Messianic Judaism is a syncretic religious movement that combines Jewish practices with Christian beliefs. Both Jews and Christians normally regard it as as Christian sect. The most famous example today is Jews for Jesus.
Messianic Judaism emerged as a separate movement in the 1960s and 70s, but has roots in the 19th century Hebrew Christian movement:
- London Society for promoting Christianity amongst the Jews (1809)
- Beni Abraham (1813)
- American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews (1820)
- Jewish Converts' Society (1823)
- Brotherhood of Jewish Proselytes (1844)
- American Baptist Association for Evangelizing the Jews (1844)
- Hebrew Christian Alliance (1860)
- Israelites of the New Covenant (1884)
- Novy Israel (1891)
- Brownsville Mission to the Jews (1894)
In the US, the movement gained momentum in 1893 when Joseph Rabinowitz, head of the Israelites of the New Covenant, to preach to a Jewish audience at the World Exposition in Chicago.