Gaius Julius Caesar, Roman Dictator
|Also Known As:||"Divus Julius", "Imperator", "Patris Patriae"|
|Birthplace:||Roma, Lazio, Italia|
|Death:||Died in Rome, Mausoléu de Augusto, Roma (Itália), Lazio, Italy|
|Cause of death:||Assassination by Marcus Junius Brutus, Tillius Cimber, Sevilius Casca and 60 others, stabbed 23 x|
|Place of Burial:||Mausoléu de Augusto, Roma (Itália)|
Son of Gaius Julius Caesar, III and Aurelia Cotta
|Occupation:||Ruler of the Roman Empire, Roman Dictator, (technically not Emperor but sometimes called 1st EMPEROR of Rome), Kejsare, Dictator of Rome (This is THE Julius Caesar immortalized by William Shakespeare, Eerste keizer van Rome (Caesar)|
|Managed by:||Sveneric Rosell|
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About Gaius Julius Caesar, Roman Dictator
Gaius Julius Caesar ( July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC ) Wikipedia
Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most influential political and military leaders in history, helped establish the vast empire ruled by Rome. Caesar’s triumph in a civil war in the 40s bc made him the absolute ruler of Rome, but political jealousies among his opponents motivated them to assassinate him.
Julius Caesar was born in Rome on July 12, 100 Bc, and he was assassinated on the ides of March, the 15th of March, in 44Bc. He was born to Gaius Julius Caesar and Aurelia putting him in probably the most prestigious and strong rooted clans, the Julian clan. His uncle by marriage (oxford classical, Hornblower p.925) was the famous military leader and seven times consul, Gaius Marius and in an effort to keep Julius from becoming a great man in the history of Rome, Marius appointed him flamen diales, or priest of Jupiter.
As a young man, Caesar distinguished himself in roman society. He could declaim and recite poems very well. He also wrote poetry and became a favorite among the women of Rome. His first wife was Cornelia whom he married early. She was the daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinna , therefore, Caesar was associated with the popular party in his early political career.
At first life was great for him in Rome; he was young, well liked, and he had his wife, but soon Caesar heard of Sulla's hostility toward him and he fled to Bythinia, under orders from the praetor of Asia, where he sought to raise a fleet under King Nicomedes, which was his first military campaign, in 81Bc (Caesars-might and madness-Brownjohn p. 48).
Later Caesar's enemies accused him of giving in to Nicomedes's unnatural desires. In an effort to disprove these rumors Caesar allegedly tried to have an affair with every patrician woman in Rome. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillius wrote, "Not even in the provinces were married women safe from him."
When he left Asia, pirates captured him and demanded a ransom of 20 talents (Ceasars-might and madness p. 49). Arrogant and confident, Caesar mocked them and he laughed at their demands. He told them that they did not know whom they had caught and told them his ransom should have been much more. Caesar manipulated the pirates and he began to have so much control over them that they would stop talking or making noise upon his demands if he was trying to sleep or read. He warned these pirates that when freed, he would find them and kill them. They should have heeded his warning, because upon his release, Caesar gathered men and went to find the pirates. After defeating them he crucified the pirates.
Ruthlessly ambitious, Julius Caesar used war, intrigue and political guile to make himself the most powerful man in Rome. Too powerful for some. Find out the facts about his rise and fall.
When Caesar was born in 100BC, Rome ruled much of the Mediterranean. It was a Republic ruled by officials called magistrates (the most senior of which were two consuls) who were elected by assemblies of the people. Magistrates held office for one year before joining Rome's powerful advisory council, the Senate. Caesar would later fight these institutions to become dictator of Rome.
Rise to power
Hailing from a prominent family, Caesar quickly rose to political power. He was elected into many public offices and, in 63BC, bribed his way to become Pontifex Maximus (high priest). He financed himself by plundering Rome's Spanish provinces.
Caesar as consul
Popular with the army and the people, Caesar was elected joint consul with Bibulus in 60BC. But he had many enemies in the Senate, including the orators Cato the Younger and Cicero, who feared his growing strength. Caesar sidelined Bibulus and took steps to limit the power of the Senate.
In 59BC, Caesar formed a coalition (Triumvirate) with two important Roman citizens: Crassus, a rich banker and Pompey, Rome's leading general. They controlled Rome's public affairs and divided the provinces between them.
The Triumvirate gave Caesar the Roman provinces in northern Europe and several legions. Between 58 and 50BC, Caesar enlarged his powerbase by conquering Gaul (much of modern France and Belgium). He even invaded Britain twice.
The Triumvirate ended when Crassus was killed fighting the Parthians in the east. In 50BC, the Senate, with support from Pompey, demanded that Caesar return to Rome without his army and surrender his office. Caesar, fearing that he would be put on trial, invaded Italy, defeated Pompey and the Senate, and became sole ruler.
Caesar's problem was that he became too powerful, alienating men who previously had a share of power. On 15 March, 44BC, a group of Republicans stabbed Caesar to death in the Senate.
By concentrating the power of the Republic in one man, Caesar opened the way for the creation of the Roman Empire ruled by an emperor. The first of these was his adopted successor, Octavian, in 31BC
-Father Gaius Julius Caesar the Elder
-Mother Aurelia (related to the Aurelia Cottae)
-Julia Caesaris "Maior" (the elder)
-Julia Caesaris "Minor" (the younger)
First marriage to
-Cornelia Cinnilla, from 83 BC until her death in childbirth in 69 or 68 BC
Second marriage to
-Pompeia, from 67 BC until he divorced her around 61 BC
Third marriage to
-Calpurnia Pisonis, from 59 BC until Caesar's death
-1. Julia with Cornelia Cinnilla, born in 83 or 82 BC
-2. Caesarion, with Cleopatra VII, born 47 BC. He was killed at age 17 by Caesar's adopted son Octavianus.
-adopted: Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, his great-nephew by blood, who later became Emperor Augustus.
Marcus Junius Brutus: The historian Plutarch notes that Caesar believed Brutus to have been his illegitimate son, as his mother Servilia had been Caesar's lover during their youth.
Grandson from Julia and Pompey, dead at several days, unnamed.
Servilia Caepionis mother of Brutus
Eunoë, queen of Mauretania and wife of Bogudes
Gaius Marius (married to his Aunt Julia)
Lucius Julius Caesar
Julius Sabinus, a Gaul of the Lingones at the time of the Batavian rebellion of AD 69, claimed to be the great-grandson of Caesar on the grounds that his great-grandmother had been Caesar's lover during the Gallic war.
Name: GAIUS @ JULIUS IV CAESAR
Given Name: GAIUS @ JULIUS IV
Change Date: 3 Jun 2004
Caesar, Gaius Julius (100-44 bc), Roman general and statesman, who laid the foundations of the Roman imperial system.
One of the most influential political and military leaders in history, Gaius Julius Caesar helped establish the vast empire ruled by Rome. Caesar’s triumph in a civil war in the 40s bc made him the absolute ruler of Rome, but political jealousies among his opponents motivated them to assassinate him.Culver Pictures
GREAT WORKS OF LITERATURE
Julius Caesar: From The Conquest of Gaul
Ambitious and highly capable but frustrated in his political ambitions, the Roman general Julius Caesar knew that extending the empire through victory in war could help increase his political power in Rome. Under Caesar, the Romans gained control of Gaul, a region substantially identical to present-day France, by 57 bc. When the Veneti tribe revolted a year later, Caesar returned to quell the uprising and took the opportunity to boost his political standing in Rome by writing The Conquest of Gaul. This excerpt,describing the Veneti’s decisive defeat, was a piece of propaganda intended to impress Caesar’s enemies and win new supporters. Caesar wrote it in the third person.
II EARLY LIFE
From Plutarch's Lives: Caesar
This excerpt from Plutarch’s Lives, a collection of short biographies written by 1st-century-ad Greek essayist Plutarch, traced the rise of Gaius Julius Caesar from a young man to a powerful general and statesman in 1st-century-bc Rome. In Caesar’s youth, two factions existed in Rome—the supporters of Lucius Cornelius Sulla (also known as Sylla), and the followers of Roman general Gaius Marius, who was Caesar’s uncle by marriage. Sulla had declared Marius’s followers enemies of the state after the death of Marius in 86 bc. After Sulla resigned as consul in 79 bc, Caesar revived Marius’s party, and positioned himself as Marius’s natural successor. The following excerpt also relates how Caesar formed an alliance with statesman and general Pompey and politician and speculator Crassus that came to be known as the first triumvirate. This coalition gave Caesar the power to assume the consulship of Rome.
Born in Rome on July 12 or 13, 100 bc, Caesar belonged to the prestigious Julian clan; yet from early childhood he knew controversy. His uncle by marriage was Gaius Marius, leader of the Populares. This party supported agrarian reform and was opposed by the reactionary Optimates, a senatorial faction. Marius was seven times consul (chief magistrate), and the last year he held office, just before his death in 86 bc, he exacted a terrifying toll on the Optimates. At the same time he saw to it that young Caesar was appointed flamen dialis, one of an archaic priesthood with no power. This identified him with his uncle's extremist politics, and his marriage in 84 bc to Cornelia, the daughter of Marius's associate, Cinna, further confirmed him as a radical. When Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Marius's enemy and leader of the Optimates, was made dictator in 82 bc, he issued a list of enemies to be executed. Although Caesar was not harmed, he was ordered by Sulla to divorce Cornelia. Refusing that order, he found it prudent to leave Rome. He did not return to the city until 78 bc, after Sulla's resignation.
Caesar was now 22 years old. Unable to gain office, he left Rome again and went to Rhodes, where he studied rhetoric; he returned to Rome in 73 bc, a very persuasive speaker. The year before, while still absent, he had been elected to the pontificate, an important college of Roman priests.
In 71 bc Pompey the Great, who had earned his epithet in service under Sulla, returned to Rome, having defeated the rebellious Populares general Sertorius in Spain. At the same time Marcus Licinius Crassus, a rich patrician, suppressed in Italy the slave revolt led by Spartacus. Pompey and Crassus both ran for the consulship—an office held by two men—in 70 bc. Pompey, who by this time had changed sides, was technically ineligible, but with Caesar's help he won the office. Crassus became the other consul. In 69 bc, Caesar was elected quaestor and in 65 bc curule aedile, gaining great popularity for his lavish gladiatorial games. To pay for these, he borrowed money from Crassus. This united the two men, who also found common cause with Pompey. When Caesar returned to Rome in 60 bc after a year as governor of Spain, he joined forces with Crassus and Pompey in a three-way alliance known as the First Triumvirate; to cement their relationship further, Caesar gave his daughter Julia to Pompey in marriage. Thus backed, Caesar was elected consul for 59 bc despite Optimate hostility, and the year after (58 bc) he was appointed governor of Roman Gaul.
A Gallic Wars
Vercingetorix Surrenders to Caesar
Julius Caesar did not complete his conquest of Gaul without resistance. Vercingetorix, the chief of the powerful Arverni people, successfully launched an armed revolt against the Romans and inflicted heavy casualties. Caesar drew on his leadership abilities and military brilliance to rally his legions. He eventually drove the Gallic forces into Alesia (near modern Dijon, France) and surrounded the town with massive earthwork walls. After a long seige, Vercingetorix was forced to surrender. This picture depicts the rebel leader giving himself up to Caesar in 52 bc. Caesar took Vercingetorix back to Rome where he was later executed.Corbis
At that time Celtic Gaul, to the north, was still independent, but the Aedui, a tribe of Roman allies, appealed to Caesar for help against another Gallic people, the Helvetii, during the first year of his governorship. Caesar marched into Celtic Gaul with six legions, defeated the Helvetii, and forced them to return to their home area. Next, he crushed Germanic forces under Ariovistus. By 57 bc, following the defeat of the Nervii, Rome was in control of northern Gaul. A last revolt of the Gauls, led by Vercingetorix, was suppressed in 52-51 bc.
GREAT WORKS OF LITERATURE
Appian: From The Civil Wars
Appian was a 2nd-century-ad Greek historian born in the great literary center of Alexandria, Egypt. Appian documented the history of the Roman Empire. The books that were compiled as TheCivil Wars are an important and detailed record of Rome during the turbulent period from 133 to 27 BC. In this passage, Appian chronicles Julius Caesar’s continued ascent to power following the Gallic Wars and the formation of the First Triumvirate in 60 bc. He goes on to describe the murder, in 52 bc, of Publius Clodius Pulcher, a tribune known for terrorizing people with his gladiators.
From Plutarch's Lives: Caesar in Gaul
Plutarch was a Greek biographer and essayist who lived in the 1st century ad. His short biographies of notable Greek and Roman figures are renowned not only for what they reveal about ancient life, but also for their study of character. Plutarch’s portrait of the great Roman general and statesman Julius Caesar reveals a generous spirit behind his savvy military and political leadership. That Caesar also fought bravely in battle despite physical weakness inspired great loyalty in his soldiers and popularity with the Roman citizenry.
B Power Play
GREAT WORKS OF LITERATURE
Geoffrey of Monmouth: From History of the Kings of Britain
Typical of medieval chronicles purporting to relate historical events, TheHistory of the Kings of England, also known as History of the Kings of Britain, mixes myth and unverifiable popular tales with fact. Geoffrey of Monmouth was a 12th-century churchman whose work describes the “history” of the ancient British monarchy, from the mythical founding of Britain by Brutus, son of Aeneas of Troy, to Caedwalla, the king of North Wales who reigned from about 625 to 634 ad. The narrative recounts stories that later became the source material for much great British literature and art, such as the tales of Merlin and King Arthur, and King Lear and his daughters Goneril, Regan, and Cordelia. This passage describes the Roman invasion of Britain by Julius Caesar in 55 bc.
While Caesar was in Gaul, his agents attempted to dominate politics in Rome. This, however, threatened Pompey's position, and it became necessary for the triumvirs to arrange a meeting at Luca in 56 bc, which brought about a temporary reconciliation. It was decided that Caesar would continue in Gaul for another five years, while Pompey and Crassus would both be consuls for 55 bc; after that, each would have proconsular control of provinces. Caesar then went off to raid Britain and put down a revolt in Gaul. Crassus, ever eager for military glory, went to his post in Syria. Provoking a war with the Parthian Empire, he was defeated and killed at Carrhae in 53 bc. This removed the last buffer between Caesar and Pompey; their family ties had been broken by the death of Julia in 54 bc.
IV CIVIL WAR
From Plutarch's Lives: Antony
Plutarch was a Greek biographer and essayist who lived in the 1st century AD. His brief biographies of notable Greek and Roman figures are renowned not only for their views of ancient life, but also for their study of character. Plutarch’s portrait of the legendary Roman soldier and politician Mark Antony reveals a driven and rather complex character, given to ruthlessness, drunkenness, and debauchery, but capable of shrewdness and great loyalty as well.
In 52 bc, with Crassus out of the way, Pompey was made sole consul. Combined with his other powers, this gave him a formidable position. Jealous of his younger rival, he determined to break Caesar's power, an objective that could not be achieved without first depriving him of his command in Gaul. In order to protect himself, Caesar suggested that he and Pompey both lay down their commands simultaneously, but this was rejected; goaded by Pompey, the Senate summarily called upon Caesar to resign his command and disband his army, or else be considered a public enemy. The tribunes, who were Caesar's agents, vetoed this motion, but they were driven out of the Senate chamber. The Senate then entrusted Pompey with providing for the safety of the state. His forces far outnumbered Caesar's, but they were scattered throughout the provinces, and his troops in Italy were not prepared for war. Early in 49 bc Caesar crossed the Rubicon, a small stream separating his province from Italy, and moved swiftly southward. Pompey fled to Brundisium and from there to Greece. In three months Caesar was master of all Italy; his forces then took Spain and the key port of Massalia (now Marseille).
In Rome Caesar became dictator until elected consul for 48 bc. At the beginning of that year he landed in Greece and smashed Pompey's forces at Pharsalus. Pompey escaped to Egypt, where he was assassinated. When Caesar arrived there, he installed Cleopatra, daughter of the late King Ptolemy XII, as queen. In 47 bc he pacified Asia Minor and returned to Rome to become dictator again. By the following year all Optimate forces had been defeated and the Mediterranean world pacified.
V DICTATORSHIP AND ASSASSINATION
Death of Julius Caesar The growing power of Julius Caesar, who assumed the title of dictator for life, threatened the prestige of many members of the Roman Senate. On March 15 in 44 bc a group of senators assassinated Caesar. The story of the assassination has become the subject of many plays and other works of art, including this painting by Italian Vincenzo Camuccini.Art Resource, NY/Scala
The basic prop for Caesar's continuation in power was the dictatorship for life. According to the traditional Republican constitution, this office was only to be held for six months during a dire emergency. That rule, however, had been broken before. Sulla had ruled as dictator for several years, and Caesar now followed suit. In addition, he was made consul for ten years in 45 bc and received the sanctity of tribunes, making it illegal to harm him. Caesar also obtained honors to increase his prestige: He wore the robe, crown, and scepter of a triumphant general and used the title imperator. Furthermore, as Pontifex Maximus, he was head of the state religion. Above all, however, he was in total command of the armies, and this remained the backbone of his power.
GREAT WORKS OF LITERATURE
From Plutarch's Lives: Marcus Brutus
The Greek biographer Plutarch regarded Marcus Brutus (85?-42 bc) as a noble and conscientious man, who contributed to causes he believed were in Rome’s best interests even if they conflicted with his own. According to Plutarch, Brutus was well-loved by many, particularly Julius Caesar, who thought Brutus might be his son. This excerpt from Plutarch’s Lives concerns the complex relationship between Caesar and Brutus, and Brutus’s role in Caesar’s assassination, later immortalized in William Shakespeare’s play Julius Caesar (1599?).
As a ruler Caesar instituted various reforms. In the provinces he eliminated the highly corrupt tax system, sponsored colonies of veterans, and extended Roman citizenship. At home he reconstituted the courts and increased the number of senators. His reform of the calendar gave Rome a rational means of recording time.
A number of senatorial families, however, felt that Caesar threatened their position, and his honors and powers made them fear that he would become a rex (king), a title they, as Republicans, hated. Accordingly, in 44 bc, an assassination plot was hatched by a group of senators, including Gaius Cassius and Marcus Junius Brutus. On March 15 of that year, when Caesar entered the Senate house, the group killed him.
VI PERSONAL LIFE
After Caesar's first wife, Cornelia, died in 68 bc, he married Pompeia, a granddaughter of Sulla. When the mysteries of the Bona Dea, over which she presided, were violated, she was maligned by gossips, and Caesar then divorced her, telling the Senate that Caesar's wife must be above suspicion. His next marriage (59 bc) was to Calpurnia and was politically motivated. Since Caesar had no male heirs, he stipulated in his will that his grandnephew, Octavius, become his successor. It was Octavius who became Rome's first emperor under the name of Augustus.
Caesar was a gifted writer, with a clear and simple style. His De Bello Gallico (On the Gallic War), in which he described Gaul and his Gallic campaigns, is a major source of information about the early Celtic and Germanic tribes.
Scholarly opinion of Caesar's accomplishments is divided. Some regard him as an unscrupulous tyrant, with an insatiable lust for power, and blame him for the demise of the Roman Republic. Others, admitting that he could be ruthless, insist that the Republic had already been destroyed. They maintain that to save the Roman world from chaos a new type of government had to be created. In fact, Caesar's reforms did stabilize the Mediterranean world. Among ancient military commanders, he may be second only to Alexander the Great.
Contributed By: Michael S. Cheilik
© 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Birth: 12 JUL 100 BC in Subura, Italy
Death: 15 MAR 44 BC in stabbed in Roman Senate
Father: Caius Julius III of Rome Caesar
Mother: Aurelia (Cornelia) of Rome
Marriage 1 Lucia Calpurnia Piso
Marcus Julius Antonius Gneius Caesar
Forrás / Source:
Dictator of Rome.
Han tilhørte patrisierfamilien gens Iulia. Slekten førte sitt stamtre tilbake til Julus, sønn av den trojanske prinsen Aeneas, som ifølge legenden var sønn av gudinnen Venus.
Hans erobring av Gallia i Frankrike utbredte det romerske imperium helt til Atlanterhavskysten, noe som har gitt ringvirkninger helt opp til i dag. Cæsars militære bragder er derimot bare kjent fra hans egne rapporter til senatet. Rapportene viser at han fortolket sine ordrer meget bredt, og hans grunnleggelse av en regjering under det første triumvirat endte den romerske republikk. Han ble senere diktator på livstid og utarbeidet mange reformer, både sosialt og politisk. Reformarbeidet ble brått stoppet da han ble myrdet. Mange av hans reformer ble senere ført ut i livet av keiser Augustus. Mye om hans liv er kjent, både fra hans egne verker og fra senere historikere som Suetonius, Plutark og Cassius Dio.
Cæsar ble født i Roma, i en patrisierfamilie kalt gens Iulia. Slekt førte sitt stamtre tilbake til Julus, sønn av den trojanske prinsen Aeneas, som ifølge mytene var sønn av gudinnen Venus. Dette ble framhevet av Cæsar senere; på høyden av sin karriere bygde han et tempel til Venus Genetrix (Stammoren Venus) i Roma. Hans far, Gaius Julius Cæsar den eldre, var praetor. Hans mot var fra Cottae-grenen av Aureliafamilien, en rik familie som tilhørte plebeierne. Som ung gutt levde han i et beskjedent hus i bydelen Subura. Han fikk en god utdannelse, og lærte blant annet gresk og forskjellige galliske dialekter
Born : 101 BC - -
Died : 44 BC
Born : 101 BC - -
Died : 44 BC
Born : 101 BC - -
Died : 44 BC
Born : 101 BC - -
Died : 44 BC
Born : 101 BC - -
Died : 44 BC
-------------------- -------------------- The well known historical figure Julius Caesar.
Gaius Julius Caesar, Roman Dictator's Timeline
July 13, -100
Roma, Lazio, Italia
September 23, -63
Rome, Lazio, Italy
June 23, -47
March 15, -44
Rome, Mausoléu de Augusto, Roma (Itália), Lazio, Italy
Mausoléu de Augusto, Roma (Itália)