Heinrich "der Löwe" von Sachsen (Welf), Herzog zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg, Sachsen und Bayern (1129 - 1195) MP

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Nicknames: "der Löwe", "The Lion", "Duke of Saxony", "Henry the Lion", "as Henry III", "from 1142", "and Duke of Bavaria", "as Henry XII", ""The Lion Duke"", "Henrik Leo"
Birthplace: Ravensburg(Kreisfrei), Württemberg, Deutschland(HRR)
Death: Died in Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Deutschland(HRR)
Occupation: Hertig, duke of Saxony and Bavaria, Hertig av Sachsen och Bayern, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, Saxony and Bavaria, Herzog von Sachsen und Bayern
Managed by: Noah Gregory Tutak
Last Updated:

About Heinrich "der Löwe" von Sachsen (Welf), Herzog zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg, Sachsen und Bayern

Henry the Lion

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Henry III Duke of Saxony/XII Duke of Bavaria

Statue in Brunswick Cathedral, said to be showing Henry the Lion.

Duke of Saxony

Reign 1142-1180

Predecessor Albert the Bear

Successor Bernard III

Duke of Bavaria

Reign 1156–1180

Predecessor Henry XI

Successor Otto III

Spouse Clementia of Zähringen

Matilda of England

Issue

Princess Gertrude

Princess Richenza

Princess Matilda

Princess Richenza

Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine

Lothar of Bavaria

Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor

William of Winchester

Princess Eleanor

Princess Ingibiorg

Full name

German: Heinrich der Löwe

English: Henry the Lion

Father Henry II, Duke of Saxony

Mother Gertrude of Süpplingenburg

Born c. 1129 Ravensburg

Died 6 August 1195 (aged 65/66)

Duchy of Braunschweig

Burial Brunswick Cathedral

Henry the Lion (German: Heinrich der Löwe; 1129 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Guelph dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, which duchies he held until 1180.

He was one of the most powerful German princes of his time, until the rival Hohenstaufen dynasty succeeded in isolating him and eventually deprived him of his duchies of Bavaria and Saxony during the reign of his cousin Frederick I and of Frederick's son and successor Henry VI.

At the height of his reign, Henry ruled over a vast territory stretching from the coast of the North and Baltic Seas to the Alps, and from Westphalia to Pomerania. Henry achieved this great power in part by his political and military acumen and in part through the legacies of his four grandparents.

Biography

Born in Ravensburg, he was the son of Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, who was the son of Duke Henry the Black and an heiress of the Billungs, former dukes of Saxony. Henry's mother was Gertrud, only daughter of Emperor Lothair III and his wife Richenza of Northeim, heiress of the Saxon territories of Northeim and the properties of the Brunones, counts of Braunschweig.

Henry's father died in 1139, aged 32, when Henry was still a child. King Conrad III had dispossessed Henry the Proud, who had been his rival for the crown in 1138, of his duchies in 1138 and 1139, handing Saxony to Albert the Bear and Bavaria to Leopold of Austria. Henry, however, did not relinquish his claims to his inheritance, and Conrad returned Saxony to him in 1142. A participant in the 1147 Wendish Crusade, Henry also reacquired Bavaria by a decision of the new Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1156.

Henry is the founder of Munich (1157/58; München) and Lübeck (1159); he also founded and developed the cities of Stade, Lüneburg and Braunschweig. In Braunschweig, his capital, he had a bronze lion, his heraldic animal, erected in the yard of his castle Dankwarderode in 1166 — the first bronze statue north of the Alps. Later, he had Brunswick Cathedral built close to the statue.

Coronation of Henry the Lion and Matilda of England (1188).

In 1147 Henry married Clementia of Zähringen, thereby gaining her hereditary territories in Swabia. He divorced her in 1162, apparently under pressure from Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, who did not cherish Guelphish possessions in his home area and offered Henry several fortresses in Saxony in exchange. In 1168 Henry married Matilda (1156 -1189), the daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine and sister of Richard Lionheart.

Henry long and faithfully supported his older cousin, Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), in his attempts to solidify his hold on the Imperial Crown and his repeated wars with the cities of Lombardy and the Popes, several times turning the tide of battle in Frederick's favor with his fierce Saxon knights. But in 1174, Henry refused to aid Frederick in a renewed invasion of Lombardy because he was preoccupied with securing his own borders in the East. He did not consider these Italian adventures worth the effort, unless Barbarossa presented Henry with the Saxon imperial city Goslar: a request Barbarossa refused.

Barbarossa's expedition into Lombardy ended in utter failure. He bitterly resented Henry for failing to support him. Taking advantage of the hostility of other German princes to Henry, who had successfully established a powerful and contiguous state comprising Saxony, Bavaria and substantial territories in the north and east of Germany, Frederick had Henry tried in absentia for insubordination by a court of bishops and princes in 1180. Declaring that Imperial law overruled traditional German law, the court had Henry stripped of his lands and declared him an outlaw. Frederick then invaded Saxony with an Imperial army to bring his cousin to his knees. Henry's allies deserted him, and he finally had to submit in November 1181 at a Reichstag in Erfurt. He was exiled from Germany in 1182 for three years, stayed with his father-in-law, Henry II of England, in Normandy before being allowed back into Germany in 1185. He was exiled again in 1188. His wife Matilda died in 1189.

When Frederick Barbarossa went on the Crusade of 1189, Henry returned to Saxony, mobilized an army of his faithful, and conquered and ravaged the rich city of Bardowick as punishment for her disloyalty. Only the churches were left standing. Barbarossa's son, Emperor Henry VI, again defeated the Duke, but in 1194, with his end approaching, he made his peace with the Emperor, and returned to his much diminished lands around Braunschweig (Brunswick), where he finished his days as duke of Braunschweig, peacefully sponsoring arts and architecture. He died on 6 August 1195.

The picture at the top right, taken from his tomb in Braunschweig Cathedral constructed between 1230 and 1240, shows an idealized image. When the Nazis exhumed his corpse, they were disappointed to find a comparatively small man with black hair. This, presumably, was an inheritance from the northern Italian ancestors of the Guelphs, the counts of Este.[citation needed]

Ancestors

Henry's ancestors in three generations Henry the Lion Father:

Henry X, Duke of Bavaria

Paternal Grandfather:

Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria

Paternal Great-grandfather:

Welf I, Duke of Bavaria

Paternal Great-grandmother:

Judith of Flanders

Paternal Grandmother:

Wulfhild

Paternal Great-grandfather:

Magnus, Duke of Saxony

Paternal Great-grandmother:

Sophia of Hungary

Mother:

Gertrude of Süpplingenburg

Maternal Grandfather:

Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor

Maternal Great-grandfather:

Gebhard of Supplinburg

Maternal Great-grandmother:

Hedwig von Formbach

Maternal Grandmother:

Richenza of Northeim

Maternal Great-grandfather:

Henry the Fat of Northeim

Maternal Great-grandmother:

Gertrud of Brunswick

Family

Henry's duchies Saxony and Bavaria

Henry had the following known children:

   * by his first wife, Clementia (divorced 1162), daughter of Conrad, Duke of Zähringen and Clemence of Namur:
         o Gertrude of Bavaria (1155-1197), married first Frederick IV, Duke of Swabia, and then King Canute VI of Denmark
         o Richenza (c. 1157 - 1167)
   * by his second wife, Matilda, daughter of King Henry II of England (married 1168):
         o Matilda (1171-1210), married Godfrey, Count of Perche, and Enguerrand III, Lord of Coucy
         o Richenza (1172-1204), was engaged to King Valdemar II of Denmark
         o Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine (c. 1173-1227)
         o Lothar of Bavaria (c. 1174-1190)
         o Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Duke of Swabia (c. 1175-1218)
         o William of Winchester (1184-1213)

Three other children are listed, by some sources, as having belonged to Henry and Matilda;

   * Eleanor (born 1178); died young
   * Ingibiorg (born 1180); died young
   * Infant Son (b.&d. 1182)
   * by his lover, Ida of Blieskastel:
         o Matilda, married Henry Borwin I, Prince of Mecklenburg

References

   * Benjamin Arnold, "Henry the Lion and His Time", Journal of Medieval History, vol. 22, pp. 379-393 (1996)
   * Karl Jordan, Henry the Lion. A Biography, ISBN 0-19-821969-5

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Henry the Lion (German: Heinrich der Löwe; 1129 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Guelph dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, which duchies he held until 1180.

He was one of the most powerful German princes of his time, until the rival Hohenstaufen dynasty succeeded in isolating him and eventually deprived him of his duchies of Bavaria and Saxony during the reign of his cousin Frederick I and of Frederick's son and successor Henry VI.

At the height of his reign, Henry ruled over a vast territory stretching from the coast of the North and Baltic Seas to the Alps, and from Westphalia to Pomerania. Henry achieved this great power in part by his political and military acumen and in part through the legacies of his four grandparents.

--------------------

Henry the Lion (German: Heinrich der Löwe; 1129 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, which duchies he held until 1180.

He was one of the most powerful German princes of his time, until the rival Hohenstaufen dynasty succeeded in isolating him and eventually deprived him of his duchies of Bavaria and Saxony during the reign of his cousin Frederick I and of Frederick's son and successor Henry VI.

At the height of his reign, Henry ruled over a vast territory stretching from the coast of the North and Baltic Seas to the Alps, and from Westphalia to Pomerania. Henry achieved this great power in part by his political and military acumen and in part through the legacies of his four grandparents.

Born in Ravensburg, he was the son of Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, who was the son of Duke Henry the Black and an heiress of the Billungs, former dukes of Saxony. Henry's mother was Gertrud, only daughter of Emperor Lothair III and his wife Richenza of Northeim, heiress of the Saxon territories of Northeim and the properties of the Brunones, counts of Braunschweig.

Henry's father died in 1139, aged 32, when Henry was still a child. King Conrad III had dispossessed Henry the Proud, who had been his rival for the crown in 1138, of his duchies in 1138 and 1139, handing Saxony to Albert the Bear and Bavaria to Leopold of Austria. Henry, however, did not relinquish his claims to his inheritance, and Conrad returned Saxony to him in 1142. A participant in the 1147 Wendish Crusade, Henry also reacquired Bavaria by a decision of the new Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1156.

Henry is the founder of Munich (1157/58; München) and Lübeck (1159); he also founded and developed the cities of Stade, Lüneburg and Braunschweig. In Braunschweig, his capital, he had a bronze lion, his heraldic animal, erected in the yard of his castle Dankwarderode in 1166 — the first bronze statue north of the Alps. Later, he had Brunswick Cathedral built close to the statue.

In 1147 Henry married Clementia of Zähringen, thereby gaining her hereditary territories in Swabia. He divorced her in 1162, apparently under pressure from Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, who did not cherish Guelphish possessions in his home area and offered Henry several fortresses in Saxony in exchange. In 1168 Henry married Matilda (1156 -1189), the daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine and sister of Richard Lionheart.

Henry long and faithfully supported his older cousin, Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), in his attempts to solidify his hold on the Imperial Crown and his repeated wars with the cities of Lombardy and the Popes, several times turning the tide of battle in Frederick's favor with his fierce Saxon knights. But in 1174, Henry refused to aid Frederick in a renewed invasion of Lombardy because he was preoccupied with securing his own borders in the East. He did not consider these Italian adventures worth the effort, unless Barbarossa presented Henry with the Saxon imperial city Goslar: a request Barbarossa refused.

Barbarossa's expedition into Lombardy ended in utter failure. He bitterly resented Henry for failing to support him. Taking advantage of the hostility of other German princes to Henry, who had successfully established a powerful and contiguous state comprising Saxony, Bavaria and substantial territories in the north and east of Germany, Frederick had Henry tried in absentia for insubordination by a court of bishops and princes in 1180. Declaring that Imperial law overruled traditional German law, the court had Henry stripped of his lands and declared him an outlaw. Frederick then invaded Saxony with an Imperial army to bring his cousin to his knees. Henry's allies deserted him, and he finally had to submit in November 1181 at a Reichstag in Erfurt. He was exiled from Germany in 1182 for three years, stayed with his father-in-law, Henry II of England, in Normandy before being allowed back into Germany in 1185. He was exiled again in 1188. His wife Matilda died in 1189.

When Frederick Barbarossa went on the Crusade of 1189, Henry returned to Saxony, mobilized an army of his faithful, and conquered and ravaged the rich city of Bardowick as punishment for her disloyalty. Only the churches were left standing. Barbarossa's son, Emperor Henry VI, again defeated the Duke, but in 1194, with his end approaching, he made his peace with the Emperor, and returned to his much diminished lands around Braunschweig (Brunswick), where he finished his days as duke of Braunschweig, peacefully sponsoring arts and architecture. He died on 6 August 1195.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_the_Lion

Henry the Lion (German: Heinrich der Löwe; 1129 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, which duchies he held until 1180.

He was one of the most powerful German princes of his time, until the rival Hohenstaufen dynasty succeeded in isolating him and eventually deprived him of his duchies of Bavaria and Saxony during the reign of his cousin Frederick I and of Frederick's son and successor Henry VI.

At the height of his reign, Henry ruled over a vast territory stretching from the coast of the North and Baltic Seas to the Alps, and from Westphalia to Pomerania. Henry achieved this great power in part by his political and military acumen and in part through the legacies of his four grandparents.

Born in Ravensburg, he was the son of Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, who was the son of Duke Henry the Black and an heiress of the Billungs, former dukes of Saxony. Henry's mother was Gertrud, only daughter of Emperor Lothair III and his wife Richenza of Northeim, heiress of the Saxon territories of Northeim and the properties of the Brunones, counts of Braunschweig.

Henry's father died in 1139, aged 32, when Henry was still a child. King Conrad III had dispossessed Henry the Proud, who had been his rival for the crown in 1138, of his duchies in 1138 and 1139, handing Saxony to Albert the Bear and Bavaria to Leopold of Austria. Henry, however, did not relinquish his claims to his inheritance, and Conrad returned Saxony to him in 1142. A participant in the 1147 Wendish Crusade, Henry also reacquired Bavaria by a decision of the new Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1156.

Henry is the founder of Munich (1157/58; München) and Lübeck (1159); he also founded and developed the cities of Stade, Lüneburg and Braunschweig. In Braunschweig, his capital, he had a bronze lion, his heraldic animal, erected in the yard of his castle Dankwarderode in 1166 — the first bronze statue north of the Alps. Later, he had Brunswick Cathedral built close to the statue.

Coronation of Henry the Lion and Matilda of England (1188).

In 1147 Henry married Clementia of Zähringen, thereby gaining her hereditary territories in Swabia. He divorced her in 1162, apparently under pressure from Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, who did not cherish Guelphish possessions in his home area and offered Henry several fortresses in Saxony in exchange. In 1168 Henry married Matilda (1156 -1189), the daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine and sister of Richard Lionheart.

Henry long and faithfully supported his older cousin, Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), in his attempts to solidify his hold on the Imperial Crown and his repeated wars with the cities of Lombardy and the Popes, several times turning the tide of battle in Frederick's favor with his fierce Saxon knights. But in 1174, Henry refused to aid Frederick in a renewed invasion of Lombardy because he was preoccupied with securing his own borders in the East. He did not consider these Italian adventures worth the effort, unless Barbarossa presented Henry with the Saxon imperial city Goslar: a request Barbarossa refused.

Barbarossa's expedition into Lombardy ended in utter failure. He bitterly resented Henry for failing to support him. Taking advantage of the hostility of other German princes to Henry, who had successfully established a powerful and contiguous state comprising Saxony, Bavaria and substantial territories in the north and east of Germany, Frederick had Henry tried in absentia for insubordination by a court of bishops and princes in 1180. Declaring that Imperial law overruled traditional German law, the court had Henry stripped of his lands and declared him an outlaw. Frederick then invaded Saxony with an Imperial army to bring his cousin to his knees. Henry's allies deserted him, and he finally had to submit in November 1181 at a Reichstag in Erfurt. He was exiled from Germany in 1182 for three years, stayed with his father-in-law, Henry II of England, in Normandy before being allowed back into Germany in 1185. He was exiled again in 1188. His wife Matilda died in 1189.

When Frederick Barbarossa went on the Crusade of 1189, Henry returned to Saxony, mobilized an army of his faithful, and conquered and ravaged the rich city of Bardowick as punishment for her disloyalty. Only the churches were left standing. Barbarossa's son, Emperor Henry VI, again defeated the Duke, but in 1194, with his end approaching, he made his peace with the Emperor, and returned to his much diminished lands around Braunschweig (Brunswick), where he finished his days as duke of Braunschweig, peacefully sponsoring arts and architecture. He died on 6 August 1195.

Family

Henry's duchies Saxony and Bavaria

Henry had the following known children:

   * by his first wife, Clementia (divorced 1162), daughter of Conrad, Duke of Zähringen and Clemence of Namur:
         o Gertrude of Bavaria (1155-1197), married first Frederick IV, Duke of Swabia, and then King Canute VI of Denmark
         o Richenza (c. 1157 - 1167)
   * by his second wife, Matilda, daughter of King Henry II of England (married 1168):
         o Matilda (1171-1210), married Godfrey, Count of Perche, and Enguerrand III, Lord of Coucy
         o Richenza (1172-1204), was engaged to King Valdemar II of Denmark
         o Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine (c. 1173-1227)
         o Lothar of Bavaria (c. 1174-1190)
         o Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Duke of Swabia (c. 1175-1218)
         o William of Winchester (1184-1213)

Three other children are listed, by some sources, as having belonged to Henry and Matilda;

   * Eleanor (born 1178); died young
   * Ingibiorg (born 1180); died young
   * Infant Son (b.&d. 1182)
   * by his lover, Ida of Blieskastel:
         o Matilda, married Henry Borwin I, Prince of Mecklenburg

Henry's ancestors in three generations

Henry the Lion Father: Henry X, Duke of Bavaria

Paternal Grandfather: Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria

Paternal Great-grandfather: Welf I, Duke of Bavaria

Paternal Great-grandmother: Judith of Flanders

Paternal Grandmother: Wulfhild

Paternal Great-grandfather: Magnus, Duke of Saxony

Paternal Great-grandmother: Sophia of Hungary

Mother: Gertrude of Süpplingenburg

Maternal Grandfather: Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor

Maternal Great-grandfather: Gebhard of Supplinburg

Maternal Great-grandmother: Hedwig von Formbach

Maternal Grandmother: Richenza of Northeim

Maternal Great-grandfather: Henry the Fat of Northeim

Maternal Great-grandmother: Gertrud of Brunswick

--------------------

Wikipedia:

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_der_L%C3%B6we

Heinrich der Löwe

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Disambig-dark.svg Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich mit dem Welfenherzog Heinrich dem Löwen, der Artikel zur gleichnamigen Oper befindet sich hier: Enrico Leone.

Krönung (Eheschließung?) Heinrichs des Löwen und Mathildes. (aus dem Evangeliar Heinrichs des Löwen, um 1188)

Heinrich der Löwe (* um 1129/1130[1] oder 1133/35[2]am Bodensee, vermutlich in oder um Ravensburg; † 6. August 1195 in Braunschweig), aus dem Geschlecht der Welfen, war von 1142 bis 1180 als Heinrich III. Herzog von Sachsen, das damals auch Westfalen und Engern umfasste, sowie von 1156 bis 1180 als Heinrich XII. Herzog von Bayern. Seine Stellung als Herzog von Sachsen und Bayern wird seit jeher als königsgleich charakterisiert. Mit seinem Vetter Friedrich Barbarossa galt er lange Zeit als wichtigster Protagonist des staufisch-welfischen Gegensatzes. Erst in jüngster Zeit wurde diese Einschätzung stark relativiert.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

[Anzeigen]

   * 1 Leben
         o 1.1 Familiäre Einbindung
         o 1.2 Auseinandersetzung mit Konrad III.
         o 1.3 Kampf gegen Friedrich I. Barbarossa
         o 1.4 Der Sturz des Löwen
         o 1.5 Exil und Rückkehr
         o 1.6 Nachkommen
   * 2 Nachleben
   * 3 Chronisten
   * 4 Standbilder und Denkmale
   * 5 Quellen
   * 6 Literatur
   * 7 Weblinks
   * 8 Einzelnachweise

Leben [Bearbeiten]

Familiäre Einbindung [Bearbeiten]

Ausschnitt aus der Stammtafel Heinrich des Löwen

Heinrichs Vater war Heinrich der Stolze, von 1126 bis 1138 als Heinrich X. Herzog von Bayern und von 1137 bis zu seinem plötzlichen Tod im Alter von nicht einmal 32 Jahren, 1139, auch Herzog von Sachsen sowie Markgraf von Tuszien. Seine Mutter war Gertrud von Süpplingenburg, die Erbtochter Kaiser Lothars III.

1147 heiratete Heinrich der Löwe Clementia von Zähringen, wodurch er badische Gebiete um die Burg Badenweiler erwarb. Ihre gemeinsame Tochter Gertrud heiratete später Knut VI. von Dänemark. 1162 trennte er sich von Clementia, vermutlich auf Druck seines Vetters, Kaiser Friedrich I. (Barbarossa), der ihm die Burgen Herzberg und Scharzfeld am Harz sowie den Königshof Pöhlde im Tausch gegen Badenweiler anbot. Heinrich nahm an, um seine sächsischen Stammlande, vor allem im Dauerkonflikt mit dem Askanier Albrecht dem Bären und dessen Söhnen, zu sichern.

Am 1. Februar 1168 heiratete Heinrich im Dom zu Minden erneut, diesmal die erst zwölfjährige Mathilde, Tochter des englischen Königs Heinrich II. und der Eleonore von Aquitanien und Richard Löwenherz' Schwester. Damit begründete er die engen Beziehungen zwischen dem Haus der Welfen und der englischen Krone.

Auseinandersetzung mit Konrad III. [Bearbeiten]

Der Braunschweiger Löwe (um 1166)

Konrad III. entzog 1139 Heinrichs Vater im Rahmen der Auseinandersetzungen zwischen Staufern und Welfen die Herzogtümer Bayern und Sachsen. Damit waren die Welfen jedoch nicht geschlagen. Heinrich der Stolze behauptete sich in Sachsen in Kämpfen gegen die Askanier, sein Bruder Welf VI. in Bayern gegen die Babenberger. Nach Heinrichs des Stolzen Tod im Oktober 1139 übernahm Richenza, die Witwe Lothars III., die Führung der Welfenpartei in Sachsen und die Vormundschaft über ihren Enkelsohn Heinrich den Löwen. Sie starb im Juni 1141. Zu diesem Zeitpunkt scheint Konrad III. eingesehen zu haben, dass er die Welfen auch durch den Entzug der Herzogswürde nicht besiegen konnte, und begann deshalb seine Ausgleichspolitik. In deren Rahmen erhielt Heinrich der Löwe 1142 in Frankfurt das seinem Vater entzogene Herzogtum Sachsen von Albrecht dem Bären zurück. Die zweite Komponente der Ausgleichspolitik war die Verheiratung der Mutter Heinrichs, Gertrud, mit dem Babenberger Heinrich II. Jasomirgott, der 1143 mit Bayern belehnt wurde.

Heinrich der Löwe betrieb intensiv die Ostkolonisation und verleibte ehemals wendische und andere slawische Gebiete dem Herzogtum Sachsen ein. 1147 zwang er die Fürsten von Vorpommern, seine Lehnsherrschaft anzuerkennen. Im selben Jahr verhinderte er einen Versuch Konrads III., die Frauenklöster Kemnade und Fischbeck der Reichsabtei Corvey zu unterstellen und damit den königlichen Einfluss in Sachsen zu steigern.

Auch den Anspruch auf Bayern gab Heinrich nicht auf. Als Vorbereitung auf die Teilnahme am Zweiten Kreuzzug wollte Konrad III. im März 1147 auf einem Reichstag in Frankfurt seinen Sohn Heinrich (VI.) zu seinem Nachfolger als König wählen lassen. Während des Reichstags erhob Heinrich der Löwe jedoch Klage und verlangte die Rückerstattung Bayerns. Da diese Klage die Wahl Heinrichs (VI.) aufschob und der Kreuzzugstermin näher rückte, hatte Heinrich der Löwe Konrad damit unter Druck gesetzt. Letztendlich gab sich Heinrich mit dem Versprechen des Königs zufrieden, dass über Bayern nach dem Ende des Kreuzzuges erneut verhandelt werden sollte. Allerdings belastete die schwebende Klage ab diesem Zeitpunkt Konrads Machtanspruch, darüber hinaus weigerte Heinrich sich, am Kreuzzug in das Heilige Land teilzunehmen, sondern setzte sich an die Spitze eines sächsischen Adelsaufgebots, das zu einem parallelen Wendenkreuzzug gegen die Slawen zwischen Elbe und Oder aufbrach. In diesem Zeitraum heiratete Heinrich auch Clementia von Zähringen. Diese Anerkennung durch das einflussreiche Haus der Zähringer stellte eine weitere Aufwertung von Heinrichs Machtanspruch dar.

Während und nach dem gescheiterten Aufstand Welfs VI. gegen Konrad III. dehnte Heinrich der Löwe sein Einflussgebiet ab 1149 zunehmend auch nach Bayern aus. Im Herbst 1151 misslang ein Überfall Konrads auf Braunschweig, das Herrschaftszentrum Heinrichs.

Kampf gegen Friedrich I. Barbarossa [Bearbeiten]

Friedrich Barbarossa sagte Heinrich vermutlich bereits im Rahmen seiner Wahlversprechenspolitik während der Thronvakanz 1152 die Belehnung mit Bayern zu. Allerdings zögerte sich die endgültige Klärung dieser Frage hinaus, unter anderem, weil Heinrich auch in Sachsen mit Problemen kämpfen musste. So wurde auf dem Merseburger Reichstag im Juni 1152 ein Streit zwischen dem Löwen und dem Bremer Erzbischof Hartwig verhandelt. Dabei ging es um die Erbschaft der Grafschaft Stade sowie den Anspruch des Erzbischofs, als Metropolit in den während des Wendenkreuzzuges eroberten Gebieten zwischen Elbe und Peene zu missionieren. Dies wollte Heinrich nicht zulassen, da er darin eine Einmischung in sein Hoheitsgebiet sah und für sich das Recht beanspruchte, Bischöfe in den neu zu gründenden Bistümern der Region einzusetzen. Erst auf dem Goslarer Reichstag von 1154 sprach Barbarossa Heinrich dieses Recht zu und verlieh ihm den bayerischen Herzogstitel, den Heinrich sofort annahm, obwohl er das Territorium erst 1156 erhielt. In der Zwischenzeit trennte Barbarossa Österreich von Bayern ab und überließ es den Babenbergern, was den Territorialgewinn Heinrichs begrenzte und seinen Expansionsbestrebungen in Richtung Süden einen Riegel vorschob. Die gleiche Funktion erfüllte auch die Besetzung mehrerer süddeutscher Bischofsstühle mit staufertreuen Amtsträgern. Dennoch wurde Heinrich der Löwe durch die Belehnung mit Bayern zum mächtigsten Territorialfürsten im Reich.

Vermutliche Stifterstatue Heinrichs im Braunschweiger Dom

Auch nach der Herrschaftsübernahme in Bayern konzentrierte Heinrich seine Machtpolitik auf den Osten und Norden. In die Auseinandersetzungen um die dänische Thronfolge hatte er bereits zuvor eingegriffen. Ab 1154 machte er zudem von dem Recht auf Bistums- und die damit verbundenen Stadtgründungen im Ostseeraum Gebrauch, da er dort offiziell nur als Markgraf fungierte, lediglich im Namen des Königs, de facto jedoch mit weit darüber hinausgehendem Machtanspruch. 1154 richtete Heinrich der Löwe das Bistum Ratzeburg, 1160 das Bistum Schwerin ein. Das Bistum von Oldenburg in Holstein wurde in das 1158 erworbene Lübeck verlegt, wo Heinrich auch den Lübecker Dom stiftete, nachdem eine Konkurrenzgründung namens Löwenstadt gescheitert war. Zudem kontrollierte der Welfe mit Lübeck einen wichtigen Knotenpunkt des Ostseehandels, die bis dahin wichtige Handelsstadt Bardowick gab er für diesen Zugewinn auf. Darüber hinaus ließ Heinrich 1158 München und 1159 Landsberg am Lech gründen sowie die Reisestrecke über den Brenner absichern. Diese vor allem auf wirtschaftlichen Landesausbau gerichteten Aktionen in Bayern waren die Reaktion auf die durch Barbarossa effektiv abgeschnürten territorialen Ausdehnungsmöglichkeiten im Süden. 1160 eroberte Heinrich Mecklenburg. Auf dem Landtag vom Oktober auf der Ertheneburg 1161 stärkte er den Ostseehandel Lübecks durch das Artlenburger Privileg. Nach der Schlacht bei Verchen 1164 wurde er Lehnsherr über Hinterpommern.

Zwischen 1154 und 1156 verschoben sich die Frontstellungen im Reich. Heinrich trat in dieser Phase nicht mehr als Gegner des staufischen Kaisers auf, was sich unter anderem in seiner Scheidung von Clementia 1162 ausdrückte, deren Familie, die Zähringer, wegen Auseinandersetzungen um Burgund inzwischen in Opposition zu Barbarossa getreten war. 1165 vermittelte Rainald von Dassel die Verlobung von zwei Töchtern des englischen Königs Heinrich II. mit Barbarossas ältestem Sohn Friedrich und Heinrich dem Löwen. Heinrich war dadurch in die staufische Heiratspolitik eingebunden. 1168 heiratete der Welfe im Mindener Dom Mathilde, während die Verlobung Friedrichs mit deren Schwester Eleonore sich wegen dessen Tod 1170 erledigte.

Als Zeichen seines Machtanspruches baute Heinrich Braunschweig zu seiner Residenzstadt (Hof) um und ließ dort um 1166 den Braunschweiger Löwen und die Burg Dankwarderode errichten. Auch war sein Einfluss auf die Literatur seiner Zeit immens. Beispiele sind das Evangeliar Heinrichs des Löwen, Der deutsche Lucidarius und Eilhart von Oberg.

Urkunde Heinrichs des Löwen als Herzog von Bayern für das Kloster Reichenhall von 1172.

Es kam immer wieder zu Streitereien um Besitztümer zwischen Heinrich und den Askaniern. Kaiser Friedrich I. versuchte Auseinandersetzungen mit dem mächtigsten Fürsten des Reiches zu vermeiden, indem er Heinrich in solchen Fällen eher begünstigte. Besonders bedeutsam war der Konflikt, der auf den Tod Albrechts des Bären 1170 folgte: Heinrich stritt mit dessen Söhnen um das Erbgut Plötzkau. Friedrich griff zu Gunsten Heinrichs ein, was wiederum 1171 zu einer ernsthaften Auseinandersetzung des Kaisers mit den Askaniern führte, in deren Verlauf das wichtige askanische Adelsgeschlecht Friedrich in seinem Polenfeldzug nicht unterstützte. Der Kaiser drohte im Gegenzug mit einem Feldzug gegen die Askanier, der jedoch nie erfolgte. Dieser Zwist fand 1173 beim Reichstag von Goslar zunächst seinen Abschluss. Trotzdem ergaben sich noch im selben Jahr zwischen kaisertreuen Fürsten und den Askaniern Kämpfe, die zu erheblichen Verwüstungen in askanischen und thüringischen Gebieten führten.

Angeblicher Fußfall Barbarossas vor Heinrich dem Löwen in Chiavenna 1176. Ob es tatsächlich zu einem Fußfall des Kaisers kam, ist umstritten, da nur spätere Quellen, und diese z. T. unterschiedlich, davon berichten.

Heinrich unternahm währenddessen 1172 eine Pilgerreise in das heilige Land. Von dieser Reise soll er - so eine Legende - einen Löwen als Geschenk des byzantinischen Kaisers mitgebracht haben. 1173 ließ er den Bau des Braunschweiger Domes beginnen. Diese Unternehmungen sowie die eigenständige Außenpolitik in Skandinavien und ein Heiratsangebot des byzantinischen Kaisers Manuel 1164 deuten Historiker als Hinweis darauf, dass sich Heinrich als weit über den übrigen Reichsfürsten stehend begriff und dass er eine Sonderstellung seines Territoriums innerhalb des Reiches anstrebte; in etwa vergleichbar mit dem Königreich Böhmen.

Eine weitere Vergrößerung seines Herrschaftsbereichs strebte Heinrich der Löwe durch den 1175 oder 1176 geschlossenen Erbvertrag mit seinem Onkel Welf VI. an. Demnach sollte Heinrich zum Erben der Ländereien Welfs werden.

1175 mischte sich Heinrich als weiterer Gegner in den Streit mit den Askaniern ein. Unter anderem weil dadurch fürstliche Kräfte gebunden waren oder in Opposition zu Friedrich I. standen, fehlten diesem Kräfte für den Kampf gegen den lombardischen Städtebund und Papst Alexander III..

Der Sturz des Löwen [Bearbeiten]

Grabmal (um 1230) Heinrichs im Braunschweiger Dom

Heinrichs Machtanspruch und die von Barbarossa konsequent betriebene territoriale Hausmachtspolitik in Süddeutschland ließen den staufisch-welfischen Konflikt wieder aufflammen. Der erste deutliche Ausdruck dieser erneuten Frontstellung war Heinrichs Weigerung, 1176 auf dem 5. Italienzug Friedrichs I. bei Verhandlungen in Chiavenna militärische Unterstützung ohne entsprechende Gegenleistungen zur Verfügung zuzusagen. Heinrich verlangte die durch den Silberabbau reiche Stadt Goslar, was für Barbarossa unannehmbar war. Zudem waren Heinrichs Kräfte durch den Kampf gegen die Askanier gebunden. Friedrich unterlag bei der Schlacht zu Legnano, womit auch sein Feldzug scheiterte und er einen für ihn wenig vorteilhaften Frieden mit dem Papst und den Städten schließen musste. Dieser Vorgang verschlechterte das Verhältnis zwischen Friedrich I. und Heinrich dem Löwen erneut.

1177 kam es zunächst zu einen gemeinsamen Zug Heinrichs und des Askaniers Markgraf Otto I. gegen die slawischen Pommern.

Während sich das Verhältnis zu einem Teil der Askanier also entspannte, steuerten Barbarossa und Heinrich erneut auf eine Konfrontation zu. Friedrich kaufte um Weihnachten 1178 Welf VI. dessen Gebiete nördlich der Alpen ab und gab sie ihm wieder als Lehen zurück. Dies stellte einen Eingriff in den Erbvertrag zwischen Welf VI. und Heinrich dem Löwen dar. Zudem entzog Barbarossa Heinrich die Unterstützung in dessen Auseinandersetzungen mit dem Adel seiner Territorien. Heinrich befand sich zu diesem Zeitpunkt vor allem in Konflikt mit den Erzbischöfen von Bremen und Magdeburg, dem Bischof von Halberstadt und den Söhnen Albrechts des Bären. So verbündeten sich die umliegenden Fürsten gegen Heinrich. Erzbischof Wichmann von Magdeburg vermittelte einen Frieden, bei dem Heinrich einige Zugeständnisse machen musste. Heinrich hielt sich jedoch nicht an diese Abmachungen, und es kam erneut zu Kämpfen.

Barbarossa ging schließlich juristisch gegen den Löwen vor. Allerdings erhob er auf dem Hoftag in Worms im Januar 1179 und dann in Magdeburg nicht selbst Klage gegen Heinrich, sondern ließ die Gegner des Herzogs wegen Rechtsbrüchen klagen, worauf Heinrich mit einer Gegenklage wegen Verwüstungen durch die Truppen des Kölner Erzbischofs im Gebiet von Hameln aus dem Jahr 1178 antwortete. Heinrich erschien zu den Prozessen aber nicht. Es kam dabei ebenso wenig zu einer Entscheidung wie bei einem Treffen von Heinrich mit dem Kaiser zwischen Haldensleben und Magdeburg, da sich Heinrich den Forderungen nicht beugen wollte. Auch bei einem dritten Reichstag von Kayna fand sich Heinrich nicht ein, wobei nun Feindseligkeiten der Fürsten gegen ihn beschlossen wurden.

Von Horneburg und Halberstadt aus verheerten seine Gegner das Territorium Heinrichs, worauf Verbündete des Herzogs die Stadt angriffen und so stark zerstörten, dass selbst der Herzog dagegen protestierte. Daraufhin wurde Haldensleben, einer der Hauptpunkte Heinrichs, angegriffen, wobei dieser Feldzug unter anderem wegen Streitereien zwischen den Fürsten erfolglos blieb. Ein Gegenangriff Heinrichs verwüstete vor allem Gebiete des Erzbischofs Wichmann.

In dieser Lage griff Friedrich I. selbst in den Konflikt ein. Beim Reichstag in Würzburg im Januar 1180 wurde Heinrich in Abwesenheit vor allem für schuldig erklärt, der Kirche Besitztümer entwendet und Majestätsverachtung an den Tag gelegt zu haben. Es wurde die Acht ausgesprochen. Er erhielt zunächst Zeit, die Gnade des Kaisers zu erbitten. Erst bei einem Reichstag zu Gelnhausen – erneut blieb Heinrich aus – kam es zur Oberacht, wobei Heinrich sämtliche Reichslehen und die Eigengüter entzogen wurden. In der Gelnhäuser Urkunde des Jahres 1180 wurde die Vergabe eines Teils des sächsischen Herzogtums an den Kölner Erzbischof festgeschrieben. Zugleich ist sie das wichtigste Quellendokument, das die erste Phase der Entmachtung Heinrichs schildert. Die ungewöhnlich schnelle Wiedervergabe des sächsischen Herzogtums, noch bevor die Oberacht rechtskräftig geworden war, wird von Historikern als ein Effekt der Bemühungen des sächsischen Adels, der sich schnell seines Herzogs entledigen wollte, angesehen. Bayern wurde erst im September, nachdem die Oberacht regulär gültig war, wieder ausgegeben.

Der Herrschaftsbereich Heinrichs wurde wie folgt aufgeteilt: Vom Herzogtum Bayern wurden die Steiermark und die andechsische Markgrafschaft Istrien abgetrennt. Der Rest fiel an die Wittelsbacher, namentlich Otto von Wittelsbach. Das riesige Herzogtum Sachsen wurde tiefergehend aufgetrennt.Westfalen und Engern gingen als Herzogtum Westfalen an das Erzbistum Köln, namentlich Erzbischof Philipp I. von Heinsberg. Der östliche Teil Sachsens wurde an den Askanier Bernhard vergeben. Die Weser sollte die Grenze zwischen den beiden Gebieten bilden. Ludwig III. von Thüringen erhielt die Sächsische Pfalzgrafschaft, verzichtete aber 1181 zugunsten seines Bruders Hermann I. darauf. Sonstige Lehen wurden an ihre ehemaligen Herren zurückgegeben oder zersplittert. Der Kaiser wollte durch die Aufteilungen die Machtfülle der Fürsten in Zukunft beschränken.

Durch die damit erfolgte Zerschlagung der letzten beiden großen Stammesherzogtümer Bayern und Sachsen hatte die Entwicklung der Umgestaltung des Reiches von den alten, großen und nur locker aufgebauten Machtblöcken in kleinere, in sich geschlossene Fürstentümer, die zudem durch das Lehnsrecht enger an den König gebunden waren, ihren Abschluss gefunden. Diese Ereignisse gelten in der Forschung deshalb als Zäsur, die den Abschluss des sogenannten Reichsfürstenstandes vollendet hat.

Heinrich wollte sich dem Urteil nicht unterwerfen, daher begann 1180 der Reichskrieg gegen ihn. Im selben Jahr wurde seine stark befestigte Burg Lichtenberg 20 Kilometer südwestlich von Braunschweig erobert. Im August 1181 ergab sich Lübeck dem Reichsheer und wurde zur Reichsstadt erhoben sowie Braunschweig belagert. Große Teile Sachsens wurden verwüstet. Die überwiegende Mehrheit des sächsischen Adels wechselte aus dem welfischen in das kaiserliche Lager. In Lübeck belehnte Barbarossa als neuer Lehnsherr Herzog Bogislaw I. von Pommern, der bis dahin Heinrich unterstanden hatte. Im November 1181 unterwarf sich Heinrich dem Kaiser auf dem Reichstag von Erfurt. Erst zu diesem Zeitpunkt erhielt Bernhard von Sachsen neben dem Territorium auch den sächsischen Herzogstitel zugesprochen. Dies und die Auseinandersetzungen um den genauen Urteilsspruch gegen Heinrich den Löwen interpretieren Historiker als ein Zeichen für Spannungen zwischen dem Adel und Barbarossa. Letzterer hätte Sachsen auch als ledig gewordenes königliches Lehen einziehen können, scheint damit aber am Widerstand der norddeutschen Fürsten gescheitert zu sein. Die Fürsten setzten eine relativ milde, auf drei Jahre befristete Verbannung Heinrichs sowie sein Anrecht auf sein unmittelbares Hausgut um Braunschweig, ein Teil von Engern und Ostfalen, durch, was diesem zwar eine absehbare Rückkehr ermöglichte, aber das Wiedererlangen seiner alten Machtposition erschwerte. Die von Barbarossa bevorzugte Variante hätte eine unbegrenzte Verbannung und den Verlust sämtlicher Güter vorgesehen. Allerdings hätte Heinrich damit einen Rechtsanspruch auf Begnadigung und Rückerstattung seiner gesamten Territorien gehabt, was die Lehnsverpflichtung dem Kaiser gegenüber erneuert und Barbarossa gestärkt hätte. Durch die schließlich ausgesprochene starre Verbannungsfrist konnte die Neuaufteilung der Besitzungen Heinrichs danach als feststehender Rechtszustand angesehen werden. Vor allem die Askanier und der Kölner Erzbischof Philipp von Heinsberg profitierten von diesem Urteil. Letzterer löste Heinrich den Löwen als mächtigsten Reichsfürsten Norddeutschlands ab.

Exil und Rückkehr [Bearbeiten]

Braunschweiger Dom: Grabmal Heinrichs des Löwen, Mathildes und deren Sohn Otto IV. (Grabplatte im Vordergrund)

1182 sprach der Kaiser schließlich die Verbannung aus. Heinrich begab sich ins Exil zu seinem Schwiegervater König Heinrich II. von England, zunächst in der Normandie und in Aquitanien, danach in England. Spätestens 1184 begannen allerdings die Verhandlungen um die Rückkehr des Löwen. Hintergrund war ein Bündnis Barbarossas mit Balduin V. von Hennegau gegen den französischen König, für das der Kaiser die Unterstützung Heinrichs II. suchte. Das Bündnis scheiterte letztlich kurz vor dem geplanten Feldzug des Kaisersohns Heinrich VI. gegen Frankreich, dennoch war Heinrich der Löwe im Oktober 1185 in seine Besitzungen um Lüneburg und Braunschweig zurückgekehrt.

Auf dem Mainzer Hoftag von 1188 weigerte sich Heinrich, vorgeblich wegen seines fortgeschrittenen Alters, am Dritten Kreuzzug teilzunehmen, und verpflichtete sich zur Rückkehr ins Exil. Nach dem Aufbruch des Kreuzfahrerheeres und dem plötzlichen Tod seiner in Braunschweig zurückgebliebenen Frau Mathilde kehrte Heinrich 1189 verfrüht aus dem Exil zurück und erhob Ansprüche auf seine alten Territorien. Zunächst vermittelten die Erzbischöfe von Köln und Mainz einen Vergleich. Heinrich erhielt die Hälfte der Einnahmen aus Lübeck, musste dafür aber die Befestigungen Braunschweigs und Lübecks schleifen sowie seine Söhne mit Heinrich VI. auf Italienfahrt schicken. Nach dem Tod Friedrich Barbarossas 1190 flammte die welfische Opposition erneut auf. Allerdings waren bereits Heinrichs Söhne ihre entscheidenden Anführer. Sie schleiften unter anderem die damals reiche Stadt Bardowick an der Ilmenau. 1192 ging auch Bernhard von Sachsen auf die welfische Seite über. 1194 bezog Heinrich der Löwe nach seiner Versöhnung mit Heinrich VI. wieder seine Güter um Braunschweig und starb dort am 6. August 1195.

Nachkommen [Bearbeiten]

Heinrich heiratete 1147, Scheidung 1162, Clementia von Zähringen († ca. 1167), Tochter Konrads I. und dessen Gattin Clementia von Luxemburg-Namur. Aus dieser Ehe gingen folgende Kinder hervor:

   * Gertrud (* nach 1150; † 1196)
  1. ∞ 1166 Herzog Friedrich IV. von Schwaben (* um 1144; † 1167)
  2. ∞ 1176 König Knut VI. von Dänemark (* 1162/1163; † 1202)
   * Heinrich († früh)
   * Richenza († früh)

1168 heiratete Heinrich die englische Prinzessin Mathilde von England, Tochter König Heinrichs II. aus dem Hause Plantagenet und seiner Ehefrau Eleonore von Aquitanien. Aus dieser Ehe gingen folgende Kinder hervor:

   * Richenza/Mathilde (* 1172; † 1208/1209)
  1. ∞ Graf Gottfried von Perche († 1202) (Haus Châteaudun)
  2. ∞ Graf Engelram III. von Coucy († ca. 1242)
   * Heinrich V., Pfalzgraf bei Rhein (* ca. 1173/1174; † 1227)
  1. ∞ Agnes von Staufen
  2. ∞ Agnes von Wettin
   * Lothar (* 1174/1175; † 1190)
   * Otto IV. (* 1175/1176; † 1218), dt-röm. Kaiser
  1. ∞ 1212 Beatrix von Schwaben († 1212)
  2. ∞ 1214 Maria von Brabant († 1260)
   * Wilhelm, Herzog von Lüneburg (* 1184; † 1212/1213)
  1. ∞ Prinzessin Helena von Dänemark, Tochter des dänischen Königs Waldemar I.

Braunschweiger Dom und Braunschweiger Löwe

Aus einer Verbindung zur linken Hand hatte Heinrich mit Ida von Blieskastel, Tochter des Grafen Gottfried von Blieskastel, noch eine weitere Tochter:

   * Mathilde (* ca. 1155/1156; † vor 1219) ∞ 1167 Graf Heinrich Borwin I. von Mecklenburg

Nachleben [Bearbeiten]

Sarkophage Heinrichs, Mathildes und der Brunonen (im Hintergrund)

Nach seinem Tode wurde Heinrich der Löwe vor dem Hochchor des Braunschweiger Domes in einer Gruft neben seiner zweiten Ehefrau Mathilde beigesetzt. Dies ist durch Arnold von Lübeck überliefert:

   „Circa ipsos dies mortuus est famosus ille dux Heinricus in Bruneswich et ... nihil est consecutus nisi memorabilem satis sepulturam una cum conjuge sua domina Mechthilde in ecclesia beati Blasii episcopi et martyris.”
   (Zur selben Zeit starb der berühmte Herzog Heinrich in Braunschweig. Er hat durch all seine Arbeit, die er unter der Sonne gehabt hatte, nichts erreicht als ein recht sehenswürdiges Grab, in welchem er mit seiner Gemahlin Mechthilde in der Kirche des Heiligen Bischofs und Märtyrers Blasius beigesetzt wurde.)

Die Grabstätte Heinrichs und seiner Gemahlin Mathilde wurde im Sommer 1935 von den Nationalsozialisten aus politischem Kalkül geöffnet und grundlegend verändert. Eine detaillierte Beschreibung dieser Maßnahmen befindet sich hier.

Ihm zu Ehren wurde seine Büste in der Walhalla aufgestellt.

Chronisten [Bearbeiten]

   * Helmold von Bosau
   * Arnold von Lübeck setzte die Chronica Slavorum Helmolds unter gleichem Titel fort.
   * Gerhard von Steterburg, Propst des Stiftes Steterburg, schrieb die Annales Stederburgenses (Steterburger Annalen)

Standbilder und Denkmale [Bearbeiten]

Der Löwe

   * Braunschweiger Löwe
   * Das mehrfach errichtete Löwenstandbild gab folgenden vier Kirchenbauten, die von Heinrich dem Löwen gegründet bzw. gestiftet wurden, den Namen "Löwendome":
   * Lübecker Dom
   * Braunschweiger Dom
   * Ratzeburger Dom
   * Schweriner Dom
   * Brunnenstandbild nach einem Entwurf Adolf Breymanns, Bronzeguss für Braunschweig, gezeigt auf der Wiener Weltausstellung 1873 (ausgezeichnet mit der Silbermedaille), ausgeführt von Georg Ferdinand Howaldt
   * Figur am Turm des Neuen Rathauses in München

Quellen [Bearbeiten]

   * Matthias Becher (Hrsg.): Quellen zur Geschichte der Welfen und die Chronik Burchards von Ursberg (= Ausgewählte Quellen zur Deutschen Geschichte des Mittelalters. Freiherr-vom-Stein-Gedächtnisausgabe; Bd. 18b), Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2007. (Rezension)

Literatur [Bearbeiten]

Überblicksdarstellungen

   * Werner Hechberger, Florian Schuller (Hrsg.): Staufer & Welfen. Zwei rivalisierende Dynastien im Hochmittelalter. Pustet, Regensburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-7917-2168-2.
   * Bernd Schneidmüller: Die Welfen. Herrschaft und Erinnerung (819–1252). Kohlhammer. Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-17-014999-7

Monografien

   * Paul Barz: Heinrich der Löwe und seine Zeit. München 2008, ISBN 978-3-423-24676-7
   * Gerd Biegel: Heinrich der Löwe. Kaiserenkel, Kaiserfreund, Kaiserfeind. Braunschweig 1996, ISBN 3-926701-26-9.
   * Joachim Ehlers: Heinrich der Löwe. Europäisches Fürstentum im Hochmittelalter. Göttingen 1997, ISBN 3-7881-0149-0.
   * Joachim Ehlers: Heinrich der Löwe. Biographie. München 2008, ISBN 978-3-88680-787-1. (Rezension) (Standardwerk)
   * Johannes Fried/ Otto Gerhard Oexle: Heinrich der Löwe. Herrschaft und Repräsentation. Ostfildern 2003, ISBN 3-7995-6657-0.
   * Helmut Hiller: Heinrich der Löwe – Der verhinderte König. Frankfurt 1985, ISBN 3-458-32622-7
   * Karl Jordan: Heinrich der Löwe. Eine Biographie. 4. Aufl. München 1996, ISBN 3-423-04601-5. (lange Zeit das maßgebliche Referenzwerk)
   * Jochen Luckhardt, Franz Niehoff (Hrsg.): Heinrich der Löwe und seine Zeit. Herrschaft und Repräsentation der Welfen 1125-1235. Katalog der Ausstellung Braunschweig 1995. 3 Bde. München 1995, ISBN 3-7774-6900-9.
   * Leila Werthschulte: Heinrich der Löwe in Geschichte und Sage. Heidelberg 2007, ISBN 978-3-8253-5387-2. (Rezension)

Lexikonartikel

   * Hans Prutz: Heinrich der Löwe. In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Band 11. Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1880, S. 589–601.
   * Karl Jordan: Heinrich der Löwe. In: Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB). Band 8. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1969, S. 388–391.
   * Bernd Schneidmüller: Heinrich der Löwe. In: Horst-Rüdiger Jarck, Dieter Lent et al. (Hrsg.): Braunschweigisches Biographisches Lexikon: 8. bis 18. Jahrhundert. Appelhans Verlag, Braunschweig 2006, ISBN 3-937664-46-7, S. 317–319.
   * Sebastian Sobecki: Heinrich der Löwe. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Band 26, Nordhausen 2006, ISBN 3-88309-354-8, Sp. 629–656.

Weblinks [Bearbeiten]

   *
     Commons Commons: Heinrich der Löwe – Sammlung von Bildern und/oder Videos und Audiodateien
   * Literatur von und über Heinrich der Löwe im Katalog der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek (Datensatz zu Heinrich der Löwe • PICA-Datensatz • Apper-Personensuche)
   *
     Wikisource Wikisource: Heinrich der Löwe – Quellen und Volltexte
   * Veröffentlichungen zu Heinrich dem Löwen im Opac der Regesta Imperii

Einzelnachweise [Bearbeiten]

  1. ↑ Karl Jordan: Heinrich der Löwe. Eine Biographie, 4. Aufl. München 1996, S. 25
  2. ↑ Joachim Ehlers: Heinrich der Löwe. Biographie, München 2008, S. 47ff

Vorgänger Amt Nachfolger

Albrecht Herzog von Sachsen

1142–1180 Bernhard III.

Heinrich XI. Herzog von Bayern

1156–1180 Otto I.

Normdaten: PND: 118548336 – weitere Informationen | LCCN: n 50066850 | VIAF: 803717

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Henry the Lion

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Henry the Lion (German: Heinrich der Löwe; 1129 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Guelph dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, which duchies he held until 1180.

He was one of the most powerful German princes of his time, until the rival Hohenstaufen dynasty succeeded in isolating him and eventually deprived him of his duchies of Bavaria and Saxony during the reign of his cousin Frederick I and of Frederick's son and successor Henry VI.

At the height of his reign, Henry ruled over a vast territory stretching from the coast of the North and Baltic Seas to the Alps, and from Westphalia to Pomerania. Henry achieved this great power in part by his political and military acumen and in part through the legacies of his four grandparents.

Biography

Born in Ravensburg, he was the son of Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, who was the son of Duke Henry the Black and an heiress of the Billungs, former dukes of Saxony. Henry's mother was Gertrud, only daughter of Emperor Lothair II and his wife Richenza of Northeim, heiress of the Saxon territories of Northeim and the properties of the Brunones, counts of Brunswick.

Henry's father died in 1139, aged 32, when Henry was still a child. King Conrad III had dispossessed Henry the Proud, who had been his rival for the crown in 1138, of his duchies in 1138 and 1139, handing Saxony to Albert the Bear and Bavaria to Leopold of Austria. Henry, however, did not relinquish his claims to his inheritance, and Conrad returned Saxony to him in 1142. A participant in the 1147 Wendish Crusade, Henry also reacquired Bavaria by a decision of the new Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1156.

Henry is the founder of Munich (1157/58; München) and Lübeck (1159); he also founded and developed the cities of Stade, Lüneburg and Brunswick. In Brunswick, his capital, he had a bronze lion, his heraldic animal, erected in the yard of his castle Dankwarderode in 1166 — the first bronze statue north of the Alps. Later, he had Brunswick Cathedral built close to the statue.

In 1147 Henry married Clementia of Zähringen, thereby gaining her hereditary territories in Swabia. He divorced her in 1162, apparently under pressure from Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, who did not cherish Guelphish possessions in his home area and offered Henry several fortresses in Saxony in exchange. In 1168 Henry married Matilda (1156 -1189), the daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine and sister of Richard Lionheart.

Henry long and faithfully supported his older cousin, Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), in his attempts to solidify his hold on the Imperial Crown and his repeated wars with the cities of Lombardy and the Popes, several times turning the tide of battle in Frederick's favor with his fierce Saxon knights. But in 1174, Henry refused to aid Frederick in a renewed invasion of Lombardy because he was preoccupied with securing his own borders in the East. He did not consider these Italian adventures worth the effort, even after Frederick offered him the rich Imperial City of Goslar in southern Saxony as a reward, a prize Henry had long coveted.

Barbarossa's expedition into Lombardy ended in utter failure. He bitterly resented Henry for failing to support him. Taking advantage of the hostility of other German princes to Henry, who had successfully established a powerful and contiguous state comprising Saxony, Bavaria and substantial territories in the north and east of Germany, Frederick had Henry tried in absentia for insubordination by a court of bishops and princes in 1180. Declaring that Imperial law overruled traditional German law, the court had Henry stripped of his lands and declared him an outlaw. Frederick then invaded Saxony with an Imperial army to bring his cousin to his knees. Henry's allies deserted him, and he finally had to submit in November 1181 at a Reichstag in Erfurt. He was exiled from Germany in 1182 for three years, stayed with his father-in-law, Henry II of England, in Normandy before being allowed back into Germany in 1185. He was exiled again in 1188. His wife Matilda died in 1189.

When Frederick Barbarossa went on the Crusade of 1189, Henry returned to Saxony, mobilized an army of his faithful, and conquered and ravaged the rich city of Bardowick as punishment for her disloyalty. Only the churches were left standing. Barbarossa's son, Emperor Henry VI, again defeated the Duke, but in 1194, with his end approaching, he made his peace with the Emperor, and returned to his much diminished lands around Brunswick, where he finished his days as duke of Brunswick, peacefully sponsoring arts and architecture. He died on 6 August 1195.

The picture at the top right, taken from his tomb in Brunswick Cathedral constructed between 1230 and 1240, shows an idealized image. When the Nazis exhumed his corpse, they were disappointed to find a comparatively small man with black hair. This, presumably, was an inheritance from the northern Italian ancestors of the Gyelphs, the counts of Este.

-------------------- Henry the Lion (German: Heinrich der Löwe; 1129 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, which duchies he held until 1180.

He was one of the most powerful German princes of his time, until the rival Hohenstaufen dynasty succeeded in isolating him and eventually deprived him of his duchies of Bavaria and Saxony during the reign of his cousin Frederick I and of Frederick's son and successor Henry VI.

At the height of his reign, Henry ruled over a vast territory stretching from the coast of the North and Baltic Seas to the Alps, and from Westphalia to Pomerania. Henry achieved this great power in part by his political and military acumen and in part through the legacies of his four grandparents.

Biography

Born in Ravensburg, he was the son of Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, who was the son of Duke Henry the Black and an heiress of the Billungs, former dukes of Saxony. Henry's mother was Gertrud, only daughter of Emperor Lothair III and his wife Richenza of Northeim, heiress of the Saxon territories of Northeim and the properties of the Brunones, counts of Braunschweig.

Henry's father died in 1139, aged 32, when Henry was still a child. King Conrad III had dispossessed Henry the Proud, who had been his rival for the crown in 1138, of his duchies in 1138 and 1139, handing Saxony to Albert the Bear and Bavaria to Leopold of Austria. Henry, however, did not relinquish his claims to his inheritance, and Conrad returned Saxony to him in 1142. A participant in the 1147 Wendish Crusade, Henry also reacquired Bavaria by a decision of the new Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1156.

Henry is the founder of Munich (1157/58; München) and Lübeck (1159); he also founded and developed the cities of Stade, Lüneburg and Braunschweig. In Braunschweig, his capital, he had a bronze lion, his heraldic animal, erected in the yard of his castle Dankwarderode in 1166 — the first bronze statue north of the Alps. Later, he had Brunswick Cathedral built close to the statue.


Coronation of Henry the Lion and Matilda of England (1188).In 1147 Henry married Clementia of Zähringen, thereby gaining her hereditary territories in Swabia. He divorced her in 1162, apparently under pressure from Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, who did not cherish Guelphish possessions in his home area and offered Henry several fortresses in Saxony in exchange. In 1168 Henry married Matilda (1156 -1189), the daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine and sister of Richard Lionheart.

Henry long and faithfully supported his older cousin, Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), in his attempts to solidify his hold on the Imperial Crown and his repeated wars with the cities of Lombardy and the Popes, several times turning the tide of battle in Frederick's favor with his fierce Saxon knights. But in 1174, Henry refused to aid Frederick in a renewed invasion of Lombardy because he was preoccupied with securing his own borders in the East. He did not consider these Italian adventures worth the effort, unless Barbarossa presented Henry with the Saxon imperial city Goslar: a request Barbarossa refused.

Barbarossa's expedition into Lombardy ended in utter failure. He bitterly resented Henry for failing to support him. Taking advantage of the hostility of other German princes to Henry, who had successfully established a powerful and contiguous state comprising Saxony, Bavaria and substantial territories in the north and east of Germany, Frederick had Henry tried in absentia for insubordination by a court of bishops and princes in 1180. Declaring that Imperial law overruled traditional German law, the court had Henry stripped of his lands and declared him an outlaw. Frederick then invaded Saxony with an Imperial army to bring his cousin to his knees. Henry's allies deserted him, and he finally had to submit in November 1181 at a Reichstag in Erfurt. He was exiled from Germany in 1182 for three years, stayed with his father-in-law, Henry II of England, in Normandy before being allowed back into Germany in 1185. He was exiled again in 1188. His wife Matilda died in 1189.

When Frederick Barbarossa went on the Crusade of 1189, Henry returned to Saxony, mobilized an army of his faithful, and conquered and ravaged the rich city of Bardowick as punishment for her disloyalty. Only the churches were left standing. Barbarossa's son, Emperor Henry VI, again defeated the Duke, but in 1194, with his end approaching, he made his peace with the Emperor, and returned to his much diminished lands around Braunschweig (Brunswick), where he finished his days as duke of Braunschweig, peacefully sponsoring arts and architecture. He died on 6 August 1195.

-------------------- Henry the Lion; 1129 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Guelph dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, which duchies he held until 1180.

He was one of the most powerful German princes of his time, until the rival Hohenstaufen dynasty succeeded in isolating him and eventually deprived him of his duchies of Bavaria and Saxony during the reign of his cousin Frederick I and of Frederick's son and successor Henry VI.

At the height of his reign, Henry ruled over a vast territory stretching from the coast of the North and Baltic Seas to the Alps, and from Westphalia to Pomerania. Henry achieved this great power in part by his political and military acumen and in part through the legacies of his four grandparents.


Born in Ravensburg, he was the son of Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, who was the son of Duke Henry the Black and an heiress of the Billungs, former dukes of Saxony. Henry's mother was Gertrud, only daughter of Emperor Lothair II and his wife Richenza of Northeim, heiress of the Saxon territories of Northeim and the properties of the Brunones, counts of Braunschweig.

Henry's father died in 1139, aged 32, when Henry was still a child. King Conrad III had dispossessed Henry the Proud, who had been his rival for the crown in 1138, of his duchies in 1138 and 1139, handing Saxony to Albert the Bear and Bavaria to Leopold of Austria. Henry, however, did not relinquish his claims to his inheritance, and Conrad returned Saxony to him in 1142. A participant in the 1147 Wendish Crusade, Henry also reacquired Bavaria by a decision of the new Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1156.

Henry is the founder of Munich (1157/58; München) and Lübeck (1159); he also founded and developed the cities of Stade, Lüneburg and Braunschweig. In Braunschweig, his capital, he had a bronze lion, his heraldic animal, erected in the yard of his castle Dankwarderode in 1166 — the first bronze statue north of the Alps. Later, he had Brunswick Cathedral built close to the statue.

In 1147 Henry married Clementia of Zähringen, thereby gaining her hereditary territories in Swabia. He divorced her in 1162, apparently under pressure from Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, who did not cherish Guelphish possessions in his home area and offered Henry several fortresses in Saxony in exchange. In 1168 Henry married Matilda (1156 -1189), the daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine and sister of Richard Lionheart.

Henry long and faithfully supported his older cousin, Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), in his attempts to solidify his hold on the Imperial Crown and his repeated wars with the cities of Lombardy and the Popes, several times turning the tide of battle in Frederick's favor with his fierce Saxon knights. But in 1174, Henry refused to aid Frederick in a renewed invasion of Lombardy because he was preoccupied with securing his own borders in the East. He did not consider these Italian adventures worth the effort, even after Frederick offered him the rich Imperial City of Goslar in southern Saxony as a reward, a prize Henry had long coveted.


Henry's duchies Saxony and BavariaBarbarossa's expedition into Lombardy ended in utter failure. He bitterly resented Henry for failing to support him. Taking advantage of the hostility of other German princes to Henry, who had successfully established a powerful and contiguous state comprising Saxony, Bavaria and substantial territories in the north and east of Germany, Frederick had Henry tried in absentia for insubordination by a court of bishops and princes in 1180. Declaring that Imperial law overruled traditional German law, the court had Henry stripped of his lands and declared him an outlaw. Frederick then invaded Saxony with an Imperial army to bring his cousin to his knees. Henry's allies deserted him, and he finally had to submit in November 1181 at a Reichstag in Erfurt. He was exiled from Germany in 1182 for three years, stayed with his father-in-law, Henry II of England, in Normandy before being allowed back into Germany in 1185. He was exiled again in 1188. His wife Matilda died in 1189.

When Frederick Barbarossa went on the Crusade of 1189, Henry returned to Saxony, mobilized an army of his faithful, and conquered and ravaged the rich city of Bardowick as punishment for her disloyalty. Only the churches were left standing. Barbarossa's son, Emperor Henry VI, again defeated the Duke, but in 1194, with his end approaching, he made his peace with the Emperor, and returned to his much diminished lands around Braunschweig, where he finished his days as duke of Braunschweig, peacefully sponsoring arts and architecture. He died on 6 August 1195.

Henry had the following known children:

by his first wife, Clementia (divorced 1162), daughter of Conrad, Duke of Zähringen and Clemence of Namur:

Gertrude of Bavaria (1155-1197), married first Frederick IV, Duke of Swabia, and then King Canute VI of Denmark

Richenza (c. 1157 - 1167)

by his second wife, Matilda, daughter of King Henry II of England (married 1168):

Matilda (1171-1210), married Godfrey, Count of Perche, and Enguerrand III, Lord of Coucy

Richenza (1172-1204), was engaged to King Valdemar II of Denmark

Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine (c. 1173-1227)

Lothar of Bavaria (c. 1174-1190)

Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Duke of Swabia (c. 1175-1218)

William of Winchester (1184-1213)

-------------------- Henry the Lion, in German, Heinrich der Löwe) (1129 – August 6, 1195; was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, since 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, since 1156 which duchies he held until 1180.

He was one the most powerful of the German princes of his time, until the rival Hohenstaufen dynasty succeeded in isolating him and eventually deprived him of his duchies of Bavaria and Saxony during the reign of his cousin Frederick I and of Frederick's son and successor Henry VI.

At the height of his reign, Henry ruled over a vast territory stretching from the coast of the North and Baltic Seas to the Alps, and from Westphalia to Pomerania. Henry achieved this great power in part by his political and military acumen and in part through the legacies of his four grandparents.

Henry had the following known children:

   * by his first wife, Clementia (divorced 1162), daughter of Conrad, Duke of Zähringen and Clemence of Namur:
         o Gertrude of Bavaria (1155-1197), married first Frederick IV, Duke of Swabia, and then King Canute VI of Denmark
         o Richenza (died 1167)
   * by his second wife, Matilda, daughter of King Henry II of England (married 1168):
         o Matilda (c. 1172-c. 1209), married Godfrey, Count of Perche, and Enguerrand III, Count of Coucy
         o Richza (1172-1204), married King Valdemar II of Denmark
         o Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine (c. 1173-1227)
         o Lothar of Bavaria (c. 1174-1190)
         o Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Duke of Swabia (c. 1175-1218)
         o William of Winchester (1184-1213)
   * by his lover, Ida of Blieskastel:
         o Matilda, married Henry Borwin I, Prince of Mecklenburg

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Heinrich "der Löwe", von Sachsen, Herzog zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg, Sachsen und Bayern's Timeline

1129
1129
Ravensburg(Kreisfrei), Württemberg, Deutschland(HRR)
1150
1150
Age 21
1150
Age 21
Dresden Saxony
1150
Age 21
Ravensburg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
1155
1155
Age 26
Bayern, Deutschland (HRR)
1162
1162
Age 33
1168
February 1, 1168
Age 39
St Peter,Domkirche,Minden,Germany
1172
1172
Age 43
1173
1173
Age 44
Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Deutschland (HRR)
1174
1174
Age 45

Henry the Lion became involved in a conflict with the Emperor Frederick, and Henry and Matilda were forced to flee Germany and take refuge in Normandy at her father's court. During this time at the royal court at Argentan, Matilda became acquainted with the Troubadour Bertran de Born, who, calling her "Elena" or "Lana", made her the object of his desire in two of his poems of "courtly love".