Yamtuan Raja Melewar

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Yamtuan Negeri Sembilan I Yamtuan Raja Melewar

Also Known As: "Yamtuan Raja Melewar [Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan Pertama 1773-1795] (t28) Raja Mahmud", "Separate nicknames with a comma"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Indonesia
Death: 1795
Place of Burial: Rembau, Negri Sembilan, Malaysia
Immediate Family:

Son of Sultan Abdul Jalil(P.Ruyung); Private and Putri Ratna Indusari YT Raja Balemban
Husband of Che Seni Binti Datuk Penghulu Naam
Father of Tunku Puan Aishah binti Raja Melewar; Raja Khalad and Tunku Kadir Yam Tuan Raja Melewar
Brother of Private; Private; Private; Raja Khatib Yamtuan Abdul Jalil; Yamtuan Muda Rembau I Raja Adil Bin Yamtuan Abdul Jalil and 1 other
Half brother of tuanku sembahyang III -pemangku raja alam 32; Yamtuan Bujang Yamtuan Abdul Jalil; yamtuan sembahyang I raja ibadat; yamtuan sembahyang II raja ibadat and Yamtuan Lenggang (Yang Di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan III) 1808-1824

Occupation: 1st Yam Tuan Negri Sembilan, 1st. Yam Tuan (sultan) Negri Sembilan
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Yamtuan Raja Melewar

Yang Maha Mulia Paduka Sri Tuanku Sultan Mahmud Syah ibni al-Marhum Sultan 'Abdu'l Jalil, Yang diPertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan.

Raja Melewar adalah anak raja Minangkabau dari Pagar Ruyung. Nama asalnya ialah Raja Mahmud putera kepada Sultan Abdul Jalil Pagar Ruyung. Raja Melewar telah dititahkan oleh ayahandanya untuk pergi ke Negeri Sembilan untuk menjadi Yang DiPertuan Besar yang pertama.

Sebelum Raja Melewar bertolak ke Negeri Sembilan, Yang DiPertuan Pagar Ruyung telah merintahkan seorang kerabat diraja bernama Raja Khatib untuk pergi lebih awal membuat persiapan menyambut Raja Melewar di Negeri Sembilan. Bagaimanapun sesampainya Raja Khatib di Seri Menanti, dia telah mengaku sebagai anak raja yang dihantar dari Pagar Ruyung. Penghulu Seri Menanti bernama Penghulu Naam telah mengahwinkan anak perempuannya dengan Raja Khatib.

Sementara itu di Pagar Ruyung angkatan Raja Melewar mula belayar menuju Tanah Melayu. Bagaimanapun sebelum ke Negeri Sembilan, Raja Melewar terlebih dahulu mengadap Sultan Johor yang kemudiannya menganugerahkan cap mohor dan diberikan kuasa untuk memerintah semua tanah jajahan di Negeri Sembilan.

Selepas perlantikan itu Raja Melewar dan angkatannya berangkat menuju ke Negeri Sembilan melalui Naning. Sampai sahaja di Naning, angkatan Raja Melewar telah bertembung dengan angkatan perang Bugis pimpinan Daing Kemboja. Pertempuran berlaku dan akhirnya angkatan Bugis berjaya dikalahkan dan Daing Kemboja terpaksa melarikan diri.

Raja Melewar kemudiannya meneruskan perjalanan sehingga sampai di Rembau dan ditabalkan menjadi Yang DiPertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan di Kampung Penajis. Tempat bersemayam Raja Melewar ini sampai sekarang diberi nama Kampung Astana Raja.

Selepas pertabalan itu Raja Melewar memimpin satu angkatan perang untuk menyerang Raja Khatib di Seri Menanti. Penghulu Naam bertindak menderhaka dan bangun memberontak menentang Yang DiPertuan Besar Raja Melewar. Dalam peperangan itu Penghulu Naam berjaya dikalahkan dan dia telah dihukum pancung. Dengan itu selesaikan ketegangan dalam pemerintahan Negeri Sembilan ketika itu.


Ketibaan Raja Melewar dari Pagar Ruyung, Minangkabau pada 1773, memulakan institusi beraja di Negeri Sembilan.

Uniknya ialah raja di Negeri Sembilan adalah yang dijemput oleh pembesar-pembesar negeri (Penghulu) dari Pagar Ruyung dan dirajakan di Negeri Sembilan. Sebab itulah raja tidak digelar Sultan tetapi memakai gelaran Yang DiPertuan atau Yamtuan. Sedangkan semua negeri di Malaysia dan Brunei menggunakan istilah Sultan atau raja.

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[English] The Minangkabaus were the first migrant community to the state of Negeri Sembilan in the 14th century. They eventually populated the state and began to control local politics.

Before the Minangkabaus, the area was ruled by the Sultan of Malacca. After Malacca was defeated by the Portuguese, it was ruled by the Sultanate of Johor. By 1760, Johor, which was having trouble from the Dutch, allowed the state to appoint a raja, or sultan, from Minangkabau in Sumatra.

Between 1760 and 1770, a council of leaders known as the datuk-datuk penghulu luak (the predecessor of the datuk-datuk undang today) left for Pagar Ruyung in Minangkabau in search of a leader. The Raja of Pagar Ruyong, who was believed to be a descendant of Alexander the Great, gave them a leader in the form of his son, Raja Mahmud. Raja Mahmud later became known as Raja Melewar in Negri Sembilan.[1]

Before Raja Melewar left for the Malay Peninsula, a royalty named Raja Khatib was sent to Negeri Sembilan to oversee Raja Melewar's coronation preparations. However, upon his arrival to Negeri Sembilan, Raja Khatib lied to the locals and claimed to be the prince sent from Pagar Ruyung. The locals believed him, and Raja Khatib was deemed the new king.

As for Raja Melewar, he first sailed to Johor to ask for the Sultan of Johor's consent to rule over Negeri Sembilan. The sultan did not object and conferred upon Raja Melewar the authority to reign over Negeri Sembilan. Raja Melewar's expedition marched to Negeri Sembilan through Naning.

At Naning, Raja Melewar's forces met Bugis warchief Daeng Kemboja. War ensued, but the Bugis forces were defeated.

Upon his arrival to Negeri Sembilan in 1773, Raja Melewar was deemed king and proclaimed as Yamtuan Besar in Kampung Penajis in Rembau. Raja Melewar learned of Raja Khatib's scheme and, becoming the undisputed ruler of the state, declared war against Raja Khatib.

Raja Melewar later relocated his palace to Seri Menanti, which remains the royal town of Negeri Sembilan today.

Following Raja Melewar's death in 1795, rather than selecting his son as their new leader, the datuk-datuk penghulu luak once again journeyed to their ancestral land. The Raja of Pagar Ruyong gave another son, Raja Hitam, to serve as their new Yam Tuan. Raja Hitam married Raja Melewar's daughter, Tengku Aishah, but they did not have children.[2]

Selecting a ruler of Negeri Sembilan by a council of ruling chiefs in the state, or the datuk-datuk undang, became an implemented system. Under which, the person selected assumes the position of Yang di-Pertuan Besar, or Yamtuan Besar, a post that began in 1773.