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For people who have tested and are assigned the maternal haplogroup M or who are believed to have had that maternal haplogroup based on descendants tested.

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Possible time of origin 60,000 years before present

Possible place of origin South Asia or Africa

Ancestor:L3

Descendants: M1, M2, M3, M4'45, M5, M6, M7, M8, M9, M10'42, M12'G, M13, M14, M15, M21, M27, M28, M29'Q, M31'32, M33, M34, M35, M36, M39, M40, M41, M44, M46, M47'50, M48, M49, M51, D

Defining Mutations: 26

Distribution

M is the single most common mtDNA haplogroup in Asia,[20] and peaks in Japan and Tibet, where it represents on average about 70% of the maternal lineages (160/216 = 74% Tibet,[21] 205/282 = 73% Tōkai,[22] 231/326 = 71% Okinawa,[22] 148/211 = 70% Japanese,[14] 50/72 = 69% Tibet,[21] 150/217 = 69% Hokkaidō, 24/35 = 69% Zhongdian Tibetan, 175/256 = 68% northern Kyūshū,[22] 38/56 = 68% Qinghai Tibetan, 16/24 = 67% Diqing Tibetan, 66/100 = 66% Miyazaki, 33/51 = 65% Ainu, 214/336 = 64% Tōhoku,[22] 75/118 = 64% Tokyo (JPT)[23]) and is ubiquitous in India[1][9][24] and South Korea,[22][25][26][27] where it has approximately 60% frequency. Among Chinese people both inside and outside of China, haplogroup M accounts for approximately 50% of all mtDNA on average, but the frequency varies from approximately 40% in Hans from Hunan and Fujian in southern China to approximately 60% in Shenyang, Liaoning in northeastern China.[21][22][23][26] Haplogroup M accounts for approximately 42% of all mtDNA in Filipinos, among whom it is represented mainly by M7c3c and E.[28] In Vietnam, haplogroup M has been found in 37% (52/139) to 48% (20/42) of samples of Vietnamese and in 32% (54/168) of a sample of Chams from Bình Thuận Province.[26][29] Haplogroup M accounts for 43% (92/214) of all mtDNA in a sample of Laotians, with its subclade M7 (M7b, M7c, and M7e) alone accounting for a full third of all haplogroup M, or 14.5% (31/214) of the total sample.[30]

Due to its great age, haplogroup M is an mtDNA lineage which does not correspond well to present-day ethnic groups, as it spans Siberian, Native American, East Asian, Southeast Asian, Central Asian, South Asian, Melanesian as well as Egyptian, Ethiopian, Somali, European, and various Middle Eastern populations in lesser frequency.

Among the descendants of M are C, D, E, G, Q, and Z, with Z and G being observed in North Eurasian populations, C and D being shared among North Eurasian and Native American populations, E being observed in Southeast Asian populations, and Q being observed in Melanesian populations. The lineages M2, M3, M4, M5, M6, M18 and M25 are exclusive to South Asia, with M2 reported to be the oldest lineage on the Indian sub-continent.[1]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_M_(mtDNA)

Subgroups distribution

Location of M subclades around the World Haplogroup M1'20'51 (14110)

Haplogroup M1 [1] - found in North Africa, Horn of Africa, Mediterranean, and Middle East[1][3]

M20 - in China.[31]

M51 - in Cambodia.[32]

Haplogroup M2 [2] - found in South Asia, with highest concentrations in SE India and Bangladesh;[9] oldest haplogroup M lineage on the Indian sub-continent.[1] Also found with low frequency in southwestern China.[21]

M2a - most common in Bangladesh

M2b - most common in SE India

Haplogroup M3 [3] - found mainly in South Asia, with highest concentrations in west and NW India[9]

M4"45

Haplogroup M4 [4] - found mainly in South Asia but some sequences in Eastern Saudi Arabia

Haplogroup M4a - found in Gujarat, India[15]

Haplogroup M30 - mainly in India, found in Middle East and North Africa.

Haplogroup M18'38

Haplogroup M18 - found among Tharus in southern Nepal and tribal people in Andhra Pradesh[33]

Haplogroup M38 - found with high frequency among Tharus from Morang District of southeastern Nepal and as singletons among Tharus from Chitwan District of south-central Nepal and Hindus from New Delhi[33]

Haplogroup M37

Haplogroup M37a - found in Gujarat, India[15]

Haplogroup M5 [5] - found in South Asia

Haplogroup M5a - found in Orissa, India[15]

Haplogroup M6 [6] - found mainly in South Asia, with highest concentrations in mid-eastern India and Kashmir[9]

Haplogroup M6b - found in Kerala, India[15]

Haplogroup M7 [7] - found in East Asia, especially in Japan, southern China, Vietnam,[34] and Laos[30]

Haplogroup M8

Haplogroup M8a: [8] - found in East Asia and Central Asia with low frequency

Haplogroup M8a2 - frequently found in indigenous peoples of Kamchatka (Koryaks, Itelmens), and with lower frequency among Chukchis, Koreans, Altayans, Mongolians, Khakassians, and Tuvans[27][35]

Haplogroup CZ

Haplogroup C [9] - found especially in Siberia

Haplogroup C1 [10] - found in Asia and America (Native Americans and Hispanics in particular)

Haplogroup C4

Haplogroup Z [11] - found among diverse Eurasian populations, including Finns,[citation needed] Hazara, Japanese, Koreans, Russians,[citation needed] and Sami

Haplogroup M9 [12] - found in East Asia and Central Asia, especially in Tibet

Haplogroup E - a subclade of M9 - found especially in Taiwan (aborigines), Maritime Southeast Asia, and the Mariana Islands

Haplogroup M10 [13] - small clade found in East Asia, Southeast Asia, Bangladesh, Central Asia, southern Siberia, and Belarus

Haplogroup M11 [14] - small clade found especially among the Chinese and also in some Tibetans and Bangladeshis[21]

Haplogroup M12'G

Haplogroup M12 [15] - small clade found especially among the aborigines of Hainan Island as well as in other populations of China,[23] Japan, Korea, Pashtuns, Tibet, and Vietnam

Haplogroup G [16] - found especially in Japan, Mongolia, and Tibet and in indigenous peoples of Kamchatka (Koryaks, Alyutors, Itelmens) with some isolated instances in diverse places of Asia

Haplogroup M13 - small clade found among Tibetans in Tibet,[21] Oirat Mongols in Xinjiang,[36] Barghuts in Hulunbuir,[37] and Yakuts and Dolgans in central Siberia[38]

Haplogroup M14 - found in Tibet[21]

Haplogroup M15 - found in Tibet[21]

Haplogroup M17 - found in Luzon[28] and in the Chams of southern Vietnam[29]

Haplogroup M19 - found in the Batak people of Palawan[39]

Haplogroup M21 [17] - small clade found in SE Asia and Bangladesh

Haplogroup M23'75

M23 - found in Madagascar

M75 - found in China[31]

Haplogroup M24 - found in Palawan[39]

Haplogroup M27 [18] - found in Melanesia

Haplogroup M28 [19] - found in Melanesia and in a single Han individual from Taiwan[21]

Haplogroup M29'Q

Haplogroup M29 [20] - found in Melanesia

Haplogroup Q [21] - found in Melanesia and Australia (Aborigines)

Haplogroup M31 [22] - found among the Onge, in the Andaman Islands[15]

Haplogroup M32 [23] - found in Andaman Islands

Haplogroup M33 [24] - small clade found in South Asia, Belarus,[citation needed] southern China,[23] and in two Han Chinese living in Southern California[21]

Haplogroup M33a - found in Gujarat, India[15]

Haplogroup M34 [25] - small clade found in South Asia

Haplogroup M34a - found in Karnataka, India[15]

Haplogroup M35 [26] - small clade found in South Asia

Haplogroup M35a - found in India

Haplogroup M35b - found in Karnataka, India and Nepal. Found in Slovakia.[40]

Haplogroup M39 [27] - found in South Asia[15]

Haplogroup M40 [28] - found in South Asia[15]

Haplogroup M41 - found in South Asia

Haplogroup M41b - found in Andhra Pradesh, India[15]

Haplogroup M41c - found in Andrah Pradesh, India[15]

Haplogroup M42 [29] - found among Australian Abrorigines

Haplogroup M48 [30] - rare clade found at least in Saudi Arabia

Haplogroup M80 - found in Palawan[39]

Haplogroup D - found in Eastern Eurasia, Native Americans, Central Asia[41] and occasionally also in West Asia and Northern Europe.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_M_(mtDNA)

Origins

There is a debate concerning geographical origins of Haplogroup M and its sibling haplogroup N. Both lineages are thought to have been the main surviving lineages involved in the out of Africa migration (or migrations) because all indigenous lineages found outside Africa belong to haplogroup M or haplogroup N. Yet to be conclusively determined is whether the mutations that define haplogroups M and N occurred in Africa before the exit from Africa or in Asia after the exit from Africa. Determining the origins of haplogroup M is further complicated by the fact that it is found in Africa and outside of Africa.[3]

It is generally accepted that haplogroup M evolved shortly after the emergence of its parent clade haplogroup L3. Apart from haplogroup M and its sibling haplogroup N, the numerous other subclades of L3 are largely restricted to Africa, which suggests that L3 arose in Africa.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_M_(mtDNA)

Subclades of M

(To be completed. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_M_(mtDNA))

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