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Battle of the Coral Sea

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Profiles

  • Jerold Ed Bonebright (c.1920 - 1942)
    Killed in Action aboard the USS Sims, sunk in the Battle of the Coral Sea. As was customary he was missing in action for one year, and then declared dead. He was a Navy Coxswain.
  • Robert James Dicken (c.1915 - d.)
    Identity of this man is somewhat unclear. He was aboard the USS Sims when it was sunk and survived to bring some men to rescue vessels. Named Chief R.J. Dicken in the reports of the sinking of the US...
  • Edward H. Allen (1908 - 1942)
    Edward H Allen BIRTH unknown DEATH 8 May 1942 MEMORIAL SITE* Battle of the Coral Sea Memorial Park Cardwell, Cassowary Coast Region, Queensland, Australia A structure erected in honor of someone w...
  • John Paul Adams (1919 - 2011)
    Captain John Paul Adams, USN, retired February 20, 1919 - March 15, 2011 Captain John Paul Adams, USN, retired, age 92, passed away on March 15, 2011 in Columbus, Ohio after a long struggle with De...
  • Otto Julius Zoss (c.1920 - 1942)
    ZOSS, OTTO J, Watertender Second Class, (no. 2069895), US Navy, [Family] Sister, Mrs. Edith Mudry, 4 Westerman Ave., Seymour, Conn. [Casualty] Missing, later declared dead May 8, 1943. [Event] Coral Se...

The Battle of the Coral Sea, fought during 4–8 May 1942, was a major naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II between the Imperial Japanese Navy and Allied naval and air forces from the United States and Australia. The battle was the first action in which aircraft carriers engaged each other, as well as the first in which neither side's ships sighted or fired directly upon the other.

In an attempt to strengthen their defensive positioning for their empire in the South Pacific, Imperial Japanese forces decided to invade and occupy Port Moresby in New Guinea and Tulagi in the southeastern Solomon Islands. The plan to accomplish this, called Operation MO, involved several major units of Japan's Combined Fleet, including two fleet carriers and a light carrier to provide air cover for the invasion fleets, under the overall command of Shigeyoshi Inoue. The U.S. learned of the Japanese plan through signals intelligence and sent two United States Navy carrier task forces and a joint Australian-American cruiser force, under the overall command of American Admiral Frank J. Fletcher, to oppose the Japanese offensive.

On 3–4 May, Japanese forces successfully invaded and occupied Tulagi, although several of their supporting warships were surprised and sunk or damaged by aircraft from the U.S. fleet carrier Yorktown. Now aware of the presence of U.S. carriers in the area, the Japanese fleet carriers entered the Coral Sea with the intention of finding and destroying the Allied naval forces.

Beginning on 7 May, the carrier forces from the two sides exchanged airstrikes over two consecutive days. The first day, the U.S. sank the Japanese light carrier Shōhō, while the Japanese sank a U.S. destroyer and heavily damaged a fleet oiler (which was later scuttled). The next day, the Japanese fleet carrier Shōkaku was heavily damaged, the U.S. fleet carrier Lexington was critically damaged (and was scuttled as a result), and the Yorktown was damaged. With both sides having suffered heavy losses in aircraft and carriers damaged or sunk, the two fleets disengaged and retired from the battle area. Because of the loss of carrier air cover, Inoue recalled the Port Moresby invasion fleet, intending to try again later.

Although a tactical victory for the Japanese in terms of ships sunk, the battle would prove to be a strategic victory for the Allies for several reasons. Japanese expansion, seemingly unstoppable until then, was turned back for the first time. More importantly, the Japanese fleet carriers Shōkaku and Zuikaku – one damaged and the other with a depleted aircraft complement – were unable to participate in the Battle of Midway, which took place the following month, ensuring a rough parity in aircraft between the two adversaries and contributing significantly to the U.S. victory in that battle. The severe losses in carriers at Midway prevented the Japanese from reattempting to invade Port Moresby from the ocean. Two months later, the Allies took advantage of Japan's resulting strategic vulnerability in the South Pacific and launched the Guadalcanal Campaign that, along with the New Guinea Campaign, eventually broke Japanese defenses in the South Pacific and was a significant contributing factor to Japan's ultimate defeat in World War II.

Date: 4–8 May 1942
Location: Coral Sea, between Australia, New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands
Result:

   * Japanese tactical victory
   * Allied strategic victory
   * Japanese invasion repelled

Belligerents

United States, Australia & Empire of Japan

Commanders and leaders
* Frank J. Fletcher - United States

  • John Crace - Australia
  • Thomas C. Kinkaid - United States
  • Aubrey Fitch - United States
  • George Brett - United States
  • Shigeyoshi Inoue - Empire of Japan
  • Takeo Takagi - Empire of Japan
  • Kiyohide Shima - Empire of Japan
  • Aritomo Gotō - Empire of Japan
  • Chūichi Hara - Empire of Japan

Casualties and losses
United States & Australia:

  • 1 fleet carrier scuttled,
  • 1 destroyer sunk,
  • 1 oiler sunk,
  • 1 fleet carrier damaged,
  • 69 aircraft destroyed.
  • 656 killed

Empire of Japan:

  • 1 light carrier sunk,
  • 1 destroyer sunk,
  • 3 small warships sunk,
  • 1 fleet carrier damaged,
  • 1 destroyer damaged,
  • 2 smaller warships damaged,
  • 1 transport damaged,
  • 92 aircraft destroyed.
  • 966 killed