Bernard, King of Lombardy

Milano, Lombardia, Italia

Bernard, King of Lombardy's Geni Profile

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Bernardo, re di Lombardia

Nicknames: "Bernhard", "Bernard", "Bernardo", "King of Italy"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Vermandois (Present Region Picardie), Neustria (within present France), Frankish Empire
Death: Died in Milan, Neustria (Present Piedmont), Lombardia (within present Italy), Frankish Empire
Place of Burial: Basilica di Sant'Ambrogio, Milano, Provincia Milano, Regione Lombardia, Italia
Immediate Family:

Son of "Pépin" Carloman, King of Italy, son of Charlemagne & Hildegard and Mistress of Pepin
Husband of Cunégonde
Father of Pépin II, seigneur de Péronne and Cunégonde of Italy
Half brother of Athalia; Bertraide / Berthais d'Italia; Theodrate d'Italie; Gundrada d'Italia; Jenna or Genna Countess d'Italy and 2 others

Occupation: King of the Lombards (Italy), 813-818, roi d italie, Bernard d'Italie1, né vers 797, mort le 17 avril 818, fut roi des Lombards de 813 à 817. Petit-fils de Charlemagne, c'est un fils illégitime de Pépin, roi des Lombards., King of the Lombards
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Bernardo, re di Lombardia

Alternative data from merges: Born Vermandois Austrasia; Born Vermandois Neustria

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Louis the Pious sentenced him to "blinding" - the process of blinding carried out by means of pressing a red-hot stiletto to the eyeballs - proved so traumatic that Bernard died in agony two days after the procedure

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_of_Italy

http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernardo_d%27Italia

http://www.thepeerage.com/p10321.htm

http://www.renderplus.com/hartgen/charts/of-italy-of-italy.htm

http://www.mathematical.com/bernard.html

http://www.genealogy4u.com/genealogy/getperson.php?personID=I937&tree=western2007

http://larryvoyer.com/genealogy/getperson.php?personID=I106663&tree=v7_28

http://mykindred.com/cloud/TX/getperson.php?personID=I18755&tree=mykindred01

http://craveirolopes.familytreeguide.com/getperson.php?personID=I3828&tree=T1

http://www.rpi.edu/~holmes/Hobbies/Genealogy/ps04/ps04_302.htm --------------------

Bernard King of Italy was born out of wedlock about 797. He was the son of Pépin King of Italy and Lombardy and Chrothais. In 813 Bernard, married Cunigunde. Bernard  was crowned King of Italy in September 813. He revolted in July 817 when his uncle, Louis (I) the Pious who had succeeded Charlemagne as Emperor, proceeded to divide the empire among his sons, Bernhard's cousins. Bernhard doubtless felt that his father Pépin had been crowned King of Italy by Charlemagne and that he should follow his father as the full fledged King of Italy. Louis the Pious, however, had a different view of the situation. Seeing as Pépin had died before Charlemagne, Louis the Pious felt that as Charlemagne's heir, he was overall king or emperor; and that Bernhard was perhaps sort of a sub-king. Bernhard's revolt didn't work, and he was forced to submit to Louis in December 817, and he abdicated. He died on Tuesday, 17 April 818 in St. Amrosius, Milan, Italy. He was buried in Milan, Italy

-------------------- Bernard was the illegitimate son of King Pepin of Italy, the second legitimate son of the Emperor Charlemagne. In 810, Pepin died from an illness contracted at a siege of Venice; although Bernard was illegitimate, Charlemagne allowed him to inherit Italy. Bernard married Cunigunda of Laon in 813. They had one son, Pepin, Count of Vermandois.

Prior to 817, Bernard was a trusted agent of his grandfather, and of his uncle. His rights in Italy were respected, and he was used as an intermediary to manage events in his sphere of influence - for example, when in 815 Louis the Pious received reports that some Roman nobles had conspired to murder Pope Leo III, and that he had responded by butchering the ringleaders, Bernard was sent to investigate the matter.

A change came in 817, when Louis the Pious drew up an Ordinatio Imperii, detailing the future of the Frankish Empire. Under this, the bulk of the Frankish territory went to Louis' eldest son, Lothair; Bernard received no further territory, and although his Kingship of Italy was confirmed, he would be a vassal of Lothair. This was, it was later alleged, the work of the Empress, Ermengarde, who wished Bernard to be displaced in favour of her own sons. Resenting Louis' actions, Bernard began plotting with a group of magnates: Eggideo, Reginhard, and Reginhar, the last being the grandson of a Thuringian rebel against Charlemagne, Hardrad. Anshelm, Bishop of Milan and Theodulf, Bishop of Orléans, were also accused of being involved: there is no evidence either to support or contradict this in the case of Theodulf, whilst the case for Anshelm is murkier.[1][2]

Bernard's main complaint was the notion of his being a vassal of Lothair. In practical terms, his actual position had not been altered at all by the terms of the decree, and he could safely have continued to rule under such a system. Nonetheless, "partly true" reports came to Louis the Pious that his nephew was planning to set up an 'unlawful' - i.e. independent - regime in Italy.[1]

Louis the Pious reacted swiftly to the plot, marching south to Chalon. Bernard and his associates were taken by surprise; Bernard travelled to Chalon in an attempt to negotiate terms, but he and the ringleaders were forced to surrender to him. Louis had them taken to Aix-la-Chapelle, where they were tried and condemned to death. Louis 'mercifully' commuted their sentences to blinding, which would neutralize Bernard as a threat without actually killing him; however, the process of blinding (carried out by means of pressing a red-hot stiletto to the eyeballs) proved so traumatic that Bernard died in agony two days after the procedure was carried out. At the same time, Louis also had his half-brothers Drogo, Hugh and Theoderic tonsured and confined to monasteries, to prevent other Carolingian off-shoots challenging the main line. He also treated those guilty or suspected of conspiring with Bernard treated harshly: Theodulf of Orleans was imprisoned, and died soon afterwards; the lay conspirators were blinded, the clerics deposed and imprisoned; all lost lands and honours.[1][2][3]

[edit] LegacyHis Kingdom of Italy was reabsorbed into the Frankish empire, and soon after bestowed upon Louis' eldest son Lothair. In 822, Louis made a display of public penance at Attigny, where he confessed before all the court to having sinfully slain his nephew; he also welcomed his half-brothers back into his favour. These actions possibly stemmed from guilt over his part in Bernard's death. It has been argued by some historians that his behaviour left him open to clerical domination, and reduced his prestige and respect amongst the Frankish nobility.[1] Others, however, point out that Bernard's plot had been a serious threat to the stability of the kingdom, and the reaction no less a threat; Louis' display of penance, then, "was a well-judged gesture to restore harmony and re-establish his authority."

-------------------- Pepin was the second son of Charlemagne by his then-wife Hildegard.[1] He was born Carloman, but was rechristened with the royal name Pepin (also the name of his older half-brother Pepin the Hunchback, and his grandfather Pepin the Short) when he was a young child. He was made "king of Italy"[2] after his father's conquest of the Lombards, in 781, and crowned by Pope Hadrian I with the Iron Crown of Lombardy. -------------------- http://www.celtic-casimir.com/webtree/3/3044.htm Born: 797, Vermandois, Austrasia 1039 Married: 813 Died: 17 Apr 818, Milan, Italy 1038,1039 Buried: St Amrosius, Milan, Italy

  Ancestral File Number: 9G83-46.
  General Notes:

He was the King of Italy. King of Italy 813-December 817.

Louis' brother Pepin was sub-king of Italy until his death in 810, and he was succeeded by his son Bernard (812-817). Louis, however, replaced Bernard with his own son Lothair (or Lothar; 817-855); Bernard revolted in 817 and Louis had him captured and blinded. Bernard died as a result of the blinding.

  Events:

1. Occupation. King of Italy (806-818)

  Marriage Information:

Bernard married Kunigunda DI PARMA Queen of Italy, daughter of Adelgis DI PARMA Conte di Parma and Unknown, in 813. (Kunigunda DI PARMA Queen of Italy was born about 797 in Parma, Italy and died after 15 Jun 835 1039,1040.) Parents: 1. Pépin (Pippin) I Carloman CAROLING King of Italy & Bertha DE TOULOUSE Queen of Italy 2. Pépin (Pippin) I Carloman CAROLING King of Italy & Ingletrude D' AUTUN Spouses/Children: Kunigunda DI PARMA Queen of Italy Pépin II DE ST. QUENTIN Count of Perronne & St-Quentin+ -------------------- Bernard (797, Vermandois, Picardy – 17 April 818, Milan, Lombardy) was the King of the Lombards from 810 to 818. He plotted against his uncle, Emperor Louis the Pious, when the latter's Ordinatio Imperii made Bernard a vassal of his cousin Lothair. When his plot was discovered, Louis had him blinded, a procedure which killed him.

Life[edit] Bernard was the illegitimate son of King Pepin of Italy, the second legitimate son of the Emperor Charlemagne. In 810, Pepin died from an illness contracted at a siege of Venice; although Bernard was illegitimate, Charlemagne allowed him to inherit Italy. Bernard married a woman named Cunigunde, but the year of their marriage, and her origins are obscure; spuriously she has been called "of Laon". They had one son, Pepin, Count of Vermandois.

Prior to 817, Bernard was a trusted agent of his grandfather, and of his uncle. His rights in Italy were respected, and he was used as an intermediary to manage events in his sphere of influence - for example, when in 815 Louis the Pious received reports that some Roman nobles had conspired to murder Pope Leo III, and that he had responded by butchering the ringleaders, Bernard was sent to investigate the matter.

A change came in 817, when Louis the Pious drew up an Ordinatio Imperii, detailing the future of the Frankish Empire. Under this, the bulk of the Frankish territory went to Louis' eldest son, Lothair; Bernard received no further territory, and although his Kingship of Italy was confirmed, he would be a vassal of Lothair. This was, it was later alleged, the work of the Empress, Ermengarde, who wished Bernard to be displaced in favour of her own sons. Resenting Louis' actions, Bernard began plotting with a group of magnates: Eggideo, Reginhard, and Reginhar, the last being the grandson of a Thuringian rebel against Charlemagne, Hardrad. Anshelm, Bishop of Milan and Theodulf, Bishop of Orléans, were also accused of being involved: there is no evidence either to support or contradict this in the case of Theodulf, whilst the case for Anshelm is murkier.[1][2]

Bernard's main complaint was the notion of his being a vassal of Lothair. In practical terms, his actual position had not been altered at all by the terms of the decree, and he could safely have continued to rule under such a system. Nonetheless, "partly true" reports came to Louis the Pious that his nephew was planning to set up an 'unlawful' - i.e. independent - regime in Italy.[1]

Louis the Pious reacted swiftly to the plot, marching south to Chalon. Bernard and his associates were taken by surprise; Bernard travelled to Chalon in an attempt to negotiate terms, but he and the ringleaders were forced to surrender to him. Louis had them taken to Aix-la-Chapelle, where they were tried and condemned to death. Louis 'mercifully' commuted their sentences to blinding, which would neutralize Bernard as a threat without actually killing him; however, the process of blinding (carried out by means of pressing a red-hot stiletto to the eyeballs) proved so traumatic that Bernard died in agony two days after the procedure was carried out. At the same time, Louis also had his half-brothers Drogo, Hugh and Theoderic tonsured and confined to monasteries, to prevent other Carolingian off-shoots challenging the main line. He also treated those guilty or suspected of conspiring with Bernard harshly: Theodulf of Orleans was imprisoned, and died soon afterwards; the lay conspirators were blinded, the clerics deposed and imprisoned; all lost lands and honours.[1][2][3]

Legacy[edit] His Kingdom of Italy was reabsorbed into the Frankish empire, and soon after bestowed upon Louis' eldest son Lothair. In 822, Louis made a display of public penance at Attigny, where he confessed before all the court to having sinfully slain his nephew; he also welcomed his half-brothers back into his favour. These actions possibly stemmed from guilt over his part in Bernard's death. It has been argued by some historians that his behaviour left him open to clerical domination, and reduced his prestige and respect amongst the Frankish nobility.[1] Others, however, point out that Bernard's plot had been a serious threat to the stability of the kingdom, and the reaction no less a threat; Louis' display of penance, then, "was a well-judged gesture to restore harmony and re-establish his authority."[3]

References[edit] ^ Jump up to: a b c d McKitterick, Rosamond, The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians ^ Jump up to: a b Riché, Pierre, The Carolingians, p. 148 ^ Jump up to: a b McKitterick, Rosamond, The New Cambridge History, 700-900 Sources[edit] McKitterick, Rosamond, The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians Riché, Pierre, The Carolingians McKitterick, Rosamond, The New Cambridge History, 700-900 Bernard of Italy Carolingian dynasty Died: 17 April 818 Regnal titles Preceded by Pepin Carloman King of the Lombards 8 July 810 – 17 April 818 with Charlemagne as King of the Lombards (810–814) Succeeded by Lothair I [show] v t e Kings of Italy between 476 and 963

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Bernard, King of Lombardy's Timeline

797
797
Vermandois (Present Region Picardie), Neustria (within present France), Frankish Empire
810
810
Age 13
Italy
810
Age 13
Italy
813
813
Age 16
France
813
Age 16
Bohain, Aisne, Picardie, France
817
817
Age 20
Vermandois, Normandy, France
818
April 17, 818
Age 21
Milan, Neustria (Present Piedmont), Lombardia (within present Italy), Frankish Empire
April 21, 818
Age 21
Milano, Provincia Milano, Regione Lombardia, Italia
820
820
Age 21
1931
October 17, 1931
Age 21