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Jewish families of Janow Podlaski

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Profiles

  • Bella בלה Zimelman (1915 - 2001)
    Came to USA in 1947.
  • Abram Goldhamer (1902 - c.1942)
  • Gershon Garbash (1850 - d.)
    גרשון גרבש,סבא רבא שלי,אביה של סבתי,שיינדל ווינשטיין לבית גרבש. לפי ארכיון רישום התושבים ביאנוב פודלסקי , נולד בשנת 1850 ,נישא לביילה רחל זינגר בשנת 1873
  • Morris Singer (1901 - 1980)
  • Mendel מנדל Lederman (1923 - 1942)

Overview

Janów Podlaski is a village in Biała Podlaska County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland, close to the border with Belarus. It is the seat of the gmina called Gmina Janów Podlaski. The village has a population of 2,700. The Janów Podlaski Stud, established in 1817, the oldest state owned and operated horse stud in Poland, is also one of the most beautiful. Despite the name, the stud is situated two kilometers from Janów itself, in the village of Wygoda. Set amidst lush meadows along the river Bug, Janow Poslaski is a true "equine paradise".

Although the breeding of purebred Arabians has been primarily responsible for Janów Podlaski's fame worldwide, the Stud's many achievements within the realm of Anglo-Arabian breeding are also worthy of recognition and respect. A big attraction is the 19th Century stable complex situated in an old park. The oldest of these, the Clock Stable ("Zegarowa") and the Main Stallion Stable ("Czolowa") stemming from 1848 and 1841 respectively are the works of the famous architect Henryk Marconi.

http://www.janow.arabians.pl/en/auctions/2015-a/

Jewish Background

Jewish settlement in Janowie Sokółki was in the 17th century, but only in 1719 did Bishop Konstanty Vilnius Brzozowski give permission for erecting a synagogue. Ten years later, Janowie had more Jews than Poles and in177?, 214 Christians and 220 Jews. The main synagogue in Janowie was probably erected in 1740.Tomasz Wisniewski, a well-known researcher of Jewish Podlasie wrote in his book, Synagogues Białostocki, that Janowska synagogue has chosen "the most interesting Jewish sacred objects. The monumental [trzykondygnacyjny?]roof covered with shingles was impressive. The 19th century saw the greatest development of the local Jewish community.

Geographical Dictionary of the Polish Kingdom and other Slavic Countries describes Janów at the end of this century as "1534 inhabitants (Catholics 528, Orthodox 3, Jewish 997, Moslem 3)." In 1897, the 1,797 Jews accounted for 78% of all residents. Israel

Davidson, a well-known historianof medieval Hebrew literature, was born here. In the early 20th century, many Jews emigrated to America and othercountries due to economics; but in 1921, the Jewish population was 1,027. After September 1, 1939, the Soviet army occupied the town attracting many fleeing Jews.

  • Then, the German army entered the Janow on 26 June 1941 anddestruction of the shtetl began. The ghetto was created and some Jews deported to Suchowoli.
  • The ghetto was liquidated on November 2, 1942, its inhabitants were deported to the transit camp in Kiełbasinie near Grodno and later to death camps. Janowska synagogue was destroyed.
  • Source :,Encyclopedia of Jewish Life (2001), p. 561: "Janow Podlaski".

Earliest Jewish community

The earliest known Jewish community was before 1623.

The last census before WWII showed 2,100. The Orthodox community used the unlandmarked isolated suburban hillside with no sign. Reached by turning off a public road, access is open to all with a fence and non-locking gates -- two gates and a pass gate to a farmer's courtyard. There is wire netting for the one part where the fence was destroyed.

The present size of the cemetery is about 1.6 ha in size. No gravestones are visible. The vegetation overgrowth is a constant problem disturbing graves.

The municipality owns property is used as a Jewish cemetery only, but actually unused. Property adjacent is residential and agricultural. Rarely, private visitors stop. It was vandalized during World War II and occasionally now. Local/municipal authorities did some maintenance to the wall in 1986, but none since. No structures are within the cemetery. The main problems are several damaged parts of the fence and unchecked vegetation growth.

Michal Witwicki, Dembowskiego 72/53, 02-784 Warsaw tel. 6418345, completed this survey Aug. 15, 1991 using a documentation card. Eleonora Bergman and Michal Witwicki visited the site on August 1, 1991.

The Stud Farm

The history of the Farm has been as troubled as the history of our nation. The Farm was established in 1817, after the Congress of Vienna on the initiative of Administrative Council of the Congressional Kingdom of Poland and approved by the Tsar, Alexander I. It was the first state-owned farm on polish territory. Until the January uprising of 1863 the Farm was managed by polish breeders. After the uprising, in which a few of the Janów stable hands participated, and up to the beginning of the First World War the Farm was run by tsarist administrators accountable before the board in charge of state farms located in St. Petersburg. In 1914 the horses were evacuated deep into Russia and none of them ever returned to Janów.

  • After Poland regained its independence, the Ministry of Agriculture collected horses of all races and from different sources spared in the war and bearing promise for future breeding and stationed them in Janów.
  • Janów retained Pure Arabians and Anglo-Arabian Half Bloods. The Half Blood stallions reared in Janów in the period between the two World Wars provided the base in the breeding of cavalry and other military horses.
  • More than 80 percent of Janów's horses perished in the war campaign in 1939. The rescued remainder of the horses was used by the Polish personnel, by then under German supervision, to recreate to two main areas of breeding. In 1944, as the Russian army was approaching the River Bug, the German Command ordered an evacuation of the horses.
  • The Farm including its staff was relocated to Germany, near the town of Dresden, where it remained until February 1945. The evacuation continued when the Russian army crossed the River Oder. This time on foot, the farm was ordered to Dresden were it witnessed the allied bombing of the town on the night between 13th and 14th February.
  • The next step along the way was Torgau on the Elbe. From there, the Farm was transported by rail to Nettelau, south of Kiel and escaped miraculously without casualties as the transport was bombed heavily on the way. In Nettelau. The return trip in 1946 was by sea. Due to the damage to many buildings in Janów the Farm was temporarily stationed in Posadowo, not far from Poznan. The horses returned to Janów in the autumn of 1950.

http://polishjews.yivoarchives.org/archive/?p=digitallibrary/digita...