mawr (Lucius the Great) , the Second Blessed Sovereign

(Cadwalader was the Third Blessed Sovereign), was baptized by his

father's first cousin, St. Timothy, who suffered martyrdom at age 90 on

August 22, 139. When in 170 A.D. Lucius succeeded to the throne of

Britain he became the first Christian king of the world. He married

Gladys, daughter of Eurgen, granddaughter of Marius and his wife, the

daughter of Boadicea (Victoria). Lucius founded the first church at

Llandaff and changed the established religion of Britain from Druidism

to Christianity. He died in 181, leaving an only one recorded child, a

daughter, Gladys.

Lucius King of Britain (Silures tribe)

Born : Abt. 110

Died : Abt. 180 Wrote Pope Eleutherius for permission to become babtized as Christian

Father Coel (Croilus) King of Britain (Silures tribe)

Mother Dght. Princess of Britain (Catuvellauni tribe)

Marriage ?

Children - - Gwladys Princess of Britain (Silures tribe)

Forrás / Source:

Lleuver Mawr (Lucius the Great) , the Second Blessed Sovereign

(Cadwalader was the Third Blessed Sovereign), was baptized by his

father's first cousin, St. Timothy, who suffered martyrdom at age 90 on

August 22, 139. When in 170 A.D. Lucius succeeded to the throne of

Britain he became the first Christian king of the world. He married

Gladys, daughter of Eurgen, granddaughter of Marius and his wife, the

daughter of Boadicea (Victoria). Lucius founded the first church at

Llandaff and changed the established religion of Britain from Druidism

to Christianity. He died in 181, leaving an only one recorded child, a

daughter, Gladys.


ID: I67792

Name: Lleuvar Mawr "Lucius the Great"

Sex: M

Death: 3 DEC 201 in ,Gloucester,England

Christening: 28 MAY 137


Source: Kraentzler 1796.

Smallwood says he was King of the Britons from 170-181 A.D.

Change Date: 12 JUL 2000 at 21:32:51

King of Britain. In 179 he requested Pope Eleutherus to send missionaries to Britain. He established 68 dioceses with three archbishoprics.

Possibly, he was married to his cousin

His Feast Day is December 3.


2108788192027534. Good King Lucius BRITAIN 1601,1746 was born in 147 in , , , Great Britain and died in 181 in , , , Great Britain at age 34.

General Notes:

Lleuver Mawr was the second blessed sovereign, a great grandson of Carodoc. He was baptized at Winchester by his father's first cousin, St. Timothy, who suffered martyrdom at age 90 on 22 August A.D. 139.

In A.D. 170 Lucius succeeded to the throne of Britain and became the first Christian king in the world. He founded the first church at Llandaff and changed the established religion of Britain from Druidism to Christianity.

He died in A.D. 181 leaving an only recorded child , a daughter,Gladys.

Lucius married Queen Gladys (The Elder) BRITAIN 1601 in <, , , Great Britain>. Gladys was born in , , Colchester, Great Britain and died in Y.

The child from this marriage was:

1054394096013767 i. Gladys (The Younger) BRITAIN (born in 174 in , , , Great Britain - died in Y)

2108788192027535. Queen Gladys (The Elder) BRITAIN,1601,1746 daughter of Unknown and Princess Eurgen BRITAIN, was born in , , Colchester, Great Britain and died in Y.

Gladys married Good King Lucius BRITAIN 1601 in <, , , Great Britain>. Lucius was born in 147 in , , , Great Britain and died in 181 in , , , Great Britain at age


Lucius of Britain

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Saint Lucius of Britain

Died 2nd century

Venerated in Catholic Church

Major shrine cathedral of Chur

Feast 3 December

Patronage Liechtenstein; Diocese of Vaduz; Diocese of Chur

Saint Lucius is a legendary 2nd-century King of the Britons traditionally credited with introducing Christianity into Britain. Lucius is first mentioned in a 6th-century version of the Liber Pontificalis, which says that he sent a letter to Pope Eleuterus asking to be made a Christian. The story became widespread after it was repeated in the 8th century by Bede, who added the detail that after Eleuterus granted Lucius' request, the Britons followed their king in conversion and maintained the Christian faith until the Diocletianic Persecution of 303. Later writers expanded the legend, giving accounts of missionary activity under Lucius and attributing to him the foundation of certain churches.[1]

There is no contemporary evidence for a king of this name, and modern scholars believe that his appearance in the Liber Pontificalis is the result of a scribal error.[1] However, for centuries the story of this "first Christian king" was widely believed, especially in Britain, where it was considered an accurate account of Christianity among the early Britons. During the English Reformation, the Lucius story was used in polemics by both Catholics and Protestants; Catholics considered it evidence of papal supremacy from a very early date, while Protestants used it to bolster claims of the primacy of a British national church founded by the crown.[2]

Contents [hide]

1 Sources

2 Veneration in Chur

3 Notes

4 References

5 External links

[edit] Sources

The first mention of Lucius and his letter to Eleuterus is in the Catalogus Felicianus, a version of the Liber Pontificalis created in the 6th century.[1] Why the story appears there has been a matter of debate. In 1868 Arthur West Haddan and William Stubbs suggested that it might have been pious fiction invented to support the efforts of missionaries in Britain in the time of Saint Patrick and Palladius.[3] However, modern scholars follow the argument first proposed by Adolf von Harnack in 1904 that sees the story as a deriving from a scribal error substituting Britanio, referring to Britannia, for Britio, referring to Birtha or Britium in what is now Turkey. In 179 Birtha was ruled by the Christian-friendly Roman client king of Osroene whose full title was Lucius Aelius Megas Abgar IX.[3]

The English monk Bede included the Lucius story in his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, completed in 731. He may have gotten it from a contemporary who had been to Rome, such as Nothhelm.[1] Bede adds the detail that Lucius' new faith was thereafter adopted by his people, who maintained it until the Diocletianic Persecution. Following Bede, versions of the Lucius story appeared in the 9th-century Historia Brittonum, and in 12th-century works such as William of Malmesbury's Gesta pontificum Anglorum and the Book of Llandaff.[1][4] However, the most influential was that in Geoffrey of Monmouth's 12th-century chronicle Historia Regum Britanniae. Geoffrey's narrative emphasizes Lucius' virtues, and gives a detailed, if fanciful, account of the spread of Christianity during his reign.[5] In this version, Lucius is the son of the benevolent King Coilus and rules in the manner of his father.[6] Hearing of the miracles and good works performed by Christian disciples, he writes to Pope Eleuterus asking to join the flock. Eleuterus sends two missionaries, Fuganus and Duvianus, who baptize the king and establish a successful Christian order throughout Britain. They convert the commoners and flamens, turn pagan temples into churches, and establish dioceses and archdioceses where the flamens had previously held power.[6] The pope is pleased with their accomplishments, and Fuganus and Duvianus recruit another wave of missionaries to aid the cause.[7] Lucius responds by granting land and privileges to the Church. He dies without heir in AD 156, thereby weakening Roman influence in Britain.[8]

Later traditions are mostly based on one of these accounts, probably including a medieval inscription at the church of St Peter upon Cornhill in Cornhill, London in the City of London. There he is credited with having founded the St Peter's in 179 AD.

Saint Lucius's feast day is on 3 December and he was canonized through the pre-congregational method.

[edit] Veneration in Chur

The legendary first bishop of Chur and patron saint of the Grisons (Switzerland) was also named Lucius, with whom the British Lucius is not to be confused. It is possible, however, that the mentioning of Saint Lucius of Britain in the Liber Pontificalis soon led to a scholarly identification of the otherwise somewhat shapeless patron saint with his more prominent British namesake. His supposed relics are still kept in the cathedral of Chur, although there is little doubt among scholars that the bishopric was only established some 150 years after its alleged founder was martyred.


King Lucius

In his ‘Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum’ (Ecclesiastical History of the English People), the Anglo-Saxon chronicler Bede writes that:

“In the year of our Lord's incarnation 156, Marcus Antoninus Verus, the fourteenth from Augustus, was made emperor, together with his brother, Aurelius Commodus.”

The emperors referred to in the above statement are usually known as Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. Bede inherited the unfamiliar names from, his source for this sentence, Orosius. Bede, a pioneer in the use of use of Christ's incarnation as a method of dating, has calculated that their reign began in 156. They actually ruled jointly from 161 to 169.* Bede continues:

“In their time, whilst Eleutherus [Eleutherius], a holy man, presided over the Roman church, Lucius, king of the Britons, sent a letter to him, entreating, that by his command he might be made a Christian. He soon obtained the object of his pious request, and the Britons preserved the faith, which they had received, uncorrupted and entire, in peace and tranquillity until the time of the Emperor Diocletian.”

‘Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum’ Book I Chapter 4

In a recap at the end of the ‘Ecclesiastical History’, Bede states:

“In the year from the incarnation of our Lord 167, Eleutherius, being made bishop at Rome, governed the Church most gloriously fifteen years. Lucius, king of Britain, writing to him, requested to be made a Christian, and succeeded in obtaining his request.”*

‘Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum’ Book V Chapter 24

Eleutherius became pope, rather later than Bede reckoned, in about 174. Bede's are the earliest ‘domestic’ records of a British King Lucius. His source was evidently an, almost certainly erroneous, entry in a variation, made c.530, of the 'Liber Pontificalis' (Book of the Popes). There is a theory that the author of the error misread the word 'Britio' (referring to the fortress of Edessa, capital of Osroene, Mesopotamia), in his source, as 'Britannio'. The king being referred to, therefore, was Lucius Abgar (177–212) of Osroene – an identification which has the considerable advantage of being of someone who is known to have existed. At any rate, the (in all probability) non existent British Lucius' story was absorbed into history.

In the early 1120s, the respected historian William of Malmesbury, in his ‘Gesta Regum Anglorum’ (Deeds of the Kings of England), wrote:

“It is related in annals of good credit, that Lucius, king of the Britons, sent to Pope Eleutherius, thirteenth in succession from St.Peter, to entreat that he would dispel the darkness of Britain by the light of Christian instruction. This surely was the commendable deed of a magnanimous prince, eagerly to seek that faith, the mention of which had barely reached him, at a time when it was an object of persecution by almost every king and people to whom it was offered. In consequence, preachers, sent by Eleutherius, came into Britain, the effects of whose labours will remain forever, although the rust of antiquity may have obliterated their names. By these was built the ancient church of St.Mary of Glastonbury, as faithful tradition has handed down through decaying time.”

‘Gesta Regum Anglorum’ Book I Chapter 19

Around the same time that William issued his ‘Gesta Regum’ (i.e. about 1125), a compilation of materials pertaining to the diocese of Llandaff, the ‘Liber Landavensis’ (Book of Llandaff), was being written up by an anonymous hand. It avers that:

“In the year of our Lord 156, Lucius, King of the Britons, sent his ambassadors, Elfan and Medwy, to Eleutherius, who was the twelfth Pope of the apostolic see, imploring, according to his admonition, that he might be made a Christian, to which request he acceded; for giving thanks to God because that nation, which from the first inhabiting thereof by Brutus had been heathens, so ardently desired to embrace the faith of Christ, he with the advice of the elders of the Roman city, was pleased to cause the ambassadors to be baptized; and on their embracing the Catholic faith, Elfan was ordained a Bishop, and Medwy a Doctor. Through their eloquence, and the knowledge which they had in the Holy Scriptures, they returned preachers to Lucius in Britain; by whose holy preaching, Lucius, and the nobles of all Britain, received baptism; and according to the command of St.Eleutherius, the Pope, he constituted an ecclesiastical order, ordained bishops, and taught the way of leading a good life.”

‘Liber Landavensis’, ‘Of the First State of the Church of Llandaff’

According to lore – as recorded in the, early-9th century, ‘Historia Brittonum’ (History of the Britons) – Brutus, a Trojan, was the eponymous founder and first king of Britain. In the late 1130s, Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote his fanciful, but apparently very popular, ‘Historia Regum Britanniae’ (History of the Kings of Britain). Geoffrey took the traditional anecdotes of the ‘Historia Brittonum’ and worked them into a fully developed pseudo-history of Britain. It was the inventive Geoffrey who brought King Arthur to a wide audience.* King Lucius is but another of the historical shadows his imagination fleshed-out:

“Coillus had but one son, named Lucius, who, obtaining the crown after his father's decease, imitated all his acts of goodness, and seemed to his people to be no other than Coillus himself revived. As he had made so good a beginning, he was willing to make a better end: for which purpose he sent letters to pope Eleutherius, desiring to be instructed by him in the Christian religion. For the miracles which Christ's disciples performed in several nations wrought a conviction in his mind; so that being inflamed with an ardent love of the true faith, he obtained the accomplishment of his pious request. For that holy pope, upon receipt of this devout petition, sent to him two most religious doctors, Faganus and Duvanus, who, after they had preached concerning the incarnation of the word of God, administered baptism to him, and made him a proselyte to the Christian faith. Immediately upon this, people from all countries, assembling together, followed the king's example, and being washed in the same holy laver, were made partakers of the kingdom of heaven. The holy doctors, after they had almost extinguished paganism over the whole island, dedicated the temples, that had been founded in honour of many gods, to the one only God and his saints, and filled them with congregations of Christians. There were then in Britain eight and twenty flamens, as also three archflamens, to whose jurisdiction the other judges and enthusiasts were subject. These also, according to the apostolic command, they delivered from idolatry, and where there were flamens made them bishops, where archflamens, archbishops. The seats of the archflamens were at the three noblest cities, viz. London, York and the City of Legions [Caerleon], which its old walls and buildings show to have been situated upon the river Uske in Glamorganshire. To these three, now purified from superstition, were made subject twenty-eight bishops, with their dioceses...

At last, when they had made an entire reformation here, the two prelates returned to Rome, and desired the pope confirm what they had done. As soon as they had obtained a confirmation, they returned again to Britain, accompanied with many others, by whose doctrine the British nation was in a short time strengthened in the faith...

In the meantime, the glorious king Lucius highly rejoiced at the great progress which the true faith and worship had made in his kingdom, and permitted the possessions and territories which formerly belonged to the temples of the gods, to be converted to a better use, and appropriated to, Christian churches. And because a greater honour was due to them than to the others, he made large additions of lands and manor houses, and all kinds of privileges to them. Amidst these and other acts of his great piety, he departed this life in the city of Gloucester, and was honourably buried in the cathedral church, in the hundred and fifty-sixth year after our Lord's incarnation. He had no issue to succeed him so that after his decease there arose a dissension among the Britons, and the Roman power was much weakened.”

‘Historia Regum Britanniae’ Book IV Chapters 19 & 20, Book V Chapter 1


‘Liber Landavensis’ by W.J. Rees

Bede 'Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum' by J.A. Giles

William of Newburgh ‘Historia Rerum Anglicarum’ by Joseph Stevenson

Orosius ‘Seven Books of History Against the Pagans’ translator unknown

Geoffrey of Monmouth 'Historia Regum Britanniae' by Aaron Thompson, revised by J.A. Giles

William of Malmesbury 'Gesta Regum Anglorum' by John Sharpe, revised by Joseph Stevenson


The Good King Lucius

Rev L Smithett Lewis

from St Joseph of Arimathea at Glastonbury, James Clarke & Co, London, 1955. Chapter One.

This book is now re-published by Lutterworth

St. Joseph's little circle of twelve disciples was kept going by anchorites – as one died another was appointed; but in course of time a certain slackness seems to have come over them. William of Malmesbury tells us that the holy spot at length became a covert of wild beasts.

Then in the days of Good King Lucius aforesaid came a revival. Llewrug Mawr, Llewrug the Great (grandson of Saint Cyllinus and great-grandson of Caractacus), nicknamed Lleiver Mawr or the great luminary (hence his latinised name of Lux or Lucius), was king in Britain in the middle and towards the end of the 2nd century. He increased the Light that the first missionaries, the disciples of Christ, had brought, by sending emissaries to Eleutherius, Bishop of Rome, requesting him to send missionaries to Britain. The Welsh Triads tell us that Eleutherius, in response, sent Dyfan and Fagan, Medwy and Elfan, all of them British names, in AD 167.

Monkish historians say that Elfan was the second Bishop of London. (Theanus, who died AD 185, was the first Bishop of London.) The Latin Book of Llandaff says that he was consecrated Bishop at the time of his mission to Rome. Welsh authorities say that he presided over a congregation of Christians at Glastonbury (Ivide/I Rev. Rice Rees's ILives of Welsh Saints/I). Godwin (Ide Praesulibus/I, pp. 169-170) says that he was brought up at Glastonbury, and was sent by Lucius to Eleutherius, that he founded a library "near the aforesaid Church" (St. Peter's, Cornhill, which was his seat as Bishop of London), and that he converted many Druids. Pitsaeus, the aforesaid Roman Catholic Canon in his Relationes Historicae de Rebus Aeglicis (Paris, 1619), among many "illustrious British writers" names Elvanus of Avalon, whom he puts about AD 180, and says that he was educated in the School of St. Joseph of Arimathaea, and that he wrote "concerning the origin of the British Church"

But John Harding, in the reign of Edward IV, puts their mission at AD 190, which fits in with the papacy of Eleutherius, as does the date 183 given by Cardinal Baronius. Geoffrey of Monmouth tells us that Gildas (AD 516-570) recorded the names and acts of these missionaries in a book now lost, The Victory of Aurelius Ambrosius.

The story appears again in the second revision of the Liber Pontificalis about AD 685. The Venerable Bede, 673-735, tells the story of Lucius's appeal to Eleutherius. But we hear little or nothing of the appeal to Rome until after the Augustinian Italian mission to this country in 597. The Latin Book of Llandaff, or Book of Teilo (probably compiled by Bishop Urban in the 12th century, but based upon a book of Bishop Teilo, 540), and John of Teignmouth in his life of St. Dubricius (1346), and Capgrave (1393-1464), "the most learned of English Augustinians whom the soil of England ever produced", and Archbishop Ussher in his De Brittanicarum Ecclesiarum Primordiis (pp. 49-50) tell us that Medwy and Elfan were Britons who were sent as emissaries by Good King Lucius and returned with the missionaries Dyfan and Fagan.

It is noticeable that the pedigree of Dyfan, as given in the Cambrian Biography, makes him a Briton. The pedigree may be spurious, or he may have been a Briton resident in Rome. William of Malmesbury calls them Fagan and Deruvian, and Geoffrey of Monmouth Faganus and Duvanus. These missionaries journeyed through Britain and came to Glastonbury.

There, God leading them (wrote William of Malmesbury), they found an old church built, as 'twas said, by the hands of Christ's disciples, and prepared by God Himself for the salvation of souls, which Church the Heavenly Builder Himself showed to be consecrated by many miraculous deeds, and many Mysteries of healing.... And they afterwards pondered the Heavenly message that the Lord had specially chosen this spot before all the rest of Britain as the place where His Mother's name might be invoked. They also found the whole story in ancient writings, how the Holy Apostles, having been scattered throughout the world, St. Philip coming into France with a host of disciples sent twelve of them into Britain to preach, and that there, taught by revelation they constructed the said chapel which the Son of God afterwards dedicated to the honour of His Mother; and, that to these same twelve, three kings, pagan though they were, gave twelve portions of land for their sustenance. Moreover, they found a written record of their doings, and on that account they loved this spot above all others, and they also, in memory of the first twelve, chose twelve of their own, and made them live on the island with the approval of King Lucius. These twelve thereafter abode there in divers spots as anchorites - in the same spots, indeed, which the first twelve inhabited (tradition- ally in huts round the wonderful Chalice Well at the foot of St. Michael's Tor). Yet they used to meet together continuously in the Old Church in order to celebrate Divine worship more devoutly; just as the three pagan kings had long ago granted the said island with its surroundings to the twelve former disciples of Christ, so the said Phagan and Deruvian (Dyfan) obtained it from King Lucius for these their twelve companions and for others to follow thereafter. And thus, many succeeding these, but always twelve in number, abode in the said island during many years up to the coming of St. Patrick, the apostle of the Irish.

William of Malmesbury's Antiquities of Glastonbury, cap. 2. Those who have contended that there is no earlier authority than William of Malmesbury for the Great St. Patrick being first Abbot and dying at Glastonbury are upset by the discovery, in 1924, of St. Dunstan's own Psalter which he used at Canterbury, in the Calendar attached to which we read of "St. Patrick Senior at Glaston", vide Dean Armitage Robinson's Times of St. Dunstan, p.100. This is some 150 years earlier than William of Malmesbury. It is very significant that Irish pilgrims haunted Glastonbury in the Middle Ages.

Fox, in his Acts and Monuments (Vol 1, p146), gives Eleutherius's letter to King Lucius, in reply to his request. It runs thus: "Ye require of us the Roman laws, and the Emperor's to be sent over to you, which you may practice and put in use in your realm. The Roman laws and the Emperor's we may ever reprove, but the law of God we may not. Ye have received of late through God's mercy in the realm of Britain the Law and Faith of Christ. Ye have with you within the realm both the parties of the Scriptures. Out of them, by God's grace, with the council of your realm, take ye a law that can (through God's sufferance) rule your kingdom of Britain. For ye be God's Vicar in your kingdom, according to the saying of the Psalm, 'O God, give Thy judgement to the King,' etc.". In the margin, Fox has this note: "Ex vetusto codice regum antiquorum" – from an old writing of ancient Kings.

Good King Lucius probably flourished about the middle of the 2nd century: the Latins said in the latter part, the Welsh said in the middle. Probably both are right, as the time fits in well with the reigns of the two Antonines, whose edicts favoured the Christians, and the date of the Embassy to Eleutherius is probably AD 183. In his time Britain, first of all countries, became Christian. Hence the proud title of our Kings "Most Religious King" - just as from St. Joseph came the precedence of British Bishops. The Welsh Triads tell us that Lucius "bestowed the freedom of the country and nation with the privilege of judgement and surety, upon those who might be in the faith of Christ."

Cressy, the Benedictine monk, who lived shortly after the Reformation, and who had imbibed many of the traditions of the Benedictine Monastery of Glastonbury (he mentions that St Joseph died at Glastonbury in July 27th, AD 82) kept alive on the Continent, tells us in his Church History of Brittany that, in company with his sister, St. Emerita, King Lucius finally went as a missionary through Bavaria, Rhoetia and Vindelicia, and was martyred near Curia in Germany.

The story of Good King Lucius appears in writing as early as the second revision of the Liber Pontificalis about AD 685. At Chur in Switzerland, they state that Lucius King of the British and his sister are buried in the crypt of the very interesting old cathedral there.

Some, who have studied the subject of Good King Lucius, claim that he died a Confessor in the City of Gloucester, and was "buried in the Church of St. Mary de Lode there. They claim that the Roman Martyrology has confused the British with the Bavarian Lucius. Among those who think so is Monsignor Bernard Williams of Painswick, Gloucestershire. The tradition is that Lucius built the Church of St. Mary de Lode in Gloucester. It is worth remembering that the learned Fox in his Acts and Monuments, wrote:

The said Lucius after he had founded many churches, and given great riches and liberties to the same, deceased with great tranquillity in his own land, and was buried at Gloucester the 14th year after his baptism, as the book Flores Historiarum doth count, which was the year of Our Lord (as he saith) 201, and reckoneth his conversion to be Anno 187. In some I find his decease to be the 4th and in some the 10th year after his baptism, and hold that he reigned in all the space of 77 years.

We must not forget that the Abbey of Westminster, then the Isle of Thorney, included good King Lucius in her claims. The Most Rev. Bernard Mary Williams, Roman Catholic Archbishop in England (pro-Uniate Rite), has lent me his MS notes on King Lucius, many of which I cite or quote here. The Archbishop calls his notes rough MS notes on Lucius first Christian King of Britain. He cites an English abridgement (1718) of Sir William Dugdale's Monasticon Anglicanum as saying,

There is a tradition that a Bishop and Preachers were settled at Gloucester immediately after Lucius the first Christian King of Britain embraced the Faith, that is in the year of Grace 189. Antiquity testified that Eldadryn was Bishop of Gloucester in 489, and Dubricius in 522. Nay, the ancients make Gloucester an Archepiscopal See, when Lucius by the advice of Fugacius and Damianus sent hither by Pope Eleutherius converted the three Archflamens of London, York and Gloucester into so many Archbishoprics. After- wards the See was translated to Menevia or St. David's in Wales, but in the year 679 Wolphen, the first Christian King of the Mercians, beautified and enlarged Gloucester.

The Monsignor points out that the Book of Llandaff tells of Lucius' embassy of Elfan and Medwy to Eleutherius and gives the date as 156, and it says that "Elfan was ordained a Bishop, and Medwy a Doctor". He says that "it was from Glastonbury that King Lucius first heard of the Christian faith". He also tells that "King Lucius' embassy is mentioned in the Chronicle of Fabius Ethelwerd, 975 1011, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle most likely written by King Alfred the Great, or at any rate up to AD 891 or so, and in Bede's Ecclesiastical History, AD 730. All these I have verified. None of these mentions St. Joseph of Arimathaea, or the first beginnings at Glastonbury, and this for two reasons: (1) they were of different race and unfriendly; (2) they all wrote after the coming of St. Augustine, AD 597, and were unwilling to mention a British Catholic Foundation older than Rome itself." It is interesting that the Archbishop, a strong champion of the Papacy, and myself, have separately arrived at these two reasons.

Nothing perhaps is more revealing of the way in which the history of our Celtic Church has been forgotten than the story of good King Lucius. The man in the street knows nothing about him. But Bede, Nennius, the Book of Llandaff, the Welsh Triads, the Mabinogion, Achaury Saint, Geoffrey of Monmouth, William of Malmesbury, Cressy, Cardinal Baronius, Ussher and Rees have told of him. Ussher in particular has written long and fully. The very uncertainty of the exact date of his conversion tells the same tale. There is a great volume of tradition which recounts the Baptism of Lucius, and the early national conversion of Britain. St. Peter's, Cornhill, in London, proclaims it, so do the early centres of British Christianity, Glastonbury, Llandaff and Gloucester. And the story lingers in the name of the following churches (three in Glamorganshire): Llanfedwy (Medwy's Church); Merthyr Dyfan (Dyfan the Martyr); St. Fagan's and Llan-Lleirwg (Lleirwg's or Lucius' Church), now St. Mellon's, near Cardiff.

Just as it is very suspect whether the claim that Pope Celestine sent St. Patrick to Ireland be not a claim of after centuries, so a typical claim about Eleutherius may have crept into the Good King Lucius story. It may be true. The story, as it is told, suggests that Lucius, great-grandson of Arviragus, before he quite embraced the Christian religion, sent messengers to Rome, the centre of civilisation. But the case of St. Patrick makes us suspicious. St. Patrick's name was Succat. The name Patricius or Patrick was used as late as the 7th century to denote gentle or noble birth.

William of Malmesbury tells us that St. Patrick was the first to gather the Anchorites at Glastonbury, unbroken successors of St. Joseph and his eleven companions, under one roof. It has often been contended that the Glastonbury St. Patrick was not the Apostle of Ireland. We have pointed out the evidence of the calendar attached to the Bosworth Psalter supporting the claim in St. Dunstan's time. But there is evidence practically con- temporary with St. Patrick, that the great St. Patrick died and was buried at Glastonbury. It is very likely that he was born and brought up in the neighbourhood. His father was Calpurnius, a deacon; his mother was Concessa; his grandfather was Potitus, a priest and also a decimo or magistrate of a Romano-British colony; and his great-grandfather was Odissus, another deacon – a name strangely recalling the wily Odysseus of Homer. So he lived in some Church centre. He tells us that he was born near Nem Thor, which means the lofty hill or tor. Another name connected with his birth was Bannavem Taberniae. I hazarded the guess that this was a corruption of the name Bona Venta Hiberniae, good market or meeting place for Ireland. Dr. Davey Biggs of Oxford arrived independently at the conclusion that the first part was Bona Venta, a Venta being a well-known centre. I think that this may have been Bristol, 27 miles from Glastonbury. The Irish frequently raided the neighbourhood of Bristol, and Irish raiders carried St. Patrick as a prisoner to Ireland for six years. Be this as it may, there is the ancient evidence in the text of this book for the great St. Patrick being buried at Glastonbury.

St. Patrick being a Briton, it was quite natural for him to return to his native country, and quite natural to choose Glastonbury, the great Church centre there, and possibly his birthplace. It is very suspect whether the claim that Pope Celestine sent St. Patrick to Ireland be not a claim of after centuries. St. Patrick was the nephew maternally of the French Bishop St. Martin of Tours. A marginal note in the Cambridge MS. of William of Malmesbury's De Antiquitate Glastoniae tells us that St. Patrick after his captivity in Ireland met in England the two French Bishops St. Germanus and St. Lupus (after the Alleluia victory) and that he was twenty-two years under the teaching of St. Germanus at Auxerre. The honest and learned Abbe Riguet says that Pope Celestine consecrated St. Palladius instead of St. Patrick. He says "some authors, anxious to connect the Church of Ireland with Rome, wish to say that the Apostle was ordained Bishop by Pope Celestine. This is a detail which older documents do not give.... The first Bishop of Ireland is certainly Palladius, and not Patrick. On hearing of the death of Palladius, Patrick retraced his steps to Auxerre, where he was ordained by St. Germanus."

Furthermore, Bede, so devoted to Rome, never even mentions St. Patrick! He ignores the Celtic saint consecrated by a French Bishop.

The marginal note above referred to is only more explicit in detail than Malmesbury is in the text, for there he says that at the time of troubles with the Angles and the Pelagian heretics St. Germanus of Auxerre came to the help of the British, winning the Alleluia Victory, and returning home "took Patrick into the company of his immediate followers, and sent him some years afterwards by the command of Pope Celestine to preach to the Irish." But there is very little doubt that, although Rome and the Celtic Church were quite friendly in those days, Germanus acted on his own initiative. This accounts for the silence of Bede about Patrick. Bede's interests and knowledge were wrapped up mainly in the Roman Church and not in the great missionary efforts of the Celtic Church.

On the other hand, the remains of dedications of the above churches to Medwy, Lucius' messenger, and Dyfan and Fagan, the Pope's messengers in reply, as well as to Lucius himself, certainly appears confirmatory, not only of the whole story, but of a Pope's part in it. But if the date was 167 it was not Eleutherius: if it was 183, it was.

To sum up, it is interesting that English tradition associates Lucius with building churches in four great religious centres, Glastonbury, London, Llandaff and Gloucester, and that there still stand associated with him St. Michael's on the Tor at Glastonbury, St. Peter's, Cornhill, London, claimed to be the earliest Metropolitan Church of London, and four churches near Llandaff, one actually dedicated to him as Lleurwgg, and the others respectively to Dyfan, Fagan, and Medwy. The Welsh Church commemorated the baptism of King Lucius on May 28, and his Martyrdom on December 3, the latter an interesting commemoration. The Festival of St. Dyfan was kept on April 8, and that of St. Fagan on August 8. They were commemorated together on May 24, obviously part of the King Lucius commemoration. St. Elfan's Day was on September 26, and St. Medwy's on January 1.

Geographically and architecturally there is strikingly visible support to these ancient traditions of the early Church at Glastonbury. Just as to the south-west of the little city stands Wyrral Hill, where the feet of the first disciples rested, where once grew the Holy Thorn, so to the southeast looms St. Michael's Tor, visible over half Somerset, and even from other counties, and crowned with the tower of St. Michael's Church, successor of the one wrecked by a severe earthquake." A lonely church set on a hill far above human habitation bespeaks here, as elsewhere, the site of a primitive Christian church converted from, or taking the place of, a heathen temple. It was the wise custom of our forefathers when a country was won for Christ to consecrate to Him, by crosses or churches, spots which were sacred in the minds of the inhabitants. This explains such lonely churches on hills as St. Michael's. Another is at Churchdown in Gloucestershire, which rises sheer out of the plain, the church at the terribly steep top ministering to the hamlets of Hucklecote and Chosen at its base. But the examples are common. It is a relic of Baal or Sun worship, when people worshipped in the groves and high places often mentioned in the Bible. And it is not at all uncommon to find these loftily-placed, lonely churches dedicated to St. Michael, as here, to signify that Christ and His angels had triumphed over the devil and his angels.

Rather more than one hundred years after the coming of St. Joseph to Glastonbury, and the setting up of his little wattle church, the religion of Christ prevailed. It had been fostered here by King Arviragus, by direct missionary work; by the return of the converted family of King Caractacus straight from the feet of St. Paul; by the coming of Christian Roman soldiers and traders and colonists; by Apostolic and sub-Apostolic missions; and finally consummated by a mission from the Church of the Great Mistress of the World. The temples of Baal fell, and Britain was Christian. The Church of Rome in modern days scoffs at our beautiful British tradition of the Arimathaean Mission. She did not do so as long as we were in union with her. And Robert Parsons the great and self-sacrificing Jesuit, a man of noble zeal, embalmed the tradition in his Three Conversions of England, viz., by St. Joseph, by SS. Fagan and Dyfan, and by St. Augustine. It is extremely significant that, of the "Three Perpetual Choirs" of Britain, Glastonbury is at the foot of the Tor, once a centre of Druidic worship (as the tower of the Christian church still amidst all weathers and lights triumphantly proclaims north, south, east, and west); and Ambresbury is close' to Stonehenge, the great temple of Druidic worship.

This dominating Tor rises out of the plain, and is the centre of a great basin ringed mound with hills. It is one of the few places in England where you can see more than a clear mile in every direction, and you can see many miles in every direction. There is a perpetual breeze at the top. One wishes that the little church could be restored, and the hill become a place of pilgrimage for consumptives, who could breathe the pure air, and rest, and say their devotions on this age-consecrated spot, and perchance stop on their downward journey to crave a drink of water from the medicinal waters of the Chalice Well.*

* After a dream by one Matthew Chancellor in 1750 for a short time the water was in great demand, and a small spa was formed. It is a strong chalybeate, reputed to be especially good for asthma, phthisis and cancer. The spring yields about 25,000 gallons a day, and never lessens. Radioactivity has been found in it.

As one stands here on the Tor with an absolutely uninterrupted circle of view, one can well understand that the spot was chosen for the worship of the sun. Perhaps it was this commanding lane, with the sacred well at its foot, which led to the presence of the court of Arviragus. Certain it is there are no lake villages in the Kingdom equal to the two which lie amid the marshes which surround the town - those of Godney and Meare – and the remains found in them date, roughly, from 200 BC.


Lleuver Mawr (Lucius the Great) , the Second Blessed Sovereign

(Cadwalader was the Third Blessed Sovereign), was baptized by his

father's first cousin, St. Timothy, who suffered martyrdom at age 90 on

August 22, 139. When in 170 A.D. Lucius succeeded to the throne of

Britain he became the first Christian king of the world. He married

Gladys, daughter of Eurgen, granddaughter of Marius and his wife, the

daughter of Boadicea (Victoria). Lucius founded the first church at

Llandaff and changed the established religion of Britain from Druidism

to Christianity. He died in 181, leaving an only one recorded child, a

daughter, Gladys.


Förste kristne kung i Silurien

 aka Lleirwg (Lleuver Lleiffer Llewfer) of BRITAIN; (first Christian) King of BRITONS (SILURIA)

Born: Before 5/28/0137

He was the son of King 'Cole' Coilus and ruled much the same as his father.

King Lucius became the first Christian in Britain. The British nation accepted Christianity under good King Lucius about A.D. 179. Eleuterus sent out Fuganus and Duvianus as missionaries and they converted St. Lucius after which they began to establish a Christian order throughout Britain. Around 180, he requested from Pope Eleuterus to send missionaries to Britain to Christianize the people. He had great success throughout south-western Britain.

The missionaries converted old temples to churches and cathedrals throught his reign. York became the center for Albany and Deira, London became the center for Loegria and Cornwall, and Caerleon was the center for Cambria. The missionaries returned to Rome and then went back to Britain with more aides for the purpose of establishing full order on the isle. Lucius gave lands to the church and helped convert the people.

St. Lucius may have become a missionary himself and might have travelled to Switzerland to preach to the Grissons. He is said to have died in Gloucester.

Ashley's book of genealogy "The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens by Mike Ashley:

Published by Carroll and Graf Publishers, INC:

ISBN 0-7867-0692-9:Chart 1 on page 67.

(submitted by Ron Custer)

BIRTH: 28 May 0137 in Montgomeryshire, Powys, Wales

DEATH: 3 Dec 0201 - Gloucester, Britain

FATHER: Lucius ap CROILUS COEL - BIRTH: Abt 100 in Montgomeryshire,

Powys, Wales


MARRIAGE: Abt. 0168 - Gwladys verch EURGEN - BIRTH: Abt 140 in Montgomeryshire,

Powys, Wales


1. Cadwalladr ap LLEIFFER-LLEUVER-MAWR - Abt 170 in

Montgomeryshire, Powys, Wales

2. Eurgen verch LLEIFFER-LLEUVER-MAWR - Abt 175 in

Montgomeryshire, Powys, Wales

3. Gwladys verch LLEIFFER-LLEUVER-MAWR - Abt 180 in

Montgomeryshire, Powys, Wales

He was the son of Lucius who was the first christian in Britain.

Lleiffer Mawr ruled after his father's death and was much like his father.

He married Gwladys verch Eurgen and they had three children.

"Some sources say that Lucius and Lleiffer are the same person and son of Crolius Coel.

However, in my thinking the dates do not fit for that to be the case.

Other sources say that Lucius was the son of Crolius Coel and the father of Lleiffer.

This is what I have put here as the dates make much more sense."

(Site owner - Marj Gisi)


Ashley's book of genealogy

"The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens by Mike Ashley:

Published by Carroll and Graf Publishers, INC:

ISBN 0-7867-0692-9:Chart 1 on page 67.

(submitted by Ron Custer)

Title: Ancestry of Richard Plantagenet & Cecily de Neville

Author: Ernst-Friedrich Kraentzler

Publication: published by author 1978

1056003075318670. Llewfer Mawr King Of SILURIA-[59632],3,8,9,24 son of Coel I Of COLCHESTER "Old King Cole" -[59633] and Ystradwl Of SILURIA -[59634], was christened on 28 May 137 32 and died in 181 at age 44.

General Notes: 1 NAME Lleuvar /Mawr/ 2 SOUR S033320 3 DATA 4 TEXT Date of Import:Jan 17, 2001 1 DEAT 2 DATE 3 DEC 201 2 PLAC ,Gloucester, England 2SOUR S033320 3 DATA 4 TEXT Date of Import: Jan 17, 2001

baptized by his father's cousin, St. Timothy [De La Pole.FTW]

Source: Kraentzler 1796. Smallwood says he was King of the Britons from 170-181 A.D.

Llewfer married Gwladys Verch EURGEN -[59597] [MRIN:25679] 3,8,9.,24

Marriage Notes: 2 _PREF Y

Children from this marriage were:

                     i.   KERIBIR -[59596] died on an unknown date. 
                    ii.   Cadwalladr Ap Lleuvar MAWR -[57160] was born about 172. 32 

528001537659335 iii. Gladys Verch Lleuvar MAWR -[56996] (born about 190)

                    iv.   Gwladys "The Younger" Verch LLEWFER MAWR -[41687] was born in 177 and died. 

  1. Birth: ABT 147 in Siluria, Wales
  2. Death: 181 in Gloucester, England

1st Christian King of Britons

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St. Lucius Lleuver Mawr, King of the Silures's Timeline

Llanilid, Rhondda Cynon Taff, Wales, United Kingdom
Llanilid, Rhondda Cynon Taff, Wales, United Kingdom
May 28, 137
Age 1
May 28, 137
Age 1
May 28, 137
Age 1
Age 3
Age 23
Age 33
King of, Britian
Age 33
King of, Britian
Age 33
King of, Britian