About "Grand Sultan" Abdel-Aziz I (1830-1876)
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire --------------------
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Period Decline of the Ottoman Empire
Full Name Abdülaziz
Predecessor Abdülmecid I
Successor Murad V
Royal House House of Osman
Dynasty Ottoman Dynasty
Religious beliefs Islam
Abdülaziz I or Abd Al-Aziz, His Imperial Majesty (Ottoman Turkish:
Abdü´l-Âzīz-i evvel عبد العزيز) (February 9/18 1830 – 4 June 1876) was the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876. He was the son of Sultan Mahmud II and succeeded his brother Abdülmecid I in 1861.
Born at Eyüb Palace, Istanbul, on 9/18 February 1830, Abdülaziz received an Ottoman education but was nevertheless an ardent admirer of the material progress that was made in the West. He was interested in literature and was also a classical music composer. Some of his compositions have been collected in the album "European Music at the Ottoman Court" by the London Academy of Ottoman Court Music.
His parents were Mahmud II and Valide Sultan Pertevniyal, (1812 - 1883), originally named Bezime. The name of his mother is also spelled as "Partav-Nihal". By 1868, Pertevniyal was settled in the Dolmabahçe Palace. That year Abdülaziz led the visiting Eugénie de Montijo, Empress of France to see his mother. Pertevniyal perceived the presence of a foreign woman within her quarters of the seraglio as an insult. She reportedly slapped Eugénie across the face, almost resulting in an international incident. The Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Mosque was built under the patronage of his mother. The construction work began in November 1869 and the mosque was finished in 1871.
His paternal grandparents were Abdul Hamid I and Naksh-i-Dil. Several accounts identify his paternal grandmother with Aimée du Buc de Rivéry, a cousin of Joséphine de Beauharnais. Pertevniyal was reportedly a sister of Hoshiar (Khushiyar), third wife of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt. Hoshiar and Ibrahim were the parents of Isma'il Pasha.
Between 1861 and 1871, the Tanzimat reforms which began during the reign of his brother Abdülmecid were continued under the leadership of his able chief ministers, Keçecizade Mehmed Fuad Pasha and Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha. New administrative districts (vilayets) were set up in 1864 and a Council of State was established in 1868. Public education was organized on the French model and the Istanbul University was reorganized as a modern institution in 1861.
Punch cartoon commenting on the 1867 visit of the Sultan to Britain.
Abdülaziz cultivated good relations with the Second French Empire and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and was the first Ottoman sultan to visit Western Europe, in 1867, which included a visit to England, where he was made a Knight of the Garter by Queen Victoria and shown a Royal Navy Fleet Review with his Khedive of Egypt. He travelled by a private rail car, which today can be found in the Rahmi M. Koç Museum in Istanbul. His fellow Knights of the Garter created in 1867 were Charles Gordon-Lennox, 6th Duke of Richmond, Charles Manners, 6th Duke of Rutland, Henry Somerset, 8th Duke of Beaufort, Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, Franz Joseph I of Austria and Alexander II of Russia.
In 1869, Abdülaziz received visits from Eugénie de Montijo, Empress consort of Napoleon III of France and other foreign monarchs on their way to the opening of the Suez Canal. The Prince of Wales, the future Edward VII of the United Kingdom, twice visited Istanbul.
By 1871 both ʿAlī Pasha and Fuʿād Pasha were dead. The Second French Empire, his Western European model, had been defeated in the Franco-Prussian War by the North German Confederation under the leadership of the Kingdom of Prussia. In foreign policy, Abdülaziz turned to the Russian Empire for friendship, as turmoil in the Balkan provinces continued. In 1875, the Herzegovinian rebellion was the beginning of further unrest in the Balkan provinces. In 1876, the April Uprising saw insurrection spreading among the Bulgarians. Ill feeling mounted against Russia for its encouragement of the rebellions.
The crop failure of 1873, the sultan's lavish expenditures for the Ottoman Navy and the new palaces which he built, and the mounting public debt had also heightened public discontent. Abdülaziz was deposed by his ministers on 30 May 1876; his death at Feriye Palace, Istanbul, a few days later was attributed to suicide, although he might have been murdered. He was buried in Istanbul.
The biggest achievement of Abdülaziz was to modernize the Ottoman Navy. In 1875, the Ottoman Navy had 21 battleships and 173 warships of other types, ranking as the third largest navy in the world after the British and French navies.
He also established the first Ottoman railroad network and Sirkeci Train Station in Istanbul, terminus of the Orient Express.
Impressed by the museums in London, Paris and Vienna, he established the Istanbul Archaeological Museum.
Under Abdülaziz's reign, Turkey's first postage stamps were issued in 1863, and Turkey joined the Universal Postal Union in 1875 as a founding member.
He was made the 756th Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1867 and the 127th Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword.
Marriages and issue
Bedroom of Sultan Abdül Aziz in Dolmabahçe Palace.
Ten children survived him.
First marriage and issue
He married firstly at the Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul, in 1856 to Georgian HH Dürrünev Kadın Efendi (Batumi, 15 March 1835 - Istanbul, Üsküdar, Çamlıca Palace, 4 December 1892), and had:
HIH Prince Şehzade Yusuf Izzeddin Efendi (Dolmabahçe Palace, 10 October 1857 - 1 February 1916), married firstly at the Beşiktaş Palace in Beşiktaş, Istanbul, on 20 May 1885 to Georgian HH Cavidan Hanım Efendi (Kars, 12 January 1870 - 1935), without issue, married secondly at the Beşiktaş Palace, on 6 July 1886 to Abkhaz HH Emine Nazikedâ Hanım Efendi (Sukhumi, Abkhazia, 30 May 1872 - 1946), without issue, married thirdly at the Beşiktaş Palace, on 15 October 1892 to Georgian HH Tazende Hanım Efendi (Poti, 10 October 1875 - Istanbul, Ortaköy, 1950), without issue, and married fourthly at the Çamlıca Palace in Üsküdar, Istanbul, on 4 February 1904 to Georgian HH Leman Ünlüsoy Hanım Efendi (Batumi, 6 June 1888 - Çamlıca Palace, 3 August 1953), and had two daughters and one son:
HH HIH Princess Hadice Sükriye Sultan Hanım Efendi (Çamlıca Palace, 24 February 1906 - Cairo, 1 April 1972), married firstly at the Nişantaşı Palace in Nişantaşı, Istanbul, on 14 November 1923 and divorced in 1927 as his first wife her cousin HIH Prince Şehzade Muhammed Sharifuddin Efendi (Ortaköy Palace in Ortaköy, Istanbul, 19 May 1904 - Beirut, 1966), without issue, and married secondly in Cairo on 4 September 1935 and divorced in 1937 HH Sheikh Ahmad I Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (1885 - Dasman Palace, Kuwait, 29 January 1950), created HH in 1937, Emir of Kuwait from 1921 to 1950, without issue
HIH Prince Şehzade Mehmed Nizameddin Efendi (10 January 1909 - Orsellina, 21 March 1933 and buried in Turkey in 1967), unmarried and without issue
HH HIH Princess Mihriban Mihrishah Sultan Hanım Efendi (Beşiktaş Palace, Istanbul, 1 June 1916 - Istanbul, 25 January 1987), married in Alexandria on 31 July 1948 as his second wife to her cousin HIH Prince Şehzade Ömer Faruk Efendi (Ortaköy Palace, Istanbul, 27 February 1898 - 1969/1971), without issue
HIH Princess Fatma Saliha Sultan (Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul, 9 August 1862 - Cairo, 1941), married to HE Damat Kürt Ismail Pasha Beyefendi, without issue
HIH Princess Emine Sultan (30 November 1866 - 23 January 1867)
Second marriage and issue
He married secondly at the Dolmabahçe Palace in 1861 to HH Edâdil Kadın Efendi (1845 - Dolmabahçe Palace, 12 December 1875), and had:
HIH Prince Şehzade Mahmud Celaleddin Efendi (Dolmabahçe Palace, 16 November 1862 - 1 September 1888), married to Sherifa Shams bint Sultan Ibn Muhammad (Istanbul, 11 November 1870 - 28 September 1895), who descended from the Hashemite Sharifs of Mecca, deriving from Hilal ibn Ali, the Great grandson of Muhammad,and had one daughter:
HIH Princess Fehime Sultan (Istanbul, Mermer Köşkü, 6 January 1889 - Haskovo, 31 August 1971), married to HE Damat Mehmed Ali Pasha Beyefendi, and had one daughter:
HH HH Princess Nemzade Hatice Hanımsultan Hanım Efendi (Istanbul, Mermer Köşkü, 22/23 July 1913 - Babaeski, 3 November 2000), grew up in Haskovo, Bulgaria, after being exiled since she was 11 years old, when the Ottoman family was exiled from Istanbul, married at Vrana Palace on 18 July 1934 to her cousin HIH Prince Şehzade Mehmed Ertoğrul Osmanoğlu Efendi (Istanbul, Kurut Ceşme,left Turkey wıth her Parents in 1924 and emigrated to Bulgaria, returning to Turkey with his family in 1980, settling in Thrace, and had issue
HIH Prince Şehzade Mehmed Selim Efendi (28 September 1866 - 21 October 1867)
Third marriage and issue
He married thirdly in 1872 to Circassian HH Gevherin Nedaxe Kadın Efendi (Caucasus, 8 July 1856 - Ortaköy Palace, Ortaköy, Istanbul, 20 September 1894), and had:
HIH Prince Şehzade Mehmed Seyfeddin Efendi (Beşiktaş Palace or Dolmabahçe Palace, 21/22 September 1874 - Nice, 19 October 1927), Rear Admiral of the Ottoman Navy, married firstly at the Ortaköy Palace, on 4 December 1899 to Georgian HH Necem Felek Hanım Efendi (Kutaisi, 5 January 1880 - Nice, 1930), and had one son, and married secondly at the Ortaköy Palace, on 23 February 1902 Georgian HH Nervaliter Hanım Efendi (Caucasus, 27 March 1885 - Nice, 1935), and had two sons and one daughter:
Mehmed Abdulaziz II
HIH Prince Şehzade Mahmud Sevket Efendi (Ortaköy Palace, Istanbul, 20 July 1903 - 1 February 1973), excluded from the Imperial House in 1931, married in Shkodër on 4 May 1922 and divorced in 1928 his cousin HH HH Princess Adile Hanımsultan Hanım Efendi (Ortaköy Palace, 12 November 1900 - February 1979), and had one daughter:
HIH Princess Hamide Nermin Nezahat Sultan (Shkodër, 27 January 1923 - 7 November 1998), unmarried and without issue
HIH Prince Şehzade Ahmed Tevhid Efendi (Çamlıca Palace, Üsküdar, Istanbul, 30 November 1904 - Beirut, 24 April 1966), twin with the below, unmarried and without issue
HIH Princess Fatma Gevheri Sultan (Çamlıca Palace, 30 November 1904 - 10 December 1980), twin with the above, unmarried and without issue
HIH Princess Gwaschemasch'e Kadın Efendi (Istanbul, Çırağan Palace, 21 June 1877 - ?)
Fourth marriage and issue
He married fourthly at the Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul, on 21 September 1866 to Georgian HH Hayranidil Kadın Efendi (Kars, 2 November 1846 - Ortaköy Palace, Istanbul, 26 November 1898), and had:
HIH Princess Nazima Sultan (Dolmabahçe Palace, 14 February 1866 - Beirut, 1947), married to HE Damat Halit Pasha Beyefendi, without issue
Fifth marriage and issue
He married fifthly at the Dolmabahçe Palace, in 1868 to HH Nesherek Haseki Kadın Efendi (1848 - 11 June 1876), and had:
HIH Prince Şehzade Mehmed Salâhaddin Efendi (25 March 1870 - 29 August 1900/1916), unmarried and without issue
Sixth marriage and issue
He married sixthly to Georgian HH Nesrin Kadın Efendi (Tbilisi, 1860 - Ortaköy Palace, Istanbul, 29 September 1895), and had:
HIH Prince Şehzade Muhammed Shefket Efendi (Beşiktaş Palace, Istanbul, 5 June 1872 - Ortaköy Palace, Istanbul, 22 October 1899), married at the Yıldız Palace, Istanbul, on 3 April 1890 to HH Fatma Ruhnaz Hanım Efendi (Bandırma, 2 January 1873 - Ortaköy Palace, Istanbul, 1935), and had one son:
HIH Prince Şehzade Muhammed Cemaleddin Efendi (Yıldız Palace, Istanbul, 28 October 1890 - Beirut, 18 November 1946), married at the Ortaköy Palace, on 2 March 1913 to Georgian HH Cemile Destaviz Hanım Efendi (Batumi, 13 August 1895 - ?), and had two sons:
HIH Prince Şehzade Mahmud Husameddin Efendi (Ortaköy Palace, 1 September 1916 - Beirut, 7 August 1966), unmarried and without issue
HIH Prince Shehzade Suleyman Saadeddin Efendi (Ortaköy Palace, 20 November 1917 - 8 May 1985), married in Beirut on 1 April 1956 to HH Lamia Baba Saoui Hanım Efendi (Beirut, 1930 -), and had one son and two daughters:
HIH Prince Şehzade Orhan İbrahim Suleiman Saadeddin Efendi (b. Beirut, 16 July 1959), married to HH Rita Eid Hanım Efendi (b. 1966), without issue
HIH Princess Perihan Suleiman Saadeddin Sultan (b. Beirut, 2 October 1963), unmarried and without issue
HIH Princess Gülhan Suleiman Saadeddin Sultan (b. Beirut, 30 January 1968), unmarried and without issue
HIH Princess Esma Sultan (Dolmabahçe Palace, 21 March 1873 - 7 May 1899), married at the Yıldız Palace, Istanbul, on 20 April 1889 to HE Damat Cerkes Mehmed Pasha Beyefendi (Istanbul, 1856 - 24 April 1909), created Damat in 1889, and had four sons and one daughter:
HH Prince Beyzade Sultanzade Hasan Bedreddin Beyefendi (1890 - 29 January 1909), unmarried and without issue
HH Prince Beyzade Sultanzade Husain Hayreddin Beyefendi (Istanbul, 1890 - Istanbul, 1956), unmarried and without issue
HH Princess Fatma Sidika Hanımsultan (1894 - 1894)
HH Prince Beyzade Sultanzade Saadeddin Mohamed Beyefendi (Istanbul, 14 June 1895 - Beirut, 1976), unmarried and without issue
HH Prince Beyzade Sultanzade Abdullah Beyefendi (7 May 1899 - 7 May 1899)
HIH Princess Emine Sultan (Dolmabahçe Palace, 24 August 1874 - 29 January 1920), married to HE Damat Mehmet Bey Beyefendi, without issue
Seventh marriage and issue
He married seventhly to HH Yıldız Kadın Efendi, sister of HH Safinaz Kadın Efendi, a wife of Sultan Abdul Hamid II, and had:
HIH Princess Fatma Gevheri Sultan (1874 - 1875)
HIH Princess Munire Sultan (1877 - 1877), born posthumously
This article includes a list of references or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. (April 2009)
^ Chambers Biographical Dictionary, ISBN 0-550-18022-2, page 2
^ His profile in the Ottoman Web Site
^ Daniel T. Rogers, "All my relatives: Valide Sultana Partav-Nihal"
^ "Women in Power" 1840-1870, entry: "1861-76 Pertevniyal Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire"
^ "Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Mosque Complex". Discover Islamic Art. Retrieved 2008-01-26.
^ Christine Isom-Verhaaren, "Royal French Women in the Ottoman Sultans' Harem: The Political Uses of Fabricated Accounts from the Sixteenth to the Twenty-first Century"
^ Christopher Buyers, "The Muhammad 'Ali Dynasty Genealogy"
^ Non European Royalty Website, entry:"Egypt"
^ "Women in Power" 1840-1870, entry: "1863-79 Valida Pasha Khushiyar of Egypt"
^ Rulers from the House of Mohammed Aly
^ Genealogical entry: "Hoshiar Walda Pasha"
^ Davis, Claire (1970). The Palace of Topkapi in Istanbul. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. pg. 222. ASIN B000NP64Z2.
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
Media related to Abdül Aziz I at Wikimedia Commons
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Abd-ul-Aziz.
House of Osman
Born: February 9, 1830 Died: June 4, 1876
Abdulmecid I Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Jun 25, 1861 - May 30, 1876 Succeeded by
Sunni Islam titles
Abdulmecid I Caliph of Islam
Jun 25, 1861 - May 30, 1876 Succeeded by
v • d • e
Sultans of the Ottoman Empire by era
Osman I · Orhan · Murad I · Bayezid I · Mehmed I · Murad II · Mehmed II
Bayezid II · Selim I · Suleiman I · Selim II · Murad III · Mehmed III · Ahmed I · Mustafa I · Osman II · Murad IV · Ibrahim · Mehmed IV
Suleiman II · Ahmed II · Mustafa II · Ahmed III · Mahmud I · Osman III · Mustafa III · Abdülhamid I · Selim III · Mustafa IV · Mahmud II
Abdülmecid I · Abdülaziz · Murad V · Abdülhamid II
Mehmed V · Mehmed VI
Categories: 1830 births | 1876 deaths | People from Istanbul | Sultans of the Ottoman Empire | Knights of the Garter | Knights of the Golden Fleece | 19th-century Ottoman sultans
Abdülaziz, Osmanlı padişahı (Sultan of the Ottoman Empire)'s Timeline
February 8, 1830
October 10, 1857
June 25, 1861
August 9, 1862
November 16, 1862
February 14, 1866
September 28, 1866
November 30, 1866