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Native American Boarding Schools

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Profiles

  • Iva Mae Jackson (1893 - 1948)
    Seneca Daughter of Dwight and Betsy (Dowdy) Bennett Enrolled at the Tunesassa School on the Allegany Indian Reservation at the age of 10 in the Winter of 1902 and left in the Fall of 1903. Marr...
  • Amelia A. Jimerson (1885 - 1950)
    Seneca/Wolf Clan Daughter of Steeprock and Abby Elizabeth (Shongo) Kennedy. Attended Thomas Indian School Attended Carlisle Indian Industrial School from 1895-1902 Married Elmer C. Armstron...
  • Theodore Lynne 'Jay o yah' Jimerson, Sr. (1867 - 1916)
    Seneca/Snipe Clan Son of Jane Titus (later, Pierce) and unknown father Married Minnie Harris Their children: Theodore Lynne Jr, Berusha, Leroy Spencer Sr, Lucy, Sherman, Ada, Lydia J., Raymond ...
  • Asenoth Pierce (1878 - 1917)
    Seneca/Turtle Clan Daughter of Thomas Bishop and Agnes Jemison (Jimerson) Attended Thomas Indian School from 1880-1888 Graduated from Carlisle Indian Industrial School in 1904 Attended Carlis...
  • Alice Edith Snyder (1893 - 1969)
    Seneca/Deer Clan Daughter of John Tandy Jimeson and Lorinda (Blinkey) Jimeson Entered Hampton Institute in Virginia at the age of 15 in Sep 1908 and attained Senior status but did not graduate. L...

Native American/American Indian Boarding Schools/Residential Schools
This project is to acknowledge the traumatic and, at times, triumphant experiences of those Native American children who were forced, coerced and placed in Native American Boarding Schools. These are the schools and the places, a long way from home, which changed the fabric of the Native American in the United States and Canada. For those who attended, for those remembered; their names are here.


Two hundred years ago, on March 3, 1819, the Civilization Fund Act ushered in an era of assimilationist policies, leading to the Indian boarding-school era, which lasted from 1860 to 1978. The act directly spurred the creation of the schools by putting forward the notion that Native culture and language were to blame for what was deemed the country’s “Indian problem.”

Native families were coerced by the federal government and Catholic Church officials into sending their children to live and attend classes at boarding schools. (About one-third of the 357 known Indian boarding schools were managed by various Christian denominations.) According to the Act’s text, Christian missionaries and other “persons of good moral character” were charged with introducing Native children to “the habits and arts of civilization” while encouraging them to abandon their traditional languages, cultures, and practices.

This is what achieving civilization looked like in practice: Students were stripped of all things associated with Native life. Their long hair, a source of pride for many Native peoples, was cut short, usually into identical bowl haircuts. They exchanged traditional clothing for uniforms, and embarked on a life influenced by strict military-style regimentation. Students were physically punished for speaking their Native languages. Contact with family and community members was discouraged or forbidden altogether. Survivors have described a culture of pervasive physical and sexual abuse at the schools. Food and medical attention were often scarce; many students died. Their parents sometimes learned of their death only after they had been buried in school cemeteries, some of which were unmarked.

Canada, which operated hundreds of Indian residential schools with similar assimilationist agendas, implemented the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement in 2007, in which the government formally apologized to former boarding-school students and paid reparations to survivors. And in 2009, Canada created the (now-defunct) Truth and Reconciliation Commission, which began a multiyear process of collecting and listening to survivors’ stories, opening up residential-school records to survivors and families, and ensuring that the history and legacy of the schools are never forgotten.

As of now, apologies in the United States have been few and far between. Although President Barack Obama signed the Native American Apology Resolution on December 19, 2009, apologizing for past “ill-conceived policies toward the Native peoples of this land,” the resolution had no impact on federal policy toward Native Americans. With its disclaimer against any legal claims, the resolution faded into the woodwork of legislative paperwork.

Statutes of limitations for civil or criminal cases make any legal action impossible in the United States, according to the Native American Rights Fund attorney Donald Wharton. Lawsuits against Christian denominations would need to take place in individual state courts, and would likely be costly and burdensome. Attempts at gaining reparations at the state-legislature level have failed, too; in February, the South Dakota legislature killed a bill that would have extended the window for childhood survivors of boarding-school abuse to file suits against organizations such as the Catholic Church.
Mary Annette Pember is a citizen of the Red Cliff Ojibwe tribe and a national correspondent for Indian Country Today.
https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2019/03/traumatic-leg...


United States


Alabama

Ashbury Manuel Labor School and Mission

Alaska

Anchorage
Anvik Mission (Christ Church)
Bethel Regional High School
Chooutla
Copper Valley
Covenant High School
Douglas Island Friends Mission School
Eklutna (Tyonek)
Fairbanks
Friends High School
Galena
Holy Cross
Jessee Lee
Kanakanak (Dillingham- Kanakanak)
Kodiak Aleutian Regional High School
Kosorefsky
Mount Edgecumbe
Nenana
Nenana High School
Nunapitsinghak Moravian Children's Home
Palmer
Palmer House
Pius Tenth Mission
Seward Sanitarium
Sitka Industrial Training School (Sheldon Jackson)
St. Mark's Mission
St. Mary's
Victory Bible School
Wasilla
White Mountain
William E. Beltz School
Woody Island Mission and Orphanage
Wrangell Institute

Arizona

Chinle
Colorado River
Dilcon Community School
Fort Apache (Theodore Roosevelt)
Fort Defiance
Fort Mojave Industrial School
Gila River St. Peter School
Globe New Jerusalem
Greasewood Springs Community School
Greyhills Academy High School
Holbrook
Hunter's Point Indian School
Jeehdeez'a Academy
Kaibeto Indian School
Kayenta Indian School
Keams Canyon
Kinlichee Indian School
Kingman Indian School
Leupp
Low Mountain
Lukachukai Community School
Many Farms High School
March Pass
Naa Tsis'Ana Community School
Navajo Training School
Navajo Mountain
Nazlini Community School
Nenhanezad Community School
Phoenix Indian School
Pima
Pine Springs
Pinon
Rice Station
Rocky Ridge
Rough Rock Community School
Sacaton
San Carlos
Santa Rosa Ranch
SebaDalkai
Shonto Indian School (Shonto Preparatory Technology HS)
Theodore Roosevelt
St Michaels Industrial
St Johns Mission at Gila Crossing
Teec Nas Pos
Tayei
Truxton Canyon
Tuba City
Tucson Indian Training School
Western Navajo
Wide Ruins
Wide Ruins Community School

California

Fort Bidwell Indian School
Fort Yuma Indian School
Greenville Indian Industrial
Hoopa Valley
Perris Indian School
Round Valley Indian School
Sherman's Institute
St. Anthony's Industrial School
St. Boniface Indian Industrial School
St. Turilbius Industrial

Colorado

Fort Lewis Indian School (Fort Lewis College)
Good Shepard Industrial School
Grand Junction
Holy Cross Abbey
Ignacio
Southern Ute

Iowa

Sac and Fox
Toledo Industrial
White's Manuel Labor Institute

Idaho

Fort Hall
Fort Lapwai
Lemhi
Sacred Heart Covenant of Mary Immaculate
St Josephs

Indiana

St Joseph's Indian Normal School
White Manuel Labor Institute

Kansas

Haskell Industrial Training School (Haskell Indian Nations University)
Great Nemaha Indian School
Kaw Manual Labor School
Kickapoo
Osage Manual Labor School/St Francis
Potowatamie Manual Labor School
Shawnee Mission Manual Labor School

Michigan

Holy Childhood of Jesus School
Holy Name (Chippewa) Baraga
Mount Pleasant Industrial
Pottawatomie
St Joseph's Orphanage

Minnesota

Cass/Leech Lake
Contarf (St Paul's Industrial School)
Covenant of Our Lady of the Lake
Cross Lake
Morris Industrial (Sisters of Mercy)
Pine Point
Pipestone Industrial School
Red Lake
St Benedict's Orphan School (St Joseph's Academy)
St Francis Xavier's Industrial School
St Mary's Mission
St Theodore's
Vermillion Lake Indian School
White Earth Boarding School (St Benedict's Mission)
Wild Rice River

Mississippi

Choctaw Central Indian School

Montana

Blackfeet
Bond's Mission School (Montana Industrial)
Crow Agency
Flathead
Fort Belknap
Fort Peck
Fort Shaw Indian Boarding School
Holy Family Mission
Holy James Mission
St Xavier Mission (Pretty Eagle Catholic Academy)
Pryor Creek
St Ignacius Misdion
St Labre Misdion
St Paul's Mission School (Mission Grade School)
St Peter's
Tongue River
Willow Creek

Nebraska

Genoa Indian Industrial School
Iowa Industrial School
Omaha Indian School
Oto and Missouri Agency Industrial
Santee Industrial School
Santee Normal Training School
St Augustine's

Nevada

Stewart Indian School
Fort McDermitt
Western Shoshone Indian School

New Mexico

Albuquerque Indian School (Indian Pueblo Training School)
Bernilillo
Chichilita/Jones Ranch
Ch'ooshgai Community (Chuska)
Crown Point Indian School
Dzilth-Na-O-Dith-Hle Community School
Fort Wingate Indian School
Jicarilla Apache
Lake Valley Indian School
Mescalero Apache
Navajo Prep
Nenahnezad Boarding School
Ojo Encino Indian School
Pine Hill
Pueblo Bonito
Pueblo Pintato Indian School
Ramona Industrial School
Rehoboth Boarding School
San Juan Boarding School
Santa Fe Industrial School (Santa Fe Indian School)
Shiprock Boarding School
Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute
St Catherine Indian School
Toadlena
Tohatchi
Wingate Indian School
Zuni Boarding School

New York

Convent of Our Lady of Mercy
Thomas (Gowanda) Indian School
Tonawanda Indian School
Tunasassa Friends Boarding School for Indian Children

North Carolina

Eastern Cherokee

North Dakota

Bismark Indian School
Fort Berthold
Fort Totten Indian School
Maddock Agricultural and Training School
Sacred Heart Mission
Seven Dolors Mission
St Mary
St Mary (Turtle Mountain)
St Michael's Mission
Standing Rock Agency Agricultural/Martin Kennel
Standing Rock Indian Industrial School
Wahpeton Indian School (Circle of Nations

Ohio

Shawnee Friends Mission and School

Oklahoma

Absentee Shawnee
Anadarko (St Patricks)
Arapaho Manual Labor and Boarding School (Concho)
Armstrong Academy
Asbury Manual Labor School
Bacone College (Indian University)
Bloomfield Academy (Bloomfield Seminary; Carter Seminary; now Chickasaw Children's Village)
Bloomfield Academy for Girls
Burney Institute (Burney Institute for Girls; Lebanon Orphan School; Chickasaw Orphan Home and Manual Labor School)
Catonment Indian School
Cherokee Female Seminary
Cherokee Indian Orphan School
Cherokee Male Seminary
Cheyenne Manual Labor and Boarding School
Chickasaw Manual Labor Academy for Boys
Chickasaw Orphan Home and Manual Labor
Chilocco Indian Agricultural School
Chuala Female Seminary
Collins (Colbert) Institute
Coweta Mission (Koweta Boarding School)
Darlington Mennonite Mission
Dwight Mission
Edwards University
El Meta Bond College
Emahaka Mission School for Girls
Euchi (Yuchi)
Eufala Boarding School for Girls (National High School at Eufala; now Eufala Dormitory)
Folsom Indian School
Fort Coffee Academy for Boys
Fort Sill Indian School
Goodland Academy (Old Goodland Indian Orphanage)
Harrell International Institute (Spaulding Female College)
Henry Kendall College (Presbyterian School for Indian Girls; Minerva School; now the University of Tulsa)
Hillside Mission
Hominy Creek (St Johns)
Iowa Mission
Jones Academy/Jones Male Academy
Mekasukey Academy
Murray School of Agriculture (Murray State College)
Murrow Indian Orphanage
Nazareth (College) Institute
Norwalk Academy for Boys
Nuyaka Mission
Nuyaka School and Orphanage
Oak Hill Industrial Academy (Alice Lee Elliott Memorial Academy)
Oak Ridge Manual Labor School
Oklahoma Presbyterian College for Women (Calvin Institute/Durant Presbyterian College)
Osage Boarding School
Otoe
Pawnee Boarding and Training School
Pawnee Industrial Boarding School
Pecan Creek Mission
Ponca Indian School
Quapaw
Rainy Mountain
Red Moon
Riverside Indian School
Sac and Fox Indian School
Sasakwa Female Academy
Seger Industrial School
Seneca Boarding School
Sequoyah High School (now Sequoyah Schools)
Shawnee
Spencer Academy
St Agnes
St Agnes Academy
St Benedict's Industrial School (Sacred Heart)
St Elizabeth School
St John's School
St Joseph's School
St Louis School
St Mary's School
St Mary's Academy for Girls
St Mary's
Sulphur Springs School
Tullahassee Manual Labor Boarding School
Tuskahoma (Tushkahomma) Institute/Choctaw Female Academy
Wapanuka Academy for Girls (Allen's Academy/Chickasaw Rock Academy/Wapanuka Institute)
Wealaka Mission (replaced Tullahassee)
Wetumka Mission (Levering)
Wewaka Mission Boarding School for Girls
Wheelock Academy (Wheelock Mission and Wheelock Female Seminaries)
Yellow Springs School

Oregon

Chemawa Indian School (Salem Indian Industrial School/Harrison Institute)
Forest Grove Indian Traing School
Grand Ronde
Kate Drexel/St Andrew's Industrial School
Klamath Indian School for Boys
Siletz
Umatilla
Warm Springs
Yaimax Indian Boarding Schools for Girls

Pennsylvania

Carlisle Indian Industrial School
Girl's Home of the Lincoln Institution/Educational Home for Boys (Lincoln Institution)
Holy Providence School for Indians and Colored People
Martinsburg
St Francis
West Philadelphia Industrial

South Dakota

All Saint's
Brainard
Chamberlain Indian School
Cheyenne River
Flandreau School/Riggs Institute
Holy Rosary Mission/Red Cloud Indian School
Hope
Immaculate Conception Indian School/Stephan Mission /Crow Creek
Lower Brule
Marty Indian School (St Paul's Indian Mission)
Oahe
Oglala Indian School
Our Lady of Lourdes
Pierre Indian School
Pine Ridge
Rapid City Indian School
Sisseton Sioux Indian School
Springfield Indian School
St Elizabeth's
St Francis Indian School (Rosebud)
St John's School for Girls
St Joseph's Indian School
St Mary's School for Girls
Tekakwitha Indian Mission (orphanage)
Yankton Reservation Industrial

Utah

Aneth
Intermountain Indian School
Ouray
Uintah

Virginia

Hampton University

Washington

Colville Mission School
Cushman Indian School
Fort Spokane Indian School
Male and Female Industrial School
Oneida Indian School
Puyallup
Sacred Heart Covenant
St George's Mission
St Francis Regis Mission
St Mary's (now Pascal Sherman Indian School)
Tonasket
Tulalip Indian School
Yakima/Fort Simcoa

Wisconsin

Good Shepard Industrial School
Hayward Indian School - Milwaukee
Holy Family (Bayfield)
Keshena/Menominee
Lac de Flambeau
Menominee
Oneida Indian School
St Joseph's Industrial School
St Mary's
Tomah Indian Industrial School
Winnebago
Wittenberg Indian School - Bethany Mission

Wyoming

Fort Washakie/Wind River
Hayward Indian School
Robert's Episcopal Mission for Shoshone Girls
St Michael's Mission
St Stephen's Mission Industrial School


Canada

In Canada, they are known as residential schools

Alberta

Assumption (Hay Lake) Indian Residential School
Blue Quill's (Lac la Biche/Saddle Lake/Sacred Heart) Indian Residential School (Hospice of St. Joseph; Lac la Biche/St. Paul's Boarding School)
Holy Angels Indian Residential School (École des Saints-Anges / Our Lady of Victoria Indian Residential School)
Crowfoot (St. Joseph's) Indian Residential School (Blackfoot Residential School)
St. Joseph's (Dunbow) Industrial School (High River Industrial School)
Edmonton (Poundmaker) Residential School
Ermineskin Indian Residential School
St. Mary’s (Blood) Indian Residential School (Immaculate Conception Boarding School)
Morley (Stoney) Residential School (McDougall Orphanage and Training Institution)
Old Sun (Blackfoot) Residential School (North Camp Residential School / White Eagle's Boarding School / Short Robe Boarding School)
Sacred Heart (Peigan) Residential School
Red Deer Industrial School
Sarcee (St. Barnabas) Residential School
St. Albert (Youville) Residential School
Whitefish Lake (St. Andrew's) Residential School
Grouard (St. Bernard’s) Residential School
Joussard (St. Bruno's) Residential School
St Cyprian's (Queen Victoria’s Jubilee Home) Residential School (Victoria Jubilee Home for Indian Children)
Sturgeon Lake (Calais) Residential School (St. François/Francis Xavier Boarding school)
Fort Vermilion (St. Henri) Residential School
Wabasca (St. John’s) Residential School
Desmarais (St. Martin’s) Residential School
St. Paul's (Blood) Residential School (Church of England)
Lesser Slave Lake (St. Peter's) Residential School

British Columbia

Alberni Indian Residential School
Ahousaht Indian Residential School
Anahim Lake Dormitory (Ulkatcho) Residential School
Christie (Clayoquot/Kakawis) Residential School
Kamloops Indian Residential School (Kamloops Industrial School)
Kitimaat Indian Residential School (Elizabeth Long Memorial School for Girls)
Kootenay (St Eugene's/St Mary's Indian Residential School)
Kuper Island Indian Residential School
Lejac Residential School (Lake Stuart)
Lower Post Indian Residential School
Coqualeetza (Chilliwack Home) Residential School
Metlakatla Indian Residential School (Metlakatla Indian Girls' School)
Port Simpson Residential School (Crosby Home for Girls)
Presbyterian Coqualeetza Indian Residential School
Roman Catholic Coqualeetza Indian Residential School
St. Augustine's Indian Residential School
St. Paul's Indian Residential School
St. George's (Lytton) Indian Residential School
St. Mary's Indian Residential School
St. Michael's Indian Residential School (Alert Bay)
Saint Joseph's Mission (Williams Lake)
Tranquille School for Mentally Handicapped Indians (Stsmemelt Village)
Yale Indian Residential School
Yuquot Indian Residential School

Manitoba

Assiniboia Indian Residential School (Assiniboia Hostel)
Birtle Indian Residential School
Brandon Indian Residential School (Brandon Industrial School)
Cross Lake Indian Residential School (Norway House Roman Catholic Indian Residential School)
Elkhorn Indian Residential School (Elkhorn Industrial School / Washakada Indian Residential School)
Elkhorn Indian Residential School (Washakada Indian Residential School)
Fort Alexander Indian Residential School
Guy Hill Indian Residential School
Lake St. Martin Indian Residential School
MacKay Indian Residential School (The Pas)
MacKay Indian Residential School (Dauphin)
Norway House Methodist Indian Residential School
Pine Creek Indian Residential School (Camperville Indian Residential School)
Portage la Prairie Presbyterian Indian Residential
Sandy Bay Indian Residential School
St. Boniface Industrial School
St. Paul's Industrial School (St. Rupert's Land Industrial School)
Waterhen Indian Residential School

New Foundland and Labrador

Lockwood School
Makkovik Boarding School
Nain Boarding School
St. Anthony's Orphanage
Yale School

Northwest Territory

Aklavik Anglican Indian Residential School (All Saints Indian Residential School) I
Aklavik Anglican Indian Residential School (All Saints Indian Residential School) II
Aklavik Catholic Indian Residential School (later Inuvik Indian Residential School)
Fort McPherson Indian Residential School; (Including residence, Fleming Hall)
Fort Providence Indian Residential School (Providence Mission Indian Residential School)
Fort Resolution Indian Residential School
Fort Simpson Indian Residential School (Fort Simpson Boarding School, including residences Bompas Hall, Lapointe Hall, St. Margaret's Hall)
Fort Smith Indian Residential School (Breynat Hall)
Hay River Indian Residential School (St. Peter's Mission Indian Residential School)
Akaitcho Hall (dormitory for Sir John Franklin High School)

Nova Scotia

Shubenacadie Indian Residential School

Nunavut

Chesterfield Inlet Indian Residential School (including residence: Turquetil)
Frobisher Bay Indian Residential School Frobisher Bay
Kivalliq Hall

Ontario

Albany Mission Indian Residential School (Fort Albany Residential School)
Alexandra Industrial School for Girls
Alnwick Industrial School (in partnership with Mount Elgin Indian Residential School)
Bishop Horden Memorial School (Moose Factory Indian Residential School; Moose Fort Indian Residential School)
Cecilia Jeffrey Indian Residential School
Chapleau Indian Residential School (Saint John's Indian Residential School)
Fort Frances Indian Residential School (St. Margaret's Indian Residential School)
Kenora Indian Residential School
McIntosh Indian Residential School
Mohawk Institute Residential School (Mohawk Manual Labour School; Mush Hole Indian Residential School)
Mount Elgin Indian Residential School (in partnership with Alnwick)
Shingwauk Indian Residential School -Gardner River
Shingwauk Indian Residential School - Sault Ste. Marie
Wawanosh School for Girls
Sioux Lookout Indian Residential School (Pelican Lake Day School)
Spanish Indian Residential Schools; St. Joseph Residential School 1916–1962 (girls school) still standing; St Charles Garnier College 1913–1958 (boys school)now demolished
St. Anne’s Indian Residential School
St. Joseph's Orphanage and Boarding School (for Indigenous and White Children)
St. Mary's Indian Residential School
Wikwemikong Indian Residential School (Wikwemikong Day School)(residential school)
Armstrong Indian Residential School (Armstrong Residential School; Armstrong Home and School)

Quebec

Amos Indian Residential School (St. Marc's Indian Residential School)
Federal Hostel at George River
Federal Hostel at Great Whale River Kuujjuarapik (Poste-de-la-Baleine)
Federal Hostel at Payne Bay
Federal Hostel at Port Harrison
Fort George Hostels
St. Philip's Indian Residential School
Fort George (St. Joseph's Mission, Residence Couture, Sainte-Thérèse-de-l'Énfant-Jésus)
La Tuque Indian Residential School
Pointe Bleue Indian Residential School
Sept-Iles Indian Residential School (Seven Islands, Notre Dame, Maliotenam)

Saskatchewan

Battleford Industrial School
Beauval Indian Residential School
Cowesses Indian Residential School (Marieval Indian Residential School)
Crowstand Indian Residential School
St. Michael's Indian Residential School (Duck Lake Indian Residential School)
Emmanuel College
File Hills Indian Residential School (File Hills Colony School)
Gordon Indian Residential School
Guy Hill Indian Residential School
Île-à-la-Crosse Indian Residential School
Lake La Ronge Mission Indian Residential School
Muscowequan Indian Residential School
St. Albans Indian Residential School
All Saints Indian Residential School
Prince Albert Indian Residential School
Qu'Appelle Indian Residential School (Qu'Appelle Industrial School)
Regina Indian Residential School
Round Lake Indian Residential School
St. Anthony's Indian Residential School (Onion Lake Catholic Indian Residential School)
St. Barnabas Indian Residential School (Onion Lake Indian Residential School)
St. Phillips Indian Residential School (Keeseekoose Day School)
Thunderchild Indian Residential School (Delmas Indian Residential School)

Yukon

Baptist Indian Residential School (Yukon Indian Residential School)
Carcross Indian Residential School (Forty Mile Boarding School)
Carcross Indian Residential School (Chooutla Indian Residential School; Caribou Crossing Indian Residential School)
St. Paul's Indian Residential School (St. Paul's Hall)
Yukon Hall (residences for local day school students)