Edgar I "The Peaceful", King of the English

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Ēadgār "sē friþ-georna"

Also Known As: "Eadgar the Peaceful", "Ēadgār sē friþ-georna", "Edgar the Peaceable", "The /Peaceful/", "the Peaceful", "The Peacable", "The /Pacific/", "The /Peaceable/", "King Edgar of England "the /Peaceable"/", "Edgar the Peaceful", "King of England"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Wessex, England
Death: Died in Wessex, England
Place of Burial: Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset, England
Immediate Family:

Son of Edmund I "The Magnificent", King of the English; <private> of England; Saint Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury and <private> of Shaftesbury
Husband of <private> Ordgar; Æthelflæd, Queen of England; Ælfthryth and Wulfthryth
Father of Æthelred "the Unready", King of the English; Edward the Martyr, King of the English; Edmund and St. Eadgyth of Wilton, Abbess of Wilton
Brother of Eadwig, King of the English

Occupation: King of England from 959 to 975, King of England 959-975, 959-975, King of England from 959 to 975., King if England, KING OF ENGLAND, 'THE PEACEFUL', King of England / Known as the Peaceable, Roi, de Mercie, d'Angleterre, 955, King, King of the English
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Immediate Family

About Edgar I "The Peaceful", King of the English

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Predecessor: Eadwig "The Fair" Successor: Edward the Martyr

Edgar I the Peaceful or the Peaceable (c. 7 August 943–8 July 975) 1.0 Biography 1.1 Background to kingship The foundation fo Edgar's power came from his ancestors, namely Alfred, Edward the Elder, Aethelstan, Edmund and Eadred.

He was the younger son of Edmund I of England. His cognomen, "the Peaceable", was not necessarily a comment on the deeds of his life, for he was a strong leader, shown by the seizure of the Northumbrian and Mercian kingdoms from his older brother, Edwy, in 958. Edgar was held to be king north of the Thames by a conclave of his nobles, and the aspirational ruler set himself to succeed to the English throne. With Edwy's death in October 959, Edgar immediately recalled Dunstan (eventually canonised as St. Dunstan) from exile to have him made Bishop of Worcester (and the Bishop of London after, and finally the Archbishop of Canterbury). The allegation Dunstan at first refused to crown Edgar because of disapproval for his way of life is a discreet reference in popular histories to Edgar's mistress,[citation needed] Wulfthryth (later a nun at Wilton), who bore him a daughter Eadgyth. Dunstan remained Edgar's advisor throughout his reign.

Edgar's reign was a peaceful one, and it is probably fair to say that it saw the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of England at its height. Although the political unity of England was the achievement of his predecessors, it was Edgar who saw to its consolidation. By the end of Edgar's reign there was practically no likelihood of any recession back to its state of rival kingships, and the division of its domains.

The Monastic Reform Movement that restored the Benedictine Rule to England's undisciplined monastic communities saw its height during the time of Dunstan, Aethelwold and Oswald. However, the extent and importance of the movement is still debated amongst academics.

Edgar was crowned at Bath, but not until 973, in an imperial ceremony planned not as the initiation, but as the culmination of his reign (a move that must have taken a great deal of preliminary diplomacy). This service, devised by Dunstan himself and celebrated with a poem in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle forms the basis of the present-day British coronation ceremony. The symbolic coronation was an important step; other kings of Britain came and gave their allegiance to Edgar shortly afterwards at Chester. Six kings in Britain, including the kings of Scotland and of Strathclyde, pledged their faith that they would be the king's liege-men on sea and land. Later chroniclers made the kings into eight, all plying the oars of Edgar's state barge on the River Dee. Such embellishments may not be factual, but the main outlines of the "submission at Chester" appear true.

Edgar had several children. He died on 8 July 975 at Winchester, and was buried at Glastonbury Abbey. He left two sons, the eldest named Edward, the son of his first wife Ethelfleda (not to be confused with Ethelfleda, Lady of the Mercians), and Ethelred, the youngest, the child of his second wife Ælfthryth. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward.

From Edgar’s death to the Norman Conquest there was not a single succession to the throne that was not contested. Although perhaps a simplification, Edgar’s death did seem to be the beginning of the end for Anglo-Saxon England that resulted in three successful 11th century conquests, two Danish and one Norman.

EDGAR, son of EDMUND King of Wessex & his first wife Ælfgifu --- ([943]-Winchester 8 Jul 975, bur Glastonbury Abbey[1721]). Florence of Worcester records the birth of "filium…Eadgarum" to "regi Eadmundo…sua regina sancta Ælfgiva", undated but dateable to [943] from the context[1722]. "Adgar clito" subscribed a charter of King Eadred dated 953[1723], and "Eadgar frater regis" subscribed charters of King Eadwig in 955 and 956[1724]. He was elected king in 957 by the people of Mercia and Northumbria[1725], apparently supported by his grandmother and by Dunstan abbot of Glastonbury. Reuniting the kingdom on his brother's death, he succeeded in 959 as EDGAR "the Peaceable" King of England. He supervised the revival of Benedictine monasticism and the reform of the English church. He was crowned in Bath Abbey 11 May 973, followed by the ceremonial submission to his rule by six British kings[1726] at Chester. The ceremony resulted in no change in the title used in charters when naming the king, who was referred to indiscriminately as "rex Anglorum", "totius Britannie telluris dominus", "totie Britannice insule basileus" or "rex totius Albionis". The reform of the coinage took place in the same year, including the introduction of a system of coin management which involved regular recall and reissue of coins usually every six years, operated through a network of 40 mint towns. The administrative sub-divisions of the shires, hundreds and wapentakes, date from Edgar's reign. King Edgar granted autonomy to the Danish eastern part of England, which came to be known as the Danelaw, with recognition of its legal and social customs. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death on 8 Jul 975 of King Edgar[1727]. Simeon of Durham records the death "VIII Id Jul" in 975 of "King Eadgar" and his burial at Glastonbury[1728]. The Libellus de Anniversariis of Ramsey Monastery records the death “VIII Id Jul” of “Edgarus rex Anglie…qui dedit…terræ in Burewelle et ecclesiam de Gomicestre”[1729].

[m] firstly ([963], maybe repudiated[1730]) ÆTHELFLÆD, daughter of ORDMÆR Ealdorman of Devon & his wife Ealda (bur Wilton Abbey, Wiltshire). Simeon of Durham names "Egelfled the Fair daughter of duke Ordmer" as the mother of King Eadgar's son "Eadward"[1731]. Roger of Hoveden names her "Egelfleda" and names her father[1732]. Florence of Worcester records that "Ægelfleda Candida, cognomento Eneda, Ordmæri ducis filia" was the mother of King Eadgar´s son "Eadwardum, postea regem et martyrem"[1733]. This union of King Edgar´s may have been less formal than implied by the word "marriage". This is suggested by the contrast between the epithets applied to the king's sons in a charter subscribed by two of them dated 966: Edward (presumably born from this first marriage) is described as "Eadweard eodem rege clito procreatus", while Edmund (presumably born from the king's second marriage) was "Edmundus clito legitimus prefati regis filius"[1734]. Æthelflæd was surnamed "Eneda" according to Florence of Worcester[1735].

m secondly (965) as her second husband, ÆLFTHRYTH, widow of ÆTHELWOLD Ealdorman of the East Angles, daughter of ORDGAR Ealdorman of Devon & his wife --- (Lydford Castle, Devon ([945]-Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire [999/1002], bur Wherwell Abbey). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the marriage in 965 of King Edgar and Ælfthryth, stating that she was the daughter of ealdorman Ordgar[1736]. Simeon of Durham records the marriage of King Eadgar and "the daughter of Ordgar duke of Devonshire after the death of her husband Elfwold…duke of the East Angles" in 964[1737]. Roger of Hoveden names her, her father and her first husband, when recording her second marriage[1738]. Geoffrey Gaimar records a lengthy account of King Edgar having sent "Edelwoth" to woo "Estrueth la fille Orgar" on his behalf, and Æthelwold having married her without the king´s knowledge[1739]. King Edgar granted land in Buckinghamshire to "Ælfgifu que mihi afinitate mundialis cruoris coniuncta" in 966[1740]. "Ælfthryth regina" subscribed charters of King Edgar dated between 964 and 974[1741]. William of Malmesbury recounts that King Edgar killed Ælfthryth's first husband to enable him to marry her[1742]. She was crowned queen with her husband in 973, which was the first instance of the coronation of a queen in England. It was alleged that she was involved in the plot to kill her stepson so her own son could succeed as King[1743]. "Ælfthryth regina" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II between 979 and 983[1744], and "Ælfthryth regis mater" between 981 and 999[1745]. She became a nun at Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire in [985]. Her son King Æthelred II granted privileges to Wherwell Abbey in 1002 for the benefit of her soul[1746].

Mistress (1): WULFTHRYTH, daughter of --- ([945]-1000). Simeon of Durham names "the holy Wlthirtha" as the mother of King Eadgar's daughter "Eagitha"[1747]. Roger of Hoveden names her "Sancta Elfthritha"[1748]. Florence of Worcester records that "sancta Wlfthrytha" was the mother of King Eadgar´s daughter "Eadgitham"[1749]. Abbess of Wilton. King Edgar granted "Wulfthryth abbess" land at Chalke, Wiltshire by charter dated 974[1750].

King Edgar & his first [wife] had one child:

1. EADWARD ([963]-murdered Corfe, Dorset 18 Mar 978, bur Wareham Abbey, Dorset, transferred 979[1751] to Shaftesbury Abbey, Dorset). Simeon of Durham names "Egelfled the Fair daughter of duke Ordmer" as the mother of King Eadgar's son "Eadward"[1752]. Florence of Worcester records that "Ægelfleda Candida, cognomento Eneda, Ordmæri ducis filia" was the mother of King Eadgar´s son "Eadwardum, postea regem et martyrem"[1753]. "Eadweard eodem rege clito procreatus" subscribed a charter of King Edgar dated 966[1754], the contrast with the epithet attached to the subscription of the same charter by his half-brother Edmund highlighting the informal nature of his parents' union. He succeeded his father in 975 as EDWARD "the Martyr" King of England, crowned at Kingston-upon-Thames 975. His succession was disputed by a large number of nobles who favoured his half-brother Æthelred[1755], maybe because Edward was considered unsuitable to reign due to his outbursts of rage[1756], maybe because of the inferior status of his mother. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that King Edward was murdered on 18 Mar 978 at Corfe and buried at Wareham "with no royal honours"[1757]. He was murdered "at the instigation of his stepmother"[1758]. It is not certain that she was responsible, although he was killed while visiting his half-brother by their retainers[1759]. It was alleged that miracles accumulated around his body, causing him to be regarded as a saint and martyr. His feast day is 18 March[1760].

King Edgar & his second wife had two children:

2. EADMUND (-970, bur Romsey Abbey[1761]). Simeon of Durham names "Eadmuind and Egelræd" as the sons of King Eadgar and his wife "the daughter of Ordgar duke of Devonshire…"[1762]. Roger of Hoveden gives his parentage[1763]. According to William of Malmesbury, Edmund was King Edgar's son by his first marriage[1764]. Florence of Worcester says that he was the son of the king's second marriage[1765]. "Edmundus clito legitimus prefati regis filius" subscribed a charter of King Edgar dated 966[1766]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death in 970 of "Prince Edmund"[1767].

3. ÆTHELRED ([966]-London 23 Apr 1016, bur Old St Paul's Cathedral). Roger of Hoveden gives his parentage[1768]. He succeeded after the murder of his half-brother in 978 as ÆTHELRED II "the Unready/Unræd/Redeles" King of England, crowned 4 Apr or 4 May 978 at Kingston-upon-Thames.

- see below.

King Edgar had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1):

4. EADGIFU (Kemsing [961]-Wilton 984, bur Wilton Abbey[1769]). Simeon of Durham names "the holy Wlthirtha" as the mother of King Eadgar's daughter "Eagitha"[1770]. Roger of Hoveden names her "Edgita" and gives her parentage[1771]. Florence of Worcester records that "sancta Wlfthrytha" was the mother of King Eadgar´s daughter "Eadgitham"[1772]. Abbess of Barking and Nunnaminster (at Winchester)[1773]. According to Attwater, she lived all her life at Wilton Abbey, Wiltshire, refusing the abbacy[1774]. She was canonised as St Edith of Wilton, feast-day 16 Sep[1775].

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Edgar (943–75), king of England. He was the son of Edmund, king of Wessex, and the brother of Edwy, whom he succeeded in 959, after being chosen king of Mercia and Northumbria in 957. He was educated by Dunstan and Ethelwold and became king of all England at the age of only sixteen. His early life was not beyond reproach. He was so fond of two young nuns of Wilton, Wulfhilda, whom he tried to seduce, and Wulfthryth, by whom he had a daughter, Edith, that it would have seemed unlikely to contemporaries that his reign would be regarded as a golden age by later monastic writers. These irregularities may well have been the reason why he was crowned only in 973.

They must not be allowed to obscure his real achievements as a ruler. The key to his reign was the very close co-operation between Church and State. He promoted justice, and his four Law-codes are important in the history of Anglo-Saxon legislation, not least for the use made of them by his successors. The recognition of his royal power in 973 by rulers of Wales, Scotland, and the English Danelaw marked the apogee of the power of Wessex 10th-century kings. During his reign about thirty monasteries were founded, several of them on extensive lands given or sold by Edgar; he and his queen were their protectors and in practice chose their rulers, who acted prominently in local government on the king's behalf, while the monasteries were also notable educational and artistic centres.

Edgar married twice. His first wife was Æthelflaed (daughter of Ordmaer), by whom he had a son, Edward the Martyr. His second was Ælfthryth (daughter of Ordgar of Devon), by whom he had another son, Ethelred the Unready. By comparison with the violent reigns of his predecessors and successors Edgar's was regarded as a model of peaceful government. This, with his close association with the 10th-century monastic revival, earned him the praise of 12th-century historians. King Cnut, however, referring to Edith, thought that no child of so scandalous a king could be considered a saint.

Edgar was buried at Glastonbury, the cradle of the monastic revival. Here it was claimed that his body was incorrupt and emitted blood when cut at the opening of the tomb in 1052. His relics were enshrined with those of Apollinaris and Vincent; only Glastonbury, it seems, culted him, on 8 July.

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Edgar I the Peaceful (Old English: Ēadgār; c. 7 August 943 – 8 July 975), also called the Peaceable, was a king of England (r. 959–75). Edgar was the younger son of Edmund I of England.

Reign 1 October 959 – 8 July 975

Predecessor Eadwig

Successor Edward the Martyr

Spouse Ælfthryth

Issue

Edward the Martyr

Æthelred the Unready

Eadgyth

Father Edmund I

Mother Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury

Born 943/944

Wessex, England

Died July 8, 975

Winchester, Wessex, England

Burial Glastonbury Abbey

Sources:

   * Scragg, Donald (ed.). Edgar, King of the English, 959–975: New Interpretations. Publications of the Manchester Centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies. Manchester: Boydell Press, 2008. ISBN 1843833999. Contents (external link).
   * Williams, Ann. "Edgar (943/4–975)." Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2004.
   * Keynes, Simon. "England, c. 900–1016." In The New Cambridge Medieval History III. c.900–c.1024, ed. Timothy Reuter. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. 456-84.

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Edgar I the Peaceful or the Peaceable (c. Aug 7, 943 – July 8, 975) was the younger son of Edmund I of England. His cognomen, "the Peaceable", was not necessarily a comment on the deeds of his life, for he was a strong leader, shown by the seizure of the Northumbrian and Mercian kingdoms from his older brother, Edwy, in 958. Edgar was held to be king north of the Thames by a conclave of his nobles, and the aspirational ruler set himself to succeed to the English throne. With Edwy's death in October 959, Edgar immediately recalled Dunstan (eventually canonised as St. Dunstan) from exile to have him made Bishop of Worcester (and the Bishop of London after, and finally the Archbishop of Canterbury). The allegation Dunstan at first refused to crown Edgar because of disapproval for his way of life is a discreet reference in popular histories to Edgar's mistress,[citation needed] Wulfthryth (later a nun at Wilton), who bore him a daughter Eadgyth. Dunstan remained Edgar's advisor throughout his reign.

Edgar's reign was a peaceful one, and it is probably fair to say that it saw the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of England at its height. Although the political unity of England was the achievement of his predecessors, it was Edgar who saw to its consolidation. By the end of Edgar's reign there was practically no likelihood of any recession back to its state of rival kingships, and the division of its domains.

The Monastic Reform Movement that restored the Benedictine Rule to England's undisciplined monastic communities saw its height during the time of Dunstan, Aethelwold and Oswald. However, the extent and importance of the movement is still debated amongst academics.

Edgar was crowned at Bath, but not until 973, in an imperial ceremony planned not as the initiation, but as the culmination of his reign (a move that must have taken a great deal of preliminary diplomacy). This service, devised by Dunstan himself and celebrated with a poem in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle forms the basis of the present-day British coronation ceremony. The symbolic coronation was an important step; other kings of Britain came and gave their allegiance to Edgar shortly afterwards at Chester. Six kings in Britain, including the kings of Scotland and of Strathclyde, pledged their faith that they would be the king's liege-men on sea and land. Later chroniclers made the kings into eight, all plying the oars of Edgar's state barge on the River Dee. Such embellishments may not be factual, but the main outlines of the "submission at Chester" appear true.

Edgar had several children. He died on July 8, 975 at Winchester, and was buried at Glastonbury Abbey. He left two sons, the eldest named Edward, the son of his first wife Ethelfleda (not to be confused with Ethelfleda, Lady of the Mercians), and Ethelred, the youngest, the child of his second wife Ælfthryth. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward.

From Edgar’s death to the Norman Conquest there was not a single succession to the throne that was not contested. Although perhaps a simplification, Edgar’s death did seem to be the beginning of the end for Anglo-Saxon England that resulted in three successful 11th century conquests, two Danish and one Norman.

--------------------

Edgar I the Peaceful or the Peaceable (c. Aug 7, 943 – July 8, 975) was the younger son of Edmund I of England. His cognomen, "the Peaceable", was not necessarily a comment on the deeds of his life, for he was a strong leader, shown by the seizure of the Northumbrian and Mercian kingdoms from his older brother, Edwy, in 958. Edgar was held to be king north of the Thames by a conclave of his nobles, and the aspirational ruler set himself to succeed to the English throne. With Edwy's death in October 959, Edgar immediately recalled Dunstan (eventually canonised as St. Dunstan) from exile to have him made Bishop of Worcester (and the Bishop of London after, and finally the Archbishop of Canterbury). The allegation Dunstan at first refused to crown Edgar because of disapproval for his way of life is a discreet reference in popular histories to Edgar's mistress,[citation needed] Wulfthryth (later a nun at Wilton), who bore him a daughter Eadgyth. Dunstan remained Edgar's advisor throughout his reign.

Edgar's reign was a peaceful one, and it is probably fair to say that it saw the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of England at its height. Although the political unity of England was the achievement of his predecessors, it was Edgar who saw to its consolidation. By the end of Edgar's reign there was practically no likelihood of any recession back to its state of rival kingships, and the division of its domains.

The Monastic Reform Movement that restored the Benedictine Rule to England's undisciplined monastic communities saw its height during the time of Dunstan, Aethelwold and Oswald. However, the extent and importance of the movement is still debated amongst academics.

Edgar was crowned at Bath, but not until 973, in an imperial ceremony planned not as the initiation, but as the culmination of his reign (a move that must have taken a great deal of preliminary diplomacy). This service, devised by Dunstan himself and celebrated with a poem in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle forms the basis of the present-day British coronation ceremony. The symbolic coronation was an important step; other kings of Britain came and gave their allegiance to Edgar shortly afterwards at Chester. Six kings in Britain, including the kings of Scotland and of Strathclyde, pledged their faith that they would be the king's liege-men on sea and land. Later chroniclers made the kings into eight, all plying the oars of Edgar's state barge on the River Dee. Such embellishments may not be factual, but the main outlines of the "submission at Chester" appear true.

Edgar had several children. He died on July 8, 975 at Winchester, and was buried at Glastonbury Abbey. He left two sons, the eldest named Edward, the son of his first wife Ethelfleda (not to be confused with Ethelfleda, Lady of the Mercians), and Ethelred, the youngest, the child of his second wife Ælfthryth. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward.

From Edgar’s death to the Norman Conquest there was not a single succession to the throne that was not contested. Although perhaps a simplification, Edgar’s death did seem to be the beginning of the end for Anglo-Saxon England that resulted in three successful 11th century conquests, two Danish and one Norman.

Edgar the Peaceful

King of the English


Reign 1 October 959 – 8 July 975

Spouse Ælfthryth

Father Edmund I

Mother Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury

Born 943/944

Wessex, England

Died July 8, 975

Winchester, Wessex, England

Burial Glastonbury Abbey

For other uses, see Eadgar.

Edgar I the Peaceful (Old English: Ēadgār; c. 7 August 943 – 8 July 975), also called the Peaceable, was a king of England (r. 959–75). Edgar was the younger son of Edmund I of England.

Accession

His cognomen, "The Peaceable", was not necessarily a comment on the deeds of his life, for he was a strong leader, shown by his seizure of the Northumbrian and Mercian kingdoms from his older brother, Eadwig, in 958.[citation needed] A conclave of nobles held Edgar to be king north of the Thames, and Edgar aspired to succeed to the English throne.[citation needed]

Government

Though Edgar was not a particularly peaceable man, his reign was a peaceful one. The Anglo-Saxon kingdom of England was at its height. Edgar consolidated the political unity achieved by his predecessors. By the end of Edgar's reign, England was sufficiently unified that it was unlikely to regress back to a state of division among rival kingships.

[Edgar and Dunstan

Upon Eadwig's death in October 959, Edgar immediately recalled Dunstan (eventually canonised as St. Dunstan) from exile to have him made Bishop of Worcester (and subsequently Bishop of London and Archbishop of Canterbury). The allegation Dunstan at first refused to crown Edgar because of disapproval for his way of life is a discreet reference in popular histories to Edgar's abduction of[citation needed] Wulfthryth, a nun at Wilton, who bore him a daughter Eadgyth. Dunstan remained Edgar's advisor throughout his reign.

Coins of Edgar I (959–975).

Benedictine Reform

The Monastic Reform Movement that restored the Benedictine Rule to England's undisciplined monastic communities peaked during the era of Dunstan, Æthelwold, and Oswald. (Historians continue to debate the extent and significance of this movement.)

Coronation at Bath (AD 973)

Edgar was crowned at Bath, but not until 973, in an imperial ceremony planned not as the initiation, but as the culmination of his reign (a move that must have taken a great deal of preliminary diplomacy). This service, devised by Dunstan himself and celebrated with a poem in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, forms the basis of the present-day British coronation ceremony. The symbolic coronation was an important step; other kings of Britain came and gave their allegiance to Edgar shortly afterwards at Chester. Six kings in Britain, including the kings of Scotland and of Strathclyde, pledged their faith that they would be the king's liege-men on sea and land. Later chroniclers made the kings into eight, all plying the oars of Edgar's state barge on the River Dee. Such embellishments may not be factual, but the main outlines of the "submission at Chester" appear true. (See History of Chester.)

Death (AD 975)

Edgar died on 8 July 975 at Winchester, and was buried at Glastonbury Abbey. He left two sons, the elder named Edward, who was probably his illegitimate son by Æthelflæd (not to be confused with the Lady of the Mercians), and Æthelred, the younger, the child of his wife Ælfthryth. He was succeeded by Edward. Edgar's illegitimate daughter Eadgyth became a nun at Wilton and was eventually canonised as St. Edith.

From Edgar’s death to the Norman Conquest, there was not a single succession to the throne that was not contested. Some see Edgar’s death as the beginning of the end of Anglo-Saxon England, followed as it was by three successful 11th-century conquests — two Danish and one Norman

--------------------

Edgar I the Peaceful (Old English: Ēadgār; c. 7 August 943 – 8 July 975), also called the Peaceable, was a king of England (r. 959–75). Edgar was the younger son of Edmund I of England.

Accession

His cognomen, "The Peaceable", was not necessarily a comment on the deeds of his life, for he was a strong leader, shown by his seizure of the Northumbrian and Mercian kingdoms from his older brother, Eadwig, in 958.[citation needed] A conclave of nobles held Edgar to be king north of the Thames, and Edgar aspired to succeed to the English throne.[citation needed]

Government

Though Edgar was not a particularly peaceable man, his reign was a peaceful one. The kingdom of England was at its height. Edgar consolidated the political unity achieved by his predecessors. By the end of Edgar's reign, England was sufficiently unified that it was unlikely to regress back to a state of division among rival kingships, like it had to an extent under Eadred's reign.

Edgar and Dunstan

Upon Eadwig's death in October 959, Edgar immediately recalled Dunstan (eventually canonised as St. Dunstan) from exile to have him made Bishop of Worcester (and subsequently Bishop of London and Archbishop of Canterbury). The allegation Dunstan at first refused to crown Edgar because of disapproval for his way of life is a discreet reference in popular histories to Edgar's abduction of[citation needed] Wulfthryth, a nun at Wilton, who bore him a daughter Eadgyth. Dunstan remained Edgar's advisor throughout his reign.

Benedictine Reform

The Monastic Reform Movement that restored the Benedictine Rule to England's undisciplined monastic communities peaked during the era of Dunstan, Æthelwold, and Oswald. (Historians continue to debate the extent and significance of this movement.)

Coronation at Bath (AD 973)

Edgar was crowned at Bath, but not until 973, in an imperial ceremony planned not as the initiation, but as the culmination of his reign (a move that must have taken a great deal of preliminary diplomacy). This service, devised by Dunstan himself and celebrated with a poem in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, forms the basis of the present-day British coronation ceremony. The symbolic coronation was an important step; other kings of Britain came and gave their allegiance to Edgar shortly afterwards at Chester. Six kings in Britain, including the kings of Scotland and of Strathclyde, pledged their faith that they would be the king's liege-men on sea and land. Later chroniclers made the kings into eight, all plying the oars of Edgar's state barge on the River Dee. Such embellishments may not be factual, but the main outlines of the "submission at Chester" appear true. (See History of Chester.)

Death (AD 975)

Edgar died on 8 July 975 at Winchester, and was buried at Glastonbury Abbey. He left two sons, the elder named Edward, who was probably his illegitimate son by Æthelflæd (not to be confused with the Lady of the Mercians), and Æthelred, the younger, the child of his wife Ælfthryth. He was succeeded by Edward. Edgar's illegitimate daughter Eadgyth became a nun at Wilton and was eventually canonised as St. Edith.

From Edgar’s death to the Norman Conquest, there was not a single succession to the throne that was not contested. Some see Edgar’s death as the beginning of the end of Anglo-Saxon England, followed as it was by three successful 11th-century conquests — two Danish and one Norman.

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B: Abt 943 , , Wessex, England

D: 8 Jul 975 , , Wessex, England

M: 964 , , Wessex, England

--------------------

Edgar I the Peaceful (Old English: Ēadgār; c. 7 August 943 – 8 July 975), also called the Peaceable, was a king of England (r. 959–75). Edgar was the younger son of Edmund I of England.

Accession

His cognomen, "The Peaceable", was not necessarily a comment on the deeds of his life, for he was a strong leader, shown by his seizure of the Northumbrian and Mercian kingdoms from his older brother, Eadwig, in 958.[citation needed] A conclave of nobles held Edgar to be king north of the Thames, and Edgar aspired to succeed to the English throne.[citation needed]

Government

Though Edgar was not a particularly peaceable man, his reign was a peaceful one. The kingdom of England was at its height. Edgar consolidated the political unity achieved by his predecessors. By the end of Edgar's reign, England was sufficiently unified that it was unlikely to regress back to a state of division among rival kingships, like it had to an extent under Eadred's reign.

Edgar and Dunstan

Upon Eadwig's death in October 959, Edgar immediately recalled Dunstan (eventually canonised as St. Dunstan) from exile to have him made Bishop of Worcester (and subsequently Bishop of London and Archbishop of Canterbury). The allegation Dunstan at first refused to crown Edgar because of disapproval for his way of life is a discreet reference in popular histories to Edgar's abduction of[citation needed] Wulfthryth, a nun at Wilton, who bore him a daughter Eadgyth. Dunstan remained Edgar's advisor throughout his reign.

Benedictine Reform

The Monastic Reform Movement that restored the Benedictine Rule to England's undisciplined monastic communities peaked during the era of Dunstan, Æthelwold, and Oswald. (Historians continue to debate the extent and significance of this movement.)

Coronation at Bath (AD 973)

Edgar was crowned at Bath, but not until 973, in an imperial ceremony planned not as the initiation, but as the culmination of his reign (a move that must have taken a great deal of preliminary diplomacy). This service, devised by Dunstan himself and celebrated with a poem in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, forms the basis of the present-day British coronation ceremony. The symbolic coronation was an important step; other kings of Britain came and gave their allegiance to Edgar shortly afterwards at Chester. Six kings in Britain, including the kings of Scotland and of Strathclyde, pledged their faith that they would be the king's liege-men on sea and land. Later chroniclers made the kings into eight, all plying the oars of Edgar's state barge on the River Dee. Such embellishments may not be factual, but the main outlines of the "submission at Chester" appear true. (See History of Chester.)

Death (AD 975)

Edgar died on 8 July 975 at Winchester, and was buried at Glastonbury Abbey. He left two sons, the elder named Edward, who was probably his illegitimate son by Æthelflæd (not to be confused with the Lady of the Mercians), and Æthelred, the younger, the child of his wife Ælfthryth. He was succeeded by Edward. Edgar's illegitimate daughter Eadgyth became a nun at Wilton and was eventually canonised as St. Edith.

From Edgar’s death to the Norman Conquest, there was not a single succession to the throne that was not contested. Some see Edgar’s death as the beginning of the end of Anglo-Saxon England, followed as it was by three successful 11th-century conquests — two Danish and one Norman.

Further reading

   * Scragg, Donald (ed.). Edgar, King of the English, 959–975: New Interpretations. Publications of the Manchester Centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies. Manchester: Boydell Press, 2008. ISBN 1843833999. Contents (external link).
   * Williams, Ann. "Edgar (943/4–975)." Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2004.
   * Keynes, Simon. "England, c. 900–1016." In The New Cambridge Medieval History III. c.900–c.1024, ed. Timothy Reuter. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. 456-84.

--------------------

Eadgar 'the Peaceful', King of England (1)

M, #102421, b. between 942 and 944, d. 8 July 975

Last Edited=11 Dec 2005

    Eadgar 'the Peaceful', King of England was born between 942 and 944. (3) He was the son of Eadmund I, King of England and Ælfgifu (?). (2) He married, secondly, Wulfthryth (?). (2) He married, firstly, Æthelflæd 'the Fair' (?), daughter of Ordmær, Ealdorman and Ealda (?), between 961 and 962. (3) He married, thirdly, Ælfthryth (?), daughter of Ordgar, Ealdorman of Devon, between 964 and 965. (3) 

He died on 8 July 975 at Winchester, Hampshire, England. (4) He was buried at Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, Somerset, England.4

    Eadgar 'the Peaceful', King of England gained the title of King Eadgar of Northumbria and Mercia in 958. (1) He succeeded to the title of King Eadgar of England on 1 October 959. (1) He was crowned King of England on 11 May 973 at Bath Abbey, Bath, Somerset, England, . This ceremony did not occur earlier as St. Dunstan, the Archbishop of Canterbury, would not agree to crown Edgar until he amended his way of life. (3) 
    Edgar was the younger brother of Edwy the previous king. Dunstan, who had been exiled by Edwy, was recalled and appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. Dunstan organised an elaborate coronation for Edgar at Bath and afterwards had a powerful influence on the King. Edgar associated himself closely with the Church and his reign was peaceful and the country was well organised, having a common system of weights, measures and coinage. The courts of justice functioned well and both education and literature flourished. In 973 all the lesser kings, including the Welsh princes, promised allegiance and eight of them made a symbolic gesture by rowing a barge with the King at the helm upon the River Dee. This was a golden era.

Child of Eadgar 'the Peaceful', King of England and Wulfthryth (?)

-1. Eadgyth (?) d. b 9882

Child of Eadgar 'the Peaceful', King of England and Saint Wulfrida (?)

-1. Saint Edith (?) b. c 962, d. c 9844

Child of Eadgar 'the Peaceful', King of England and Æthelflæd 'the Fair' (?)

-1. St. Edward 'the Martyr', King of England b. bt 962 - 963, d. 18 Mar 9782

Children of Eadgar 'the Peaceful', King of England and Ælfthryth (?)

-1. Edmund Atheling (?) b. c 965, d. bt 970 - 9722

-2. Æthelred II 'the Unready', King of England+ b. bt 966 - 969, d. 23 Apr 1016 (2)

Forrás / Source:

http://www.thepeerage.com/p10243.htm#i102421

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Edgar, King of England 959-975

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King Edgar "The Peaceable" of England - was born about 0943 in Wessex, England and died on 8 Jul 0975 in Wessex, England . He was the son of King Edmund I "The Magnificient" of England and Princess Elgiva of England. 

King Edgar married Queen Elfrida of England in 0964 in Wessex, England. Queen Elfrida was born about 0947, lived in Devonshire, England. She died in 1000 .

King Edgar - In AD 955, Edgar's uncle, King Edred, died and his elder brother, the fourteen year old Edwig, became King. However, when Edgar reached the same age two years later, the kingdom was divided and he was given the Northern regions of Mercia and Northumbria, while Edwig retained Wessex.


Though a good king, Edgar was not overly religious. His sexual appetite was legendary and gave rise to a number of stories. Soon after ascending the throne, he is said to have fallen for the beautiful daughter of a nobleman of Andover (Hampshire). While visiting the town, he demanded that she enter his bed that night. Her parents were, understandably, shocked and sent a maidservant to join the King in her place. After a long night of unbridled passion, Edgar was disappointed to find that his new conquest hurried from his bed early the next morning. The deception was thus revealed, as the girl explained that she must start work before the rest of the household arose. In a mad fury, the King confiscated all his hosts' lands and made his bed-fellow their mistress.


(from Royal Berkshire History)

(Sources: - 1) Children: (Quick Family Chart)

i. King Ethelred II "The Unready" of England was born about 0968, lived in Wessex, England and died on 23 Apr 1016 in London, Middlesex. England . See #3. below.


Edgar eller Eadgar I av England (ca 942-8. juli 975) var den yngste sønn til kong Edmund I av England. Edgar fikk tilnavnet «Den fredsommelige», men var i virkeligheten en sterkere konge enn hans eldre bror Edwy av England som han tok kongedømmene Northumbria og Mercia fra i 958.

Edgar ble utropt som konge nord for Thames i en sammenkomst av adelsmenn fra Mercia i 958, men offisielt ble han først konge da Edwy døde i oktober 959. Umiddelbart etter tilkalte Edgar Dunstan (senere kanonisert som Sankt Dunstan) fra hans eksil og utnevnte ham deretter til biskop av Worcester, så av London og til slutt til erkebiskop av Canterbury.

Anklagen om at Dunstan til å begynne med nektet å krone Edgar fordi han mislikte dennes levevis er en taktfull referanse til de populære fortellinger om Edgars elskerinne Wulfthryth, ei nonne ved Wilton som fødte ham datteren Eadgyth i 961. Dunstan var likevel politiker nok til uansett å fungere som Edgars rådgiver gjennom hele hans tid på tronen.

Edgars regime var fredelig, og det er sannsynligvis riktig å hevde at det angelsaksiske kongedømmet var på høyden av sin makt og utvikling under ham. Selv om tidligere konger hadde bidratt til å legge grunnmuren til «England», var det kong Edgar som konsoliderte det. På slutten av Edgars regime var det små sjanser for at det skulle splittes opp i mindre deler slik som under Edwy.

Klosterreformen som endret Englands udisiplinerte klostersamfunn til samfunn som fulgte Benedikts regel var på sitt sterkeste under Dunstan, Aethelwold og Oswald. Imidlertid blir både omfanget og viktigheten av klosterbevegelsen fortsatt debattert blant forskerne.

Edgar ble kronet ved Bath, men ikke før i 973. Den kongelig seremonien var ikke planlagt som en innvielse, men som kulminasjonen av hans regime. Det var en politikk som må ha krevd en god del diplomati i forkant, planlagt av Dunstan selv og feiret med et hyldningsdikt i Angelsaksiske krønike. Diktet danner fortsatt basisen for dagens britiske kroningsseremoni. Symbolverdien i kroningen var av høyeste viktighet: andre konger i Britannia kom og avla sine troskapseder til Edgar ved Chester kort tid etter. Seks konger i Britannia, inkludert kongene i Skottland og i Strathclyde, avga løfter om at de ville være kongens vasaller til sjøs og til lands. Senere krønikeskrivere har fortalt om en rekke på åtte konger som alle avga sin troskapsed i en pram på elven Dee. Det er kanskje ikke riktig, men «underkastelsen ved Chester» synes å være i grove trekk historisk korrekt.

Edgar døde den 8. juli 975 i Winchester og ble gravlagt i klosteret Glastonbury Abbey. Han hadde flere barn deriblant to sønner; den eldste het Edvard, født av hans første hustru Ethelfleda (som ikke må forveksles med Ethelfleda, mercianernes frue), og Ethelred, som ble født av hans andre hustru Elfrida. Edgar ble etterfulgt av sin eldste sønn, kong Edvard Martyren.

Fra Edgars død og til den normanniske erobringen var det ikke et eneste troneskifte som ikke ble utfordret og bestridt. Edgars død ble dermed i realiteten begynnelsen på slutten for det anglosaksiske England som i løpet av 1000-tallet ble utsatt for tre vellykkete erobringer, to danske og en normannisk.

--------------------

Edgar the Peaceful

King of England


Reign 1 October 959–8 July 975

Predecessor Edwy

Successor Edward the Martyr

Spouse Æthelflæd, Wulfthryth and Ælfthryth

Issue

Edward the Martyr

Ethelred the Unready

Father Edmund I

Mother Elgiva

Born 943/944

Wessex, England

Died July 8, 975

Winchester, Wessex, England

Burial Glastonbury Abbey

For other uses, see Eadgar.

Edgar I the Peaceful or the Peaceable (c. 7 August 943–8 July 975) was a king of England.

Edgar was the younger son of Edmund I of England. His cognomen, "The Peaceable", was not necessarily a comment on the deeds of his life, for he was a strong leader, shown by his seizure of the Northumbrian and Mercian kingdoms from his older brother, Edwy, in 958. A conclave of nobles held Edgar to be king north of the Thames, and Edgar aspired to succeed to the English throne. Upon Edwy's death in October 959, Edgar immediately recalled Dunstan (eventually canonised as St. Dunstan) from exile to have him made Bishop of Worcester (and subsequently Bishop of London and Archbishop of Canterbury). The allegation Dunstan at first refused to crown Edgar because of disapproval for his way of life is a discreet reference in popular histories to Edgar's abduction of[citation needed] Wulfthryth, a nun at Wilton, who bore him a daughter Eadgyth. Dunstan remained Edgar's advisor throughout his reign.

Though Edgar was not a particularly peaceable man, his reign was a peaceful one. The Anglo-Saxon kingdom of England was at its height. Edgar consolidated the political unity achieved by his predecessors. By the end of Edgar's reign, England was sufficiently unified that it was unlikely to regress back to a state of division among rival kingships.

The Monastic Reform Movement that restored the Benedictine Rule to England's undisciplined monastic communities peaked during the era of Dunstan, Aethelwold, and Oswald. (Historians continue to debate the extent and significance of this movement.)

Edgar was crowned at Bath, but not until 973, in an imperial ceremony planned not as the initiation, but as the culmination of his reign (a move that must have taken a great deal of preliminary diplomacy). This service, devised by Dunstan himself and celebrated with a poem in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, forms the basis of the present-day British coronation ceremony. The symbolic coronation was an important step; other kings of Britain came and gave their allegiance to Edgar shortly afterwards at Chester. Six kings in Britain, including the kings of Scotland and of Strathclyde, pledged their faith that they would be the king's liege-men on sea and land. Later chroniclers made the kings into eight, all plying the oars of Edgar's state barge on the River Dee. Such embellishments may not be factual, but the main outlines of the "submission at Chester" appear true. (See History of Chester.)

Edgar died on 8 July 975 at Winchester, and was buried at Glastonbury Abbey. He left two sons, the eldest named Edward, the son of his first wife Ethelfleda (not to be confused with Ethelfleda, Lady of the Mercians), and Ethelred, the youngest, the child of his second wife Ælfthryth. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward. Edgar's illegitimate daughter Eadgyth became a nun at Wilton and was eventually canonised as St. Edith.

From Edgar’s death to the Norman Conquest there was not a single succession to the throne that was not contested. Some see Edgar’s death as the beginning of the end of Anglo-Saxon England, followed as it was by three successful 11th-century conquests — two Danish and one Norman.

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_of_England

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Edgar's reign was a peaceful one and the Kingdom of England was at its height. Edgar consolidated the political unity achieved by his predecessors. By the end of Edgar's reign, England was sufficiently unified that it was unlikely to regress back to a state of division among rival kingships.

From Edgar's death to the Norman Conquest, there was not a single succession to the throne that was not contested. Some see Edgar's death as the beginning of the end of Anglo-Saxon England.

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_of_England

--------------------

Edgar I the Peaceful (Old English: Ēadgār; c. 7 August 943 – 8 July 975), also called the Peaceable, was a king of England (r. 959–75). Edgar was the younger son of Edmund I of England.

Contents [hide]

1 Accession

2 Government

3 Edgar and Dunstan

4 Benedictine Reform

5 Coronation at Bath (AD 973)

6 Death (AD 975)

7 Genealogy

8 Notes

9 Further reading

10 External links


[edit] Accession

His cognomen, "The Peaceable", was not necessarily a comment on the deeds of his life, for he was a strong leader, shown by his seizure of the Northumbrian and Mercian kingdoms from his older brother, Eadwig, in 958.[citation needed] A conclave of nobles held Edgar to be king north of the Thames, and Edgar aspired to succeed to the English throne.[citation needed]

[edit] Government

Though Edgar was not a particularly peaceable man, his reign was a peaceful one. The kingdom of England was at its height. Edgar consolidated the political unity achieved by his predecessors. By the end of Edgar's reign, England was sufficiently unified that it was unlikely to regress back to a state of division among rival kingships, like it had to an extent under Eadred's reign.

[edit] Edgar and Dunstan

Upon Eadwig's death in October 959, Edgar immediately recalled Dunstan (eventually canonised as St. Dunstan) from exile to have him made Bishop of Worcester (and subsequently Bishop of London and Archbishop of Canterbury). Dunstan remained Edgar's advisor throughout his reign.


Coins of Edgar I (959–975).[edit] Benedictine Reform

The Monastic Reform Movement that restored the Benedictine Rule to England's undisciplined monastic communities peaked during the era of Dunstan, Æthelwold, and Oswald. (Historians continue to debate the extent and significance of this movement.)

[edit] Coronation at Bath (AD 973)

Edgar was crowned at Bath, but not until 973, in an imperial ceremony planned not as the initiation, but as the culmination of his reign (a move that must have taken a great deal of preliminary diplomacy). This service, devised by Dunstan himself and celebrated with a poem in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, forms the basis of the present-day British coronation ceremony. The symbolic coronation was an important step; other kings of Britain came and gave their allegiance to Edgar shortly afterwards at Chester. Six kings in Britain, including the kings of Scotland and of Strathclyde, pledged their faith that they would be the king's liege-men on sea and land. Later chroniclers made the kings into eight, all plying the oars of Edgar's state barge on the River Dee. Such embellishments may not be factual, but the main outlines of the "submission at Chester" appear true. (See History of Chester.)

[edit] Death (AD 975)

Edgar died on 8 July 975 at Winchester, and was buried at Glastonbury Abbey. He left two sons, the elder named Edward, who was probably his illegitimate son by Æthelflæd (not to be confused with the Lady of the Mercians), and Æthelred, the younger, the child of his wife Ælfthryth. He was succeeded by Edward. Edgar also had a daughter, possibly illegitimate, by Wulfryth, who later became abbess of Wilton. She was joined there by her daughter, Edith of Wilton, who lived there as a nun until her death. Both women were later regarded as saints.[1]

From Edgar’s death to the Norman Conquest, there was not a single succession to the throne that was not contested. Some see Edgar’s death as the beginning of the end of Anglo-Saxon England, followed as it was by three successful 11th-century conquests — two Danish and one Norman.

[edit] Genealogy

For a more complete genealogy including ancestors and descendants, see House of Wessex family tree.


Diagram based on the information found on Wikipedia[edit] Notes

1.^ Oxford DNB, Article on Wulfryth at http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/49423/?back=,8463,49423,8482,49423,8482

[edit] Further reading

Scragg, Donald (ed.). Edgar, King of the English, 959–975: New Interpretations. Publications of the Manchester Centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies. Manchester: Boydell Press, 2008. ISBN 1843833999. Contents (external link).

Williams, Ann. "Edgar (943/4–975)." Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2004.

Keynes, Simon. "England, c. 900–1016." In The New Cambridge Medieval History III. c.900–c.1024, ed. Timothy Reuter. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. 456-84.

[edit] External links

Medieval Sourcebook: Anglo-Saxon Dooms: laws of King Edgar, a fragment

Edgar of England At Find A Grave

Oxford Dictionary of National Biography entry

Preceded by

Eadwig King of the English

959–975 Succeeded by

Edward the Martyr

[hide]v • d • eEnglish monarchs


Kingdom of the

English

886–1066 Alfred the Great · Edward the Elder · Ælfweard · Athelstan the Glorious1 · Edmund the Magnificent1 · Eadred1 · Eadwig the Fair1 · Edgar the Peaceable1 · Edward the Martyr · Æthelred the Unready · Sweyn Forkbeard · Edmund Ironside · Cnut1 · Harold Harefoot · Harthacnut · Edward the Confessor · Harold Godwinson · Edgar the Ætheling


Kingdom of

England

1066–1649 William I · William II · Henry I · Stephen · Matilda · Henry II2 · Henry the Young King · Richard I · John2 · Henry III2 · Edward I2 · Edward II2 · Edward III2 · Richard II2 · Henry IV2 · Henry V2 · Henry VI2 · Edward IV2 · Edward V2 · Richard III2 · Henry VII2 · Henry VIII2 · Edward VI2 · Jane2 · Mary I2 with Philip2 · Elizabeth I2 · James I3 · Charles I3


Commonwealth of

England, Scotland and Ireland

1653–1659

Oliver Cromwell4 · Richard Cromwell4


Kingdom of

England

1660–1707

Charles II3 · James II3 · William III and Mary II3 · Anne3


1Overlord of Britain. 2Also ruler of Ireland. 3Also ruler of Scotland. 4Lord Protector.

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.


--------------------

From http://www.rpi.edu/~holmes/Hobbies/Genealogy/ps05/ps05_475.htm

Made King of Mercia and Northumbria in 957, and succeed to the

throne of Wessex at his brother, Eadwig's, death in 959. With this, Edgar

was King of Mercia, Northumbria and Wessex (the three most powerful

kingdoms in England, at that time), simultaneously, and could be

considered to be the first ruler of a united England. Some of his

predecessors were Kings of All England by virtue of being King of Wessex

and, at the same time, enjoying a temporary military ascendancy over the

other kingdoms.

He was known as "the Peaceable" largely because the victories and

campaigns of his forebears had finally brought a measure of stability and

freedom from outside attack. The time was ripe for a reformation of the

church which was largely the work of St. Dunstan, whom Edgar recalled

from exile. In the stakes for recognition as the first King of England

Edgar also has some claim. "His reign was prosperous and God granted him

to live his days in peace; he did his duty and laboured zealously in its

performance. Far and wide he exalted God's praise and delighted in His

law, improving the security of his people more than all the kings who

were before him within the memory of man."

It was only after 14 years on the throne that he was eventually

crowned in a ceremony of great significance using a new order of service

which was the work of Dunstan and which long remained in use. "In this

year, Edgar, ruler of the English was consecratewd King by a great

assembly, in the ancient city of Acemannesceastee, also called Bath by

the inhabitants of this island. On that blessed day, called and named

Whit Sunday by the children of men, there was great rejoicing by all. As

I have heard, there was a great congregation of priests and a goodly

company of monks, and wise men gathered together."

He led all his fleet to Chesterand there six (eight) kings came to

him to make their submission and pledge themselves to be his fellow

workers by sea and land. He "called them to enter into a barge upon the

waters of the Dee, and placing himself in the forepart of the barge at

the helm, he called those eight high princes to row the barge up and down

the water, showing thereby his princely perogative and royal

magnificenec, in that he might use the service of so many kings that were

his subjects. And thereupon he said (as hath been reported) that then

might his sucessors account themselves Kings of England, when they

enjoyed such perogative of high and supreme honour."

He reputation was still high when he died. "In this year Edgar

passed away ruler of the English, friend of the West Saxons and protector

of the Mercians. That was known far and wide throughout many nations,

Kings honoured the son of Edmund far and wide over the gannet's bath, and

submitted to the sovreign, as were his birth right. No fleet however

proud no host however strong, was able to win booty for itself in

England, while that noble King occupied the royal throne."

Coronation delayed until 973 (at Bath); with Dunstan reformed monastic houses on Rule of St.Benedict; m. (1) Aethelflaed ("the white duck"), dau. of Earl Ormaer, & had Edward the Martyr; m. (2) Aelfthryth, dau. of Earl Ordgar, & had Aethelred II; also had daughter by Wulfthryth, "an inmate of the convent at Wilton", who declined marriage. Edgar's reign "is often regarded as the highest point of effective power reached by the Old English monarchy...a time of peace for the greater part of England." He is fame is due "to his lavish patronage of the church, and to the encouragement which he gave to the great men, Dunstan, Ethelwold, and Oswald, who in his reign were reviving monastic life in England." {-Encycl.Brit.,'56,8:484.} Edgar reigned 10-959 to 975.

  • **********

The Saxon name Eadgar means "rich in spears" (Eadgar the Peaceable), which was undoubtedly recognition of his inheritance of military power. When Edgar's uncle Eadred died in 955, his brother Edwy became king in Wessex whilst Edgar was appointed to the kingship of Mercia and Northumbria. He was only twelve at the time and did not assume full authority until he was about fifteen, by which time he was welcomed, as Edwy was a weak and unpopular king. Edgar had been raised in East Anglia, in the household of Athelstan, the caldorman of the old territory of the Danelaw, which covered all of East Anglia and Danish Mercia. As such Edgar was already a popular prince amongst the middle-English and Danes and was readily accepted as king, whereas Edwy was seen as a weak and troublesome youth. By November 957 the Mercians and Northumbrians had renounced their allegiance to Edwy. Both kings were advised (or controlled) by a strong council, which had led to conflict with Edwy who had expelled bishop Dunstan. When Edgar came of age he recalled Dunstan and was enthusiastic about his ideas for reforming the English church. When Edwy died in October 959, Edgar also became king of Wessex and as the archbishopric of Canterbury was vacant with the recent death of Oda, Dunstan was appointed to that see. With the support of the king, Dunstan introduced a major programme of monastic reform, not all of which was happily accepted at the time, but which brought Saxon England in line with developments on the continent. All secular clergy were ejected, and the church officials were granted considerable independence from the crown. The most extreme of these was the creation of the soke of Peterborough, where the abbot of St Peters had almost total independence. Many of the monasteries that had been destroyed during the Danish invasions were restored. It was only a period of peace that could allow such rebuilding and change. Edgar, for all that he was not a soldier or strategist to match his father or grandfather, was able to work alongside strong and well organized ealdormen in governing the kingdom and in ensuring its safety. All the time England seemed in capable hands, the Norse and Danes bided their time.

In 973 Edgar gave a demonstration of authority. Although he probably had a formal coronation when he became king of Wessex, Dunstan believed there was a need for a major ceremony similar to those of the King of the Franks and the German Emperor. The ceremony was delayed for some years because Dunstan was unhappy with Edgar's dissolute life. For all he supported the church reform Edgar was not a particularly religious man. There were rumours about his private life, which may have some base of truth. He had married a childhood friend, Athelfleda, early in life, but it seems that either she died in childbirth around the year 961 or the two became separated because of Edgar's amorous adventures with Wulfryth. Stories were later attached to the episode that Edgar had seduced a nun, but although Wulfryth later became a nun, the real story seems to be that he fell in love with a lady who bore him a child, but she either chose to enter (or was banished to) a nunnery and they probably never married. Edgar then became romantically entangled with Elfrida, who was already married, and again the scandalmongers hinted that the two might have planned the murder of her husband, Edgar's onetime foster-brother Athelwald in 964, in order to marry. Elfrida later came to epitomise the image of the wicked stepmother in her relationship with Edgar's youngest child, Edward (the Martyr). All of these shenanigans caused Dunstan to counsel Edgar to change his ways. Perhaps as he passed from youth into adulthood he became less reckless, and in 973 Dunstan agreed to a major ceremony at Bath. The coronation had double significance. For the first time a Saxon king was crowned as king of all the English, a title used by previous monarchs but never as part of their coronation. Edgar was thus the first genuine king of England. At the same time Elfrida was also crowned, the first queen of the English. This ceremony has remained essentially the same in content ever since. Following the coronation, Edgar put on a display of force. His army marched along the Welsh border from Bath to Chester, showing his authority over the Welsh, whilst his fleet sailed through the Irish Sea, also demonstrating his subjugation of the Norse who still held power in that area at Dublin and on Man. At Chester eight kings of Wales and the north assembled to make their submission to him. A later chronicler suggested that these eight kings then rowed Edgar along the river Dee with him at the helm. Strong though that image is, it is unlikely. It is more probable that there was a ceremonial voyage along the Dee with Edgar at the helm, and the other kings in submission. The coronation and ceremony were immensely significant. Although Edgar's position had been achieved by his predecessors, he was able to capitalise on it and demonstrate his authority over all of Britain with the exception of Orkney. Not all monarchs were present, the most noticeable absentee being Owain Ap Hywel of Deheubarth, though his absence was due to domestic strife rather than lack of respect. Thorfinn Skull-Splitter was not present, but as he owed his allegiance to the Norwegian crown, he might be excused - although, interestingly, Magnus Haraldsson of Man and the Isles was present.

The ceremony marked the end of a peaceful and prosperous reign, and it was fortunate that the English could not see ahead as Edgar's was the last reign of peace and harmony. The Saxon world would thereafter start to disintegrate and within less than a century be almost wiped away.


References: [AR7],[Weis1]

--------------------

Edgar was the younger son of Edmund the Magnificent and Aelfgifu. As early as 955 he signed a charter of his uncle Eadred, and in 957 the Mercian nobles, discontented with the rule of his elder brother Eadwig, made him king of England north of the Thames. On the death of his brother in October 959 Edgar became king of a united England. Immediately on his accession to the throne of Mercia Edgar recalled St. Dunstan from exile and bestowed on him first the bishopric of Worcester, and then that of London. In 961 Dunstan was translated to Canterbury, and throughout Edgar's reign he was his chief adviser, and to him must be attributed much of the peace and prosperity of this time.

The reign of Edgar was somewhat uneventful, but two things stand out clearly: his ecclesiastical policy and his imperial position in Britain. Edgar and Dunstan were alike determined to reform the great monastic houses, and to secure that they should be restored once more to their true owners and not remain in the hands of the secular priests or canonici, whose life and discipline alike seem to have been extremely lax. In this reform Edgar was helped not only by St. Dunstan but also by Oswald of Worcester and Aethelwold of Winchester. The priests of the old and new monasteries at Winchester, at Chertsey and at Milton Abbas were replaced by monks, and in monastic discipline the old rule of St. Benedict was restored in all its strictness.

The coronation of Edgar was, for some unexplained reason, delayed until the Whitsunday of 973. It took place with much ceremony at Bath, and was followed shortly after by a general submission to Edgar at Chester. Six, or (according to later chroniclers) eight kings, including the kings of Scotland and Strathclyde, plighted their faith that they would be the king's fellow-workers on sea and land. The historical truth of this story has been much questioned; there seems to be little doubt that it is true in its main outlines, though we need not accept the details about Edgar's having been rowed on the Dee by eight kings.

Two isolated and unexplained incidents are also recorded in the chronicle: first, the ravaging of Westmorland by the Scandinavian Thored, son of Gunnere, in 967; and second, the ravaging of Thanet by Edgar's own command in 970.

Edgar's death took place in the year 975, and he was buried at Glastonbury. By his vigorous rule and his statesmanlike policy Edgar won the approval of his people, and in the Saxon chronicle we have poems commemorating his coronation and death, and describing his general character. The only fault ascribed to him is a too great love for foreigners and for foreign customs. Edgar strengthened the hands of the provincial administration, and to him has been attributed the reorganization of the English fleet. The characteristic feature of his rule was his love of peace, and by efficient administration he secured it.

Edgar formed an irregular union in 961 with Wulfthryth, an inmate of the convent at Wilton, who bore him a daughter Eadgyth. He next married Aethelflaed, "the white duck", daughter of Earl Ordmaer, who bore him a son, afterwards known as Edward the Martyr. Finally he was united to Aelfthryth, daughter of Earl Ordgar, who became the mother of the Aetheling Edmund (d. 971) and of Aethelred the Unready.

Father: King Edmund I

Mother: Elgiva

Brother: King Edwy (d. Oct-959 AD)

Wife: Ethelfleda

Wife: Elfrida

Son: Edward the Martyr (by Ethelfleda)

Son: King Ethelred II ("the Unready", by Elfrida)

Son: Eadgyth (b. 961, by Wulfthryth)

Mistress: Wulfthryth (nun, 1 daughter)

--------------------

Edgar the Peaceful

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Edgar I the Peaceful or the Peaceable (c. 943 or 944 – July 8, 975) was the younger son of Edmund I of England. His cognomen, "the Peaceable", was not necessarily a comment on the deeds of his life, for he was a strong leader, shown by the seizure of the Northumbrian and Mercian kingdoms from his older brother, Edwy, in 958. Edgar was held to be king north of the Thames by a conclave of his nobles, and the aspirational ruler set himself to succeed to the English throne. With Edwy's death in October 959, Edgar immediately recalled Dunstan (eventually canonised as St. Dunstan) from exile to have him made Bishop of Worcester (and the Bishop of London after, and finally the Archbishop of Canterbury). The allegation Dunstan at first refused to crown Edgar because of disapproval for his way of life is a discreet reference in popular histories to Edgar's mistress,[citation needed] Wulfthryth (later a nun at Wilton), who bore him a daughter Eadgyth. Dunstan remained Edgar's advisor throughout his reign.

Edgar's reign was a peaceful one, and it is probably fair to say that it saw the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of England at its height. Although the political unity of England was the achievement of his predecessors, it was Edgar who saw to its consolidation. By the end of Edgar's reign there was practically no likelihood of any recession back to its state of rival kingships, and the division of its domains.

The Monastic Reform Movement that restored the Benedictine Rule to England's undisciplined monastic communities saw its height during the time of Dunstan, Aethelwold and Oswald. However, the extent and importance of the movement is still debated amongst academics.

Edgar was crowned at Bath, but not until 973, in an imperial ceremony planned not as the initiation, but as the culmination of his reign (a move that must have taken a great deal of preliminary diplomacy). This service, devised by Dunstan himself and celebrated with a poem in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle forms the basis of the present-day British coronation ceremony. The symbolic coronation was an important step; other kings of Britain came and gave their allegiance to Edgar shortly afterwards at Chester. Six kings in Britain, including the kings of Scotland and of Strathclyde, pledged their faith that they would be the king's liege-men on sea and land. Later chroniclers made the kings into eight, all plying the oars of Edgar's state barge on the River Dee. Such embellishments may not be factual, but the main outlines of the "submission at Chester" appear true.

Edgar had several children. He died on July 8, 975 at Winchester, and was buried at Glastonbury Abbey. He left two sons, the eldest named Edward, the son of his first wife Ethelfleda (not to be confused with Ethelfleda, Lady of the Mercians), and Ethelred, the youngest, the child of his second wife Ælfthryth. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward.

From Edgar’s death to the Norman Conquest there was not a single succession to the throne that was not contested. Although perhaps a simplification, Edgar’s death did seem to be the beginning of the end for Anglo-Saxon England that resulted in three 11th century successful conquests, two Danish and one Norman.

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_the_Peaceful

--Child of EDGAR and ETHELFREDA is:

i. EDWARD THE MARTYR, KING OF THE ENGLISH (975-978) 5 . b. 963, d. (assassinated at Corfe Castle) March 18, 978. Buried at Shaftesbury

--Children of EDGAR and ELFRIDA are:

ii. EDMUND 5, d. 970.

6. iii. ETHELRED II THE UNREADY, KING OF THE ENGLISH (978-1016), b. Abt. 968; d. April 23, 1016 at London. Buried St Pauls Cathedral

--------------------

King Edgar I

AKA Edgar the Peaceful

Born: c. 942 AD

Birthplace: Wessex, England

Died: 8-Jul-975 AD

Location of death: Winchester, England

Cause of death: unspecified

Remains: Buried, Glastonbury Abbey

Gender: Male

Race or Ethnicity: White

Sexual orientation: Straight

Occupation: Royalty

Nationality: England

Executive summary: King of England 959-75 AD

Edgar was the younger son of Edmund the Magnificent and Aelfgifu. As early as 955 he signed a charter of his uncle Eadred, and in 957 the Mercian nobles, discontented with the rule of his elder brother Eadwig, made him king of England north of the Thames. On the death of his brother in October 959 Edgar became king of a united England. Immediately on his accession to the throne of Mercia Edgar recalled St. Dunstan from exile and bestowed on him first the bishopric of Worcester, and then that of London. In 961 Dunstan was translated to Canterbury, and throughout Edgar's reign he was his chief adviser, and to him must be attributed much of the peace and prosperity of this time.

The reign of Edgar was somewhat uneventful, but two things stand out clearly: his ecclesiastical policy and his imperial position in Britain. Edgar and Dunstan were alike determined to reform the great monastic houses, and to secure that they should be restored once more to their true owners and not remain in the hands of the secular priests or canonici, whose life and discipline alike seem to have been extremely lax. In this reform Edgar was helped not only by St. Dunstan but also by Oswald of Worcester and Aethelwold of Winchester. The priests of the old and new monasteries at Winchester, at Chertsey and at Milton Abbas were replaced by monks, and in monastic discipline the old rule of St. Benedict was restored in all its strictness.

The coronation of Edgar was, for some unexplained reason, delayed until the Whitsunday of 973. It took place with much ceremony at Bath, and was followed shortly after by a general submission to Edgar at Chester. Six, or (according to later chroniclers) eight kings, including the kings of Scotland and Strathclyde, plighted their faith that they would be the king's fellow-workers on sea and land. The historical truth of this story has been much questioned; there seems to be little doubt that it is true in its main outlines, though we need not accept the details about Edgar's having been rowed on the Dee by eight kings.

Two isolated and unexplained incidents are also recorded in the chronicle: first, the ravaging of Westmorland by the Scandinavian Thored, son of Gunnere, in 967; and second, the ravaging of Thanet by Edgar's own command in 970.

Edgar's death took place in the year 975, and he was buried at Glastonbury. By his vigorous rule and his statesmanlike policy Edgar won the approval of his people, and in the Saxon chronicle we have poems commemorating his coronation and death, and describing his general character. The only fault ascribed to him is a too great love for foreigners and for foreign customs. Edgar strengthened the hands of the provincial administration, and to him has been attributed the reorganization of the English fleet. The characteristic feature of his rule was his love of peace, and by efficient administration he secured it.

Edgar formed an irregular union in 961 with Wulfthryth, an inmate of the convent at Wilton, who bore him a daughter Eadgyth. He next married Aethelflaed, "the white duck", daughter of Earl Ordmaer, who bore him a son, afterwards known as Edward the Martyr. Finally he was united to Aelfthryth, daughter of Earl Ordgar, who became the mother of the Aetheling Edmund (d. 971) and of Aethelred the Unready.

Father: King Edmund I

Mother: Elgiva

Brother: King Edwy (d. Oct-959 AD)

Wife: Ethelfleda

Wife: Elfrida

Son: Edward the Martyr (by Ethelfleda)

Son: King Ethelred II ("the Unready", by Elfrida)

Son: Eadgyth (b. 961, by Wulfthryth)

Mistress: Wulfthryth (nun, 1 daughter)

   UK Monarch 9-May-957 to 8-Jul-975

__________________________________________________

Eadgar 'the Peaceful', King of England was born between 942 and 944.3 He was the son of Eadmund I, King of England and Ælfgifu.2 He married, secondly, Wulfthryth.2 He married, firstly, Æthelflæd 'the Fair', daughter of Ordmær, Ealdorman and Ealda, between 961 and 962.3 He married, thirdly, Ælfthryth, daughter of Ordgar, Ealdorman of Devon, between 964 and 965.3 He died on 8 July 975 in Winchester, Hampshire, England.4 He was buried in Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, Somerset, England.4

    Eadgar 'the Peaceful', King of England gained the title of King Eadgar of Northumbria and Mercia in 958.1 He succeeded to the title of King Eadgar of England on 1 October 959.1 He was crowned King of England on 11 May 973 in Bath Abbey, Bath, Somerset, England, . This ceremony did not occur earlier as St. Dunstan, the Archbishop of Canterbury, would not agree to crown Edgar until he amended his way of life.3 
    Edgar was the younger brother of Edwy the previous king. Dunstan, who had been exiled by Edwy, was recalled and appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. Dunstan organised an elaborate coronation for Edgar at Bath and afterwards had a powerful influence on the King. Edgar associated himself closely with the Church and his reign was peaceful and the country was well organised, having a common system of weights, measures and coinage. The courts of justice functioned well and both education and literature flourished. In 973 all the lesser kings, including the Welsh princes, promised allegiance and eight of them made a symbolic gesture by rowing a barge with the King at the helm upon the River Dee. This was a golden era. 

Family 1 Wulfthryth

Child Eadgyth d. b 9882


Family 2 Saint Wulfrida b. circa 945, d. 1000

Child Saint Edith b. c 962, d. c 9844


Family 3 Æthelflæd 'the Fair' d. between 962 and 964

Child St. Edward 'the Martyr', King of England b. bt 962 - 963, d. 18 Mar 9782


Family 4 Ælfthryth b. circa 945, d. circa 17 November 1002

Children Edmund Atheling b. c 965, d. bt 970 - 9722

Æthelred II 'the Unready', King of England+ b. bt 966 - 969, d. 23 Apr 10162


Citations [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 18. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Family.

[S52] G. S. P. Freeman-Grencville, The Queen's Lineage: from A.D. 495 to the Silver Jubilee of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (London , U.K.: Rex Collings, 1977), page 4. Hereinafter cited as The Queen's Lineage.

[S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family, page 19.

[S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family, page 20.


--------------------

His cognomen, "The Peaceable", was not necessarily a comment on the deeds of his life, for he was a strong leader, shown by his seizure of the Northumbrian and Mercian kingdoms from his older brother, Eadwig, in 958.[citation needed] A conclave of nobles held Edgar to be king north of the Thames, and Edgar aspired to succeed to the English throne.[citation needed]

[edit] Government

Though Edgar was not a particularly peaceable man, his reign was a peaceful one. The kingdom of England was at its height. Edgar consolidated the political unity achieved by his predecessors. By the end of Edgar's reign, England was sufficiently unified that it was unlikely to regress back to a state of division among rival kingships, like it had to an extent under Eadred's reign.

[edit] Edgar and Dunstan

Upon Eadwig's death in October 959, Edgar immediately recalled Dunstan (eventually canonised as St. Dunstan) from exile to have him made Bishop of Worcester (and subsequently Bishop of London and Archbishop of Canterbury). Dunstan remained Edgar's advisor throughout his reign.

The Monastic Reform Movement that restored the Benedictine Rule to England's undisciplined monastic communities peaked during the era of Dunstan, Æthelwold, and Oswald. (Historians continue to debate the extent and significance of this movement.)

[edit] Coronation at Bath (AD 973)

Edgar was crowned at Bath, but not until 973, in an imperial ceremony planned not as the initiation, but as the culmination of his reign (a move that must have taken a great deal of preliminary diplomacy). This service, devised by Dunstan himself and celebrated with a poem in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, forms the basis of the present-day British coronation ceremony. The symbolic coronation was an important step; other kings of Britain came and gave their allegiance to Edgar shortly afterwards at Chester. Six kings in Britain, including the kings of Scotland and of Strathclyde, pledged their faith that they would be the king's liege-men on sea and land. Later chroniclers made the kings into eight, all plying the oars of Edgar's state barge on the River Dee. Such embellishments may not be factual, but the main outlines of the "submission at Chester" appear true. (See History of Chester.)

[edit] Death (AD 975)

Edgar died on 8 July 975 at Winchester, and was buried at Glastonbury Abbey. He left two sons, the elder named Edward, who was probably his illegitimate son by Æthelflæd (not to be confused with the Lady of the Mercians), and Æthelred, the younger, the child of his wife Ælfthryth. He was succeeded by Edward. Edgar also had a daughter, possibly illegitimate, by Wulfryth, who later became abbess of Wilton. She was joined there by her daughter, Edith of Wilton, who lived there as a nun until her death. Both women were later regarded as saints.[1]

From Edgar’s death to the Norman Conquest, there was not a single succession to the throne that was not contested. Some see Edgar’s death as the beginning of the end of Anglo-Saxon England, followed as it was by three successful 11th-century conquests — two Danish and one Norman.

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_of_England

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_of_England

--------------------

Name: Edgar The Peacful King of England

Acceded 11 MAY 973 Bath Abbey, England

King of Mercia and Northumbria 957 and King of England 959-975.The first King of a United England.

He allowed his Danish subjects to retain Danish laws. Edgar promoted a monastic revival and encouraged trade by reforming the currency. He improved defense by organizing coastal naval patrols and a system for manning warships. Although he succeeded on October 1, 959, he was not crowned until 963 because St Dunstan, the Archbishop of Canterbury, disapproved of his way of life.

--------------------

EDGAR (r. 959-975) Edgar, king in Mercia and the Danelaw from 957, succeeded his brother at age 16 as king of the English on Edwy's death in 959 - a death which probably prevented civil war breaking out between the two brothers.

His first wife was Æthelflaed, known as the "White Duck" in deference to her great beauty. She was the daughter of Ordmaer.

Edgar was a firm and capable ruler whose power was acknowledged by other rulers in Britain, as well as by Welsh and Scottish kings. Edgar's late coronation in 973 at Bath was the first to be recorded in some detail; his second wife, Queen Aelfthryth, was the first consort to be crowned Queen of England.

His reign was not eventful; it was instead a period of national consolidation, peace and orderly government. Edgar did not interfere with the Danish districts in England but granted them self-government in their districts. This conciliatory policy met with success and the Danish lived peacefully under his rule.

He made alliance with Otto I, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, and received many gifts from him.

Edgar was the patron of a great monastic revival which owed much to his association with Archbishop Dunstan. New bishoprics were created, Benedictine monasteries were reformed and old monastic sites were re-endowed with royal grants, some of which were of land recovered from the Vikings.

In the 970s and in the absence of Viking attacks, Edgar - a stern judge - issued laws which for the first time dealt with Northumbria (parts of which were in the Danelaw) as well as Wessex and Mercia. Edgar's coinage was uniform throughout the kingdom.

A more united kingdom based on royal justice and order was emerging; the Monastic Agreement (c.970) praised Edgar as 'the glorious, by the grace of Christ illustrious king of the English and of the other peoples dwelling within the bounds of the island of Britain'. His fame spread abroad and he was respected by the Kings on the continent.

After his death on 8 July 975, Edgar was buried at Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset [Britain's Royal Families : The Complete Genealogy, pp. 19-20; Colonial and Revolutionary Lineages of America, Vol. 1, p. 352].

--------------------

Edgar I the Peaceful or the Peaceable (c. 7 August 943–8 July 975) was a king of England.

Edgar was the younger son of Edmund I of England. His cognomen, "The Peaceable", was not necessarily a comment on the deeds of his life, for he was a strong leader, shown by his seizure of the Northumbrian and Mercian kingdoms from his older brother, Edwy, in 958. A conclave of nobles held Edgar to be king north of the Thames, and Edgar aspired to succeed to the English throne. Upon Edwy's death in October 959, Edgar immediately recalled Dunstan (eventually canonised as St. Dunstan) from exile to have him made Bishop of Worcester (and subsequently Bishop of London and Archbishop of Canterbury). The allegation Dunstan at first refused to crown Edgar because of disapproval for his way of life is a discreet reference in popular histories to Edgar's abduction of[citation needed] Wulfthryth, a nun at Wilton, who bore him a daughter Eadgyth. Dunstan remained Edgar's advisor throughout his reign.

Though Edgar was not a particularly peaceable man, his reign was a peaceful one. The Anglo-Saxon kingdom of England was at its height. Edgar consolidated the political unity achieved by his predecessors. By the end of Edgar's reign, England was sufficiently unified that it was unlikely to regress back to a state of division among rival kingships.

The Monastic Reform Movement that restored the Benedictine Rule to England's undisciplined monastic communities peaked during the era of Dunstan, Aethelwold, and Oswald. (Historians continue to debate the extent and significance of this movement.)

Edgar was crowned at Bath, but not until 973, in an imperial ceremony planned not as the initiation, but as the culmination of his reign (a move that must have taken a great deal of preliminary diplomacy). This service, devised by Dunstan himself and celebrated with a poem in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, forms the basis of the present-day British coronation ceremony. The symbolic coronation was an important step; other kings of Britain came and gave their allegiance to Edgar shortly afterwards at Chester. Six kings in Britain, including the kings of Scotland and of Strathclyde, pledged their faith that they would be the king's liege-men on sea and land. Later chroniclers made the kings into eight, all plying the oars of Edgar's state barge on the River Dee. Such embellishments may not be factual, but the main outlines of the "submission at Chester" appear true. (See History of Chester.)

Edgar died on 8 July 975 at Winchester, and was buried at Glastonbury Abbey. He left two sons, the eldest named Edward, the son of his first wife Ethelfleda (not to be confused with Ethelfleda, Lady of the Mercians), and Ethelred, the youngest, the child of his second wife Ælfthryth. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward. Edgar's illegitimate daughter Eadgyth became a nun at Wilton and was eventually canonised as St. Edith.

From Edgar’s death to the Norman Conquest there was not a single succession to the throne that was not contested. Some see Edgar’s death as the beginning of the end of Anglo-Saxon England, followed as it was by three successful 11th-century conquests — two Danish and one Norman.

-------------------- Name: King Edgar Born: c.943 Parents: Edmund and Elgiva Relation to Elizabeth II: 29th great-grandfather House of: Wessex Ascended to the throne: October 1, 959 Crowned: May 11, 973 at Bath Abbey, aged c.30 Married: (1) Ethelfleda, (2) Elfrida Children: 3 sons including Edward and Ethelred, 1 illegitimate daughter Died: July 8, 975 at Winchester Buried at: Glastonbury Reigned for: 15 years, 9 months, and 6 days Succeeded by: his son Edward

King of all England from 959. He was the younger son of Edmund I, and strove successfully to unite English and Danes as fellow subjects. In 973 Edgar of England marched his army north to Chester. His navy meets him there via the Irish Sea. This show of strength persuades the Northern Kings to submit to his overlordship. Legend says he is rowed across the Dee by Kings Kenneth of Alba, Malcolm of the Cumbrians, Magnus of Man & the Isles, Donald of Strathclyde, Iago of Gwynedd, Princes Hywel of Gwynedd, Ithel and Siferth .

He recalled St. Dunstan from exile and made him Archbishop of Canterbury and his closest personal advisor. His reign was prosperous and peaceful and he is generally credited with the revival of the English church.

Timeline for King Edgar Historical Timeline 800 - Present

959 
Edgar King of Mercia and Northumbria becomes King of all England. 
965 
Westminster Abbey is founded 
973 
Northern Kings submit to Edgar at Chester 
975 
Edgar dies at Winchester 

-------------------- Edgar (943 – 8 juillet 975) est le plus jeune fils d'Edmond Ier. Il est surnommé « le Pacifique » quoique plus autoritaire que son frère aîné, Edwy, de qui il reçoit les royaumes de Northumbrie et de Mercie.

Edgar fut d'abord proclamé roi du nord de la Tamise par une assemblée de nobles Merciens en 958, mais il succède officiellement à Edwy quand celui-ci décède en octobre 959. Edgar rappelle immédiatement Dunstan (finalement canonisé en Saint Dunstan) d'exil, pour le nommer évêque de Worcester, puis de Londres et enfin archevêque de Cantorbury.

L'allégation selon laquelle Dunstan aurait d'abord refusé de couronner Edgar car il désapprouvait son mode de vie, fait référence à l'histoire populaire de Wulfthryth, la maîtresse d'Edgar, une femme de Wilton qui lui donne une fille, Eadgyth, en 961. Dunstan reste toutefois le conseiller de Edgar durant son règne.

Le règne d'Edgar est paisible, et le royaume anglo-saxon à son apogée. Si d'autres rois sont réputés fondateurs de l'Angleterre, Edgar l'a consolidée. Vers la fin de son règne, un affaiblissement de ses parties constituantes est improbable, contrairement à la fin du règne d'Edwy.

Le mouvement de réforme monastique qui restaure la règle bénédictine dans les communautés monastiques peu disciplinées, est à son maximum pendant la période de Dunstan, d'Aethelwold et d'Oswald. Toutefois, la portée et l'importance de ce mouvement restent controversées entre les académiciens.

Edgar est couronné à Bath, mais seulement en mai 973, dans une cérémonie impériale envisagée non pas comme l'entrée en fonction, mais comme l'apothéose de son règne. Cette cérémonie, conçue par Dunstan lui-même, et célébrée avec un poème des Chroniques Anglo-Saxonnes, forme la base de l'actuelle cérémonie anglaise du couronnement. Le couronnement symbolique est une étape importante : peu après, d'autres rois viendront jurer fidélité à Edgar à Chester. Six rois de Grande-Bretagne, dont ceux d'Écosse et de Strathclyde, prêtent alors serment d'être les serviteurs du roi sur terre et mer. Les grandes lignes de la « soumission à Chester » sont reconnues comme vraies.

Pendant son règne, il encourage la destruction des loups qui disparaissent pratiquement d'Angleterre à cette époque[1].

Edgar a plusieurs enfants. Il meurt le 8 juillet 975 à Winchester, et est enterré à l'Abbaye de Glastonbury. Il laisse deux fils, Édouard le Martyr, qui lui succède, fils de sa première femme nommée Ethelfleda, et Ethelred, fils de sa seconde femme Elfrida. Il est également le père de Sainte Édith.

Edgar le Pacifique est reconnu comme saint par l'Église catholique qui le célèbre le 8 juillet.

De la mort d'Edgar à la conquête des Normands, aucune succession au trône ne s'est déroulée sans combats. La mort d'Edgar simplifie la situation, et semble marquer le début de la fin de l'Angleterre anglo-saxonne, dans trois conquêtes victorieuses, deux Danoises et une Normande.

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_the_Peaceable

Edgar the Peaceful, or Edgar I (Old English: Ēadgār) (c. 7 August 943 – 8 July 975), also called the Peaceable, was a king of England (r. 959–75). Edgar was the younger son of Edmund I of England. He is venerated in the Orthodox Church.

Accession

His cognomen, "The Peaceable", was not necessarily a comment on the deeds of his life, for he was a strong leader, shown by his seizure of the Northumbrian and Mercian kingdoms from his older brother, Eadwig, in 958. A conclave of nobles held Edgar to be king north of the Thames, and Edgar aspired to succeed to the English throne.

Government

Though Edgar was not a particularly peaceable man, his reign was a peaceful one. The Kingdom of England was at its height. Edgar consolidated the political unity achieved by his predecessors. By the end of Edgar's reign, England was sufficiently unified that it was unlikely to regress back to a state of division among rival kingships, as it had to an extent under Eadred's reign.

Edgar and Dunstan

Upon Eadwig's death in October 959, Edgar immediately recalled Dunstan (eventually canonised as St. Dunstan) from exile to have him made Bishop of Worcester (and subsequently Bishop of London and Archbishop of Canterbury). Dunstan remained Edgar's advisor throughout his reign.

Benedictine Reform

The Monastic Reform Movement that restored the Benedictine Rule to England's undisciplined monastic communities peaked during the era of Dunstan, Æthelwold, and Oswald. (Historians continue to debate the extent and significance of this movement.)

Coronation at Bath (AD 973)

Edgar was crowned at Bath and anointed with his wife Ælfthryth, setting a precedent for a coronation of a queen in England itself. Edgar's coronation did not happen until 973, in an imperial ceremony planned not as the initiation, but as the culmination of his reign (a move that must have taken a great deal of preliminary diplomacy). This service, devised by Dunstan himself and celebrated with a poem in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, forms the basis of the present-day British coronation ceremony. The symbolic coronation was an important step; other kings of Britain came and gave their allegiance to Edgar shortly afterwards at Chester. Six kings in Britain, including the King of Scots and the King of Strathclyde, pledged their faith that they would be the king's liege-men on sea and land. Later chroniclers made the kings into eight, all plying the oars of Edgar's state barge on the River Dee. Such embellishments may not be factual, but the main outlines of the "submission at Chester" appear true. (See History of Chester.)

Death (AD 975)

Edgar died on 8 July 975 at Winchester, and was buried at Glastonbury Abbey. He left two sons, the elder named Edward, who was probably his illegitimate son by Æthelflæd (not to be confused with the Lady of the Mercians), and Æthelred, the younger, the child of his wife Ælfthryth. He was succeeded by Edward. Edgar also had a daughter, possibly illegitimate, by Wulfryth, who later became abbess of Wilton. She was joined there by her daughter, Edith of Wilton, who lived there as a nun until her death. Both women were later regarded as saints.

From Edgar’s death to the Norman Conquest, there was not a single succession to the throne that was not contested. Some see Edgar’s death as the beginning of the end of Anglo-Saxon England, followed as it was by three successful 11th-century conquests — two Danish and one Norman.

-------------------- second son, reigned 951-975 --------------------

  • William I Malet

born abt 1110 Curry Malet, Somerset, England

died 1169

father:

  • Robert Malet

born abt 1080 Curry Malet, Somerset, England

died 1155

mother:

  • Miss De Corcelle

born Abt 1072 Of, Graville, Normandy, France

married Abt 1093 Of Graville, Normandy, France

(end of information)

siblings:

unknown

spouse:

  • Maude Mortimer

born abt 1120

children:

  • Gilbert Baron of Curry Malet

born abt 1140 Curry Malet, Somerset, England

died abt 1194

biographical and/or anecdotal:

notes or source:

LDS -------------------- Willelm III Dapifer, Lord of Curry-Malet, was steward, and a favorite, of King Henry II.

He held other lands in Kent, Cambridge, and Sussex.

He married Eugenia Picot, daughter of Ralph Picot, Sheriff of Kent and Sussex.

Willelm held the barony of Curry Malet in 1156 in Somersetshire.

William was a signer of the Constitutions of Clarendon in 1164.

He held crown lands in Dartford in 1165 in Kent.

See "My Lines"

( http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/p373.htm#i23416 )

from Compiler: R. B. Stewart, Evans, GA

( http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/index.htm ) --------------------

Lord William Malet/Mercia born 1041 in France and died between 1071- 1072 defending York Castle (England). He married Baroness Elise Hesila Crispin, Lady Malet, Daughter of Lord Crispin and Gunnore D'Aunou. Lord William Malet was a descendant of Leofwine Hwiccas Ealdorman Mercia, Earl of Mercia.
http://www.rispin.co.uk/crispin.html
=======================

• 1. William Malet, Lord Malet, a Norman baron, one of the generals and companions of William the Conqueror, said to have been the brother of King Harold's wife, and to have been entrusted with the guard of Harold's body after he had been slain on the battlefield. After the conquest he was made Governor of York Castle and was slain in its defense about 1071. He married Hesila (Esilia) Crispin, daughter of Gilbert Crispin I, baron of Tillieres. She probably married (2) Alured de Lincoln, a great Domesday baron who attended Duke William on his expedition to England in 1066 (See Crispin and Macary, "Falaise Roll", Appendix 20, pg. 156-160). They had the following children:


? 1. Robert Malet, lived in Normandy in 990, successor to his father, was among the greatest landowners in England. He held over 221 manors in Suffolk alone. He was Lord Chamberlain under King Henry I., and Lord of Eye in Suffolk. He lost his life and fortune at the battle of Tinchebrai, where he espoused the cause of Duke Robert. As a consequence of this action he was banished and disinherited.

? 2. Gilbert Malet, 2nd son, succeeded his brother, Robert. See below.

? 3. Beatrice (Beatrix) Malet, married William of Arques (Arches). In a deed witnessed by her brother, Gilbert, she gave the village of Rending Fieldam to the monks of St. Peter of Eye.

? 4. Lucia, married Ive Taillebois. See details elsewhere.

? 5. William Malet II., monk at Bec, died after 1121.


He was succeeded by his eldest son, Robert.


According to Crispin and Macary, "William (Guillaume) Malet de Graville stands out as one of the most imposing figures at the Conquest. There can be no doubt about his presence there, which is subscribed to be William of Poitiers, Guy of Amiens, Orderic Vital, and all the historians of this epoch. So much has been placed on record concerning him that just a few facts of his life will be recited here. He was probably descended from Gerard, a Scandinavian prince and companion of Duke Rollo, which gave the name of the fief of Gerardville or Graville, near Havre. Robert, the eldest son, occurs in a document of about 990 in Normandy. On his mother's side William Malet was of Anglo-Saxon origin, for she was probably the daughter of Leofric, Earl of Mercia, and Godwa or Godgifu, the supposed sister of Thorold the Sheriff in the time of Edward the Confessor, and therefore the aunt of Edwin and Morcar, Earls of Northumberland. He was nearly killed in the battle of Hastings but was rescued by the sire de Montfort and William of Vieuxpont, and was appointed by William the Conqueror to take charge of the body of Harold, a statement that has been disputed. The consensus of opinion favors it, and it is most logical if William Malet's mother was as stated the sister of Algar II., 7th Earl of Mercia, who was the father of Alditha, wife of Harold. He accompanied King William at the reduction of Nottingham and York in 1068, for which he was rewarded with the shreivalty of land in that county. Gilbert de Gand and Robert Fitz Richard were also commanders in this expedition. The following year he was besieged in the castle of York by Edgar, the Saxon prince, and was only saved from surrender by the timely arrival of the Conqueror. In the same year he was attacked by the Danes, who captured the city of York with great slaughter and took William Malet, his wife and children, prisoners, but their lives were spared, as was that of Gilbert de Gand, for the sake of their ransoms. There is evidence that he was slain in this year, but it is uncertain and the date of his death is unknown. An entry in Domesday that "William Malet was seized of this place (Cidestan, Co. Suffolk), where he proceeded on the King's service where he died," would indicate that his death occurred during the compilation of that book. He was witness to a charter of King William to the church of St. Martin-le-Grand, in London, and is there styled "princeps," which title, however, was honorary and not hereditary, having ceased with his death."

http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~pmcbride/james/f033.htm#I1453X3 -------------------- Edgar the Peaceful From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Edgar of England" redirects here. See also Edgar the Ætheling who was briefly proclaimed king in 1066. "Edgar I" redirects here. See also Edgar, King of Scotland.

This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (September 2011) Edgar Edgar King of England.jpg King of the English Tenure 1 October 959 – 8 July 975 Predecessor Eadwig Successor Edward Spouse Æthelflæd[1] Wulthryth[1] Ælfthryth Issue Edward, King of England Saint Edith of Wilton[1] Edmund of England[2] Æthelred, King of England House House of Wessex Father Edmund, King of England Mother Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury Born 943/944 Wessex, England Died July 8, 975 (aged 31/32) Winchester, England Burial Glastonbury Abbey Edgar the Peaceful, or Edgar I (Old English: Ēadgār; c. 7 August 943 – 8 July 975), also called the Peaceable, was king of England from 959 to 975. Edgar was the younger son of Edmund I. Contents [hide] 1 Accession 2 Government 3 Benedictine reform 4 Dead Man's Plack 5 Coronation at Bath (973) 6 Death (975) 7 Appearance 8 Genealogy 9 Notes 10 Further reading 11 External links Accession[edit] Edgar was the son of Edmund I and Elfgiva, thus making him the grandson of Edward the Elder, great-grandson of Alfred the Great, great-great grandson of Æthelwulf of Wessex, great-great-great grandson of Egbert of Wessex. Upon the death of King Edmund in 946, Edgar's uncle, King Edred ruled until 955. Edred, in turn was succeeded by his nephew, Edmund's son and Edgar's older brother Eadwig. Eadwig was not a popular king and his reign was marked by conflict with the nobles and the Church - chiefly St Dunstan and Archbishop Odo. In 957 the thanes of Mercia and Northumbria switched their allegiance to Edgar.[3] His cognomen, "The Peaceable", was not necessarily a comment on the deeds of his life, for he was a strong leader, shown by his seizure of the Northumbrian and Mercian kingdoms from his brother in 958. A conclave of nobles held Edgar to be king north of the Thames.[4] With the death of Eadwig in October 959, Edgar consolidated his holdings with Wessex, previously held by his brother. Government[edit] One of Edgar's first actions was to recall Dunstan from exile and have him made Bishop of Worcester (and subsequently Bishop of London and later, Archbishop of Canterbury). Dunstan remained Edgar's advisor throughout his reign. While Edgar may not have been a particularly peaceable man, his reign was peaceful. The Kingdom of England was well established, and Edgar consolidated the political unity achieved by his predecessors. By the end of his reign, England was sufficiently unified in that it was unlikely to regress back to a state of division among rival kingships, as it had to an extent under the reign of Eadred. Blackstone mentions that King Edgar standardised measure throughout the realm.[5] Benedi

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Edgar I "The Peaceful", King of the English's Timeline

943
August 7, 943
Wessex, England
955
955
- present
Age 11
King of Mercia
959
October 1, 959
- July 8, 975
Age 16
959
- present
Age 15
King of England
959
- 975
Age 15
King of England
961
961
Age 17
962
962
Age 18
England
962
Age 18
Kemsing i Kent, England
965
965
Age 21
Wessex, England
966
966
Age 22
Wessex, England