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Kings of Ancient Britannia

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Kings of Ancient Britannia

This project will keep track of the kings of ancient Britain, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland beginning with the Roman invasion of Britain in 55 AD to 1066 AD at the coronation of Harold II and beginning of the Middle Ages.

Naming Conventions

We will use titles in the native language. Cadeyrn Fendigaid ap Gwrtheyrn did not speak English, so he was never once called "King of Powys." His title would have been "Brenin Powys," so we will style him as such.

Accepted Titles

These titles are acceptable. I will add more later.


Powys, Lothain, Gwenydd, Gwent, Afflogion, Rheged, Catraeth, Ceredigion, Dogfeiling, Dunoding, Edeyrnion, Man (instead of Anglesey), Rhos, Brycheiniog, Maes Gwyddno, Dyned, Alt Clut (instead of Strathclyde, if names are in Welsh), Pictland (as Pictish is extinct and is related to Welsh)

  • Brenin means "King," e. g., Brenin Powys
  • Distain means "Seneschal" - major-domo or chief butler, e. g., Distain Llewellyn
  • Tywysog means "Prince" or "Chief" e. g., Tywysog Gwynedd
  • Edling means "heir to the throne e. g., Edling Cymru "Crown Prince of Wales"


Ireland, Alt Clut (instead of Strathclyde, if names are in Irish), Scotland (for ancient lines only, as Scots and Gaelic descend from Old Irish), Ailech

  • Ard-rí na h'Éireann - High King of Ireland
  • Rí na h'Éireann - King of Ireland

Scottish Gaelic

Scotland, Alba, Caledonia

  • Righ Alba or Righ Caledonii


  • Ancient British Tribes - I have not found anything about the language the ancient British tribes spoke, so I have been using the Welsh titles for them. I have been using "Brenin o Silures" to mean "King of the Silures." Likewise: "Brenin o"
    • Iceni
    • Catuvellauni
    • Cornovii
    • Corieltauvi
    • Dobunni
    • Parisii
    • Trinovantes

Accepted Surnames and Patronymics

The surname field should almost always contain a patronymic.


  • ap means "son of," e. g., Cadeyrn ap Gwrtheyrn
  • verch means "daughter of," e. g., Afrella verch Gwrtheyrn


  • mac means "son of," e. g., Gwid mac Brude
  • ó means "male of a descendant of," e. g., Donnchadh ó Conchobhair
  • ni, nee, nighean, inghean means "daughter of" e. g., Máel Muire ni Cináeda
  • inghean uí, means "daughter of a descendant of," e. g., Dearbhorgaill inghean uí Conchobhair where Conchobhair is a male ancestor of Dearbhorgaill, but not her father
  • Ua, means "of the clan,"

The name of the ancestor--the part preceeded by '"mac" or "inghean"--is always either a genitive or lenited case. A short specific list of genetives here and here with more information here and here.


If a surname or patronymic doesn't exist, please use a toponymic.


  • o means "of" or "from" a place, e. g., Cynan o Gwynedd


Epithets are part of the person's name and will not be put in parenthesis or quotation marks. Many of the profiles have an English translation of the epithet in quotation marks. I have not been removing these, but I would prefer that any translations go into the Curator note or the About Me section, as these were not part of the name.

Example: Cadeyrn Fendigaid ap Gwrtheyrn, Brenin Powys

Welsh: Common Epithets

  • Fendigaid "the Blessed"
  • Mawr "the Great"
  • Wledig "the Imperator"
  • Hen "the Old"
  • Fychan, Vychan, Fachan, Vachan - literally "the Small", but functionally, "the Younger", as in a junior.
  • Ddu "the Black"


When constructing profiles for Ancient Britannia, please check Peter C. Bartrum, A Welsh Classical Dictionary: People in History and Legend up to about A.D. 1000 for spelling and biographical details.

For accurate and in-depth information try:

For additional resources see:

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