Information and communication technology (ICT) is an extensional well-known term for information technology (IT) which stresses the role of unified communicationsand the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information. The term ICTS is not existing (yet) - It is a further extension where S stands for Science in order to emphesise the convergence between technic or technology and science. It is important when we are speaking about people who are IT experts or computer scintists or communication experts. These people are described (about) by the German word Informatier or the Hungarian "informatikus" who can be software engineers or designers of computer systems etc. See also https://www.geni.com/projects/Computer-Scientists/18579 and https://www.geni.com/projects/Computer-pioneers/10271 It is hoped that you find also interesting to collect profiles describing people who established and build this new science called "Informatics". So let's start together.

# the bases

## 19th Century-20th Century

- A Charles Babbage, KH FRS mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer, Babbage originated the concept of a digital programmable computer.
- Ada Lovelace Countess of Lovelace (10 December 1815 – 27 November 1852), born Augusta Ada Byron, was an English writer chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's early mechanical general-purpose computer, the analytical engine. Her notes on the engine include what is recognised as the first algorithm intended to be processed by a machine; as such she is sometimes portrayed as the "World's First Computer Programmer".

## mid 20th Century

- Claude Shannon was an American mathematician, electronic engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory". (A Mathematical Theory of Communication, published together with Warren Weaver in 1948.)
- Alan Turing, OBE FRS was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist. Turing was highly influential in the development of theoretical computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of algorithm and computation with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general purpose computer. Turing is widely considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.
- Kurt Friedrich Gödel (1906-1978) mathematician and logician, was one of the most influential thinkers of the twentieth century andl probably the most strikingly original and important logician of the twentieth century.
- John von Neumann (Neumann János) was a Hungarian pure and applied mathematician, physicist, inventor, polymath, and polyglot. He made major contributions to a number of fields, including mathematics (foundations of mathematics, functional analysis, ergodic theory, geometry, topology, and numerical analysis), physics (quantum mechanics, hydrodynamics, and fluid dynamics), economics (game theory), computing (Von Neumann architecture, linear programming, self-replicating machines, stochastic computing), and statistics. He was a pioneer of the application of operator theory to quantum mechanics, in the development of functional analysis, a principal member of the Manhattan Project and the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton (as one of the few originally appointed), and a key figure in the development of game theory and the concepts of cellular automata, the universal constructor, and the digital computer.

# Programming languages

## the sixtieeth

- John George Kemeny (Hungarian: Kemény János György; May 31, 1926 – December 26, 1992) was a Hungarian American mathematician, computer scientist, and educator best known for co-developing the BASIC programming language in 1964 with Thomas E. Kurtz. Kemeny served as the 13th President of Dartmouth College from 1970 to 1981 and pioneered the use of computers in college education.
- Rear Adm. Grace Hopper Rear Admiral Grace Murray Hopper (December 9, 1906 – January 1, 1992) was an American computer scientist and United States Navy officer. A pioneer in the field, she was one of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I computer, and developed the first compiler for a computer programming language. She conceptualized the idea of machine-independent programming languages, which led to the development of COBOL, one of the first modern programming languages. She is credited with popularizing the term "debugging" for fixing computer glitches (motivated by an actual moth removed from the computer).
- John Backus (December 3, 1924 – March 17, 2007) was an American computer scientist. He directed the team that invented the first widely used high-level programming language (FORTRAN) and was the inventor of the Backus-Naur form (BNF), a widely used notation to define formal language syntax. He also did research in function-level programming and helped to popularize it.