Khosrau I, Shah of Persia (c.500 - 579) MP

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Birthdate:
Birthplace: (Persia), Iran
Death: Died in (Persia), Iran
Occupation: 20th Sassanid King of Persia
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About Khosrau I, Shah of Persia

Khusro I (also known as Khosrau I or Khosrow I; Chosroes I in classical sources, most commonly known in Persian as Anushirvan, Persian: انوشيروان meaning the immortal soul), also known as Anushiravan the Just (انوشیروان عادل , Anushiravān-e-ādel or انوشيروان دادگر, Anushiravān-e-dādgar), was the favorite son and successor of Kavadh I (488–531), twentieth Sassanid Emperor of Persia, and the most famous and celebrated of the Sassanid Emperors.

He laid the foundations of many cities and opulent palaces, and oversaw the repair of trade roads as well as the building of numerous bridges and dams. During Khosro I's ambitious reign, art and science flourished in Persia and the Sassanid Empire reached its peak of glory and prosperity. His rule was preceded by his father's and succeeded by Khosro II's (590–628) whose reign came to be considered the dark age in the history of the Sassanid Empire.

According to early historical sourse, Khosro I was Kavadh I's third son through a Hephthalite princess Newandukht, granddaughter of Hephthal III, commonly called Turandot. His mother endeavored to ascend him to throne, then expatriated his half-brother, Kavadh. After proclaimed as heir apparent, he appears to have had a major influence over his father and helped him in the worst situations during the later years of his rule. He was apparently also behind many of his father's decisions.

According to the Roman historian Procopius of Caesarea, Kavadh I tried to have his third son Khosro adopted by the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emperor Justin I in the mid-520s. This is the first time that Khosro is mentioned in the sources. After Romans and Persians had failed to reach an agreement about the adoption, a new war began in 526 which was to last until 532.

At the beginning of his reign Khosro I concluded an "Eternal Peace" with the Roman Emperor Justinian I (527–565) in 532, who wanted to have his hands free for the conquest of Africa and Sicily. But (according to Procopius) his successes against the Vandals and Goths caused Khosro I to begin the war again in 540.

He invaded Syria and sacked the great city of Antioch, deporting its people to Mesopotamia, where he built for them a new city near Ctesiphon under the name of "Khosro-Antioch" or "Chosro-Antioch". During the following years he secured the defection of Lazica and fought inconclusively in Mesopotamia.

In 545, an armistice was concluded, but in 547 the Lazi returned to their Roman allegiance and the Lazic War resumed, continuing until a truce was agreed in 557. At last, in 562, a peace was concluded for fifty years, in which the Persians left Lazica to the Romans, and promised not to persecute the Christians, if they did not attempt to make proselytes among the Zarathustrians; on the other hand, the Romans had to pay annual subsidies to Persia.

Although Khosro I had in the last years of his father extirpated the heretical and communistic Persian sect of the Mazdakites, he was a sincere adherent of Zoroastrian orthodoxy and even ordered that the religion's holy text, the Avesta be codified, but he was not fanatical or prone to persecution. He tolerated every Christian confession. When one of his sons had rebelled about 550 and was taken prisoner, he did not execute him; nor did he punish the Christians who had perhaps supported him.

After Justinian I had closed the Academy of Athens, one of the last seats of paganism in the Roman Empire, the last seven teachers of Neoplatonism emigrated to Persia in 531. But they soon found out that neither Khosro I nor his state corresponded to the Platonic ideal, and Khosro I, in his treaty with Justinian I, stipulated that they should return unmolested.

Khosro I introduced a rational system of taxation, based upon a survey of landed possessions, which his father had begun, and tried in every way to increase the welfare and the revenues of his empire. In Babylonia he built or restored the canals. His army was in discipline decidedly superior to the Romans, and apparently was well paid. He was also interested in literature and philosophical discussions. Under his reign, chess was introduced from India and many books were brought from India and translated into Pahlavi. Some of these later found their way into the literature of the Islamic world. His famous minister Burzoe translated Indian Panchatantra from Sanskrit into middle Persian language of Pahlavi and named it Kelileh o Demneh. This Middle Persian version was a few centuries later translated by Iranian Muslims into Arabic and then found its way to Europe. The Arabic version was also used to render a New Persian version of the book.

Meanwhile in the east, the Hephthalites had been attacked by the Turks (Göktürks). About 560, King Khosro I united with them to destroy the Hephthalite Empire. In 567 he conquered Bactria, while he left the country north of the Oxus to the Turks. Many other rebellious tribes were subjected.

About 570 the Himyarite dynasts of Yemen, who had been subdued by the Ethiopians of Axum, applied to King Khosro I for help. Khosro sent a fleet with a small army under Vahriz, who expelled the Ethiopians. From that time till the conquests by Islam, Yemen was dependent on Persia, and a Persian governor resided here.

In 572, Armenia and Iberia rebelled against Persia with Roman support, beginning a new war in which Khosro I conquered the city of Dara on the Euphrates in 573, but after a largely unsuccessful incursion of Anatolia in 576 he was heavily defeated by the Romans in a battle near Melitene. He sued for peace in 579, but while negotiations with the Emperor Tiberius II (578–582) were still going on, Khosro I died and was succeeded by his son Hormizd IV (579–590).

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khosrau_I for more information.

-------------------- The Great King of Persia.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khosrau_I_of_Persia

Khosrau I (also called Xusro I, Khosnow I, Chusro I, Khusro I, Husraw I or Khosrow I, Chosroes I in classical sources, most commonly known in Persian as Anushirvan, Persian: انوشيروان meaning the immortal soul), also known as Anushiravan the Just (انوشیروان عادل , Anushiravān-e-ādel or انوشيروان دادگر, Anushiravān-e-dādgar) (Born c. 501, ruled 531–579), was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I (488–531), twentieth Sassanid Emperor (Great King) of Persia, and the most famous and celebrated of the Sassanid Emperors.

He laid the foundations of many cities and opulent palaces, and oversaw the repair of trade roads as well as the building of numerous bridges and dams. During Khosrau I's ambitious reign, art and science flourished in Persia and the Sassanid Empire reached its peak of glory and prosperity. His rule was preceded by his father's and succeeded by Khosrau II's (590–628) whose reign came to be considered the dark age in the history of the Sassanid Empire.

Contents [hide]

1 Early life

2 Conquests

3 Religious tolerance

4 Reforms

5 See also

6 Notes

7 References

8 External links

[edit]Early life

According to early historical sources[who?], Khosrau I was Kavadh I's third son through a hephthal princess Newandukht, granddaughter of Hephthal III, commonly called Turandot.[citation needed] His mother endeavored to ascend him to throne, then expatriated his half-brother, Kavoos, first son of Kavadh I, to Mazandaran.[citation needed] After proclaimed as heir apparent, he appears to have had a major influence over his father Kavadh I of Persia and helped him in the worst situations during the later years of his rule[1]. He was apparently also behind many of his father's decisions.[2]

According to the Roman Historian Procopius of Caesarea, Kavadh I tried to have his third son Khosrau adopted by the Eastern Roman emperor Justin I in the mid-520s.[citation needed] This is the first time that Khosrau is mentioned in the sources. After Romans and Persians had failed to reach an agreement about the adoption, a new war began in 526 which was to last until 532.[citation needed]

[edit]Conquests

At the beginning of his reign Khosrau I concluded an "Eternal Peace" with the Roman Emperor Justinian I (527–565) in 532, who wanted to have his hands free for the conquest of Africa and Sicily.[citation needed] But (according to Procopius) his successes against the Vandals and Goths caused Khosrau I to begin the war again in 540.[citation needed]

He invaded Syria and sacked the great city of Antioch, deporting its people to Mesopotamia, where he built for them a new city near Ctesiphon under the name of "Khosrau-Antioch" (Veh Antiok Xusro) or "Chosro-Antioch": the account of Procopius in his De bello Persico ii reads as[3]

“ Xusro I founded a city in Assyria, in a place that was a day’s march away from the city of Ctesiphon; he named it ‘Xusro's Antioch’ and settled all captives from Antioch there, for whom he even had a bath and a hippodrome built and whom he provided also with other comforts. For he brought along the charioteers and musicians from Antioch and other Romans. Moreover, at public expense he took more care in catering for these people from Antioch than was customary for captives, and (he did so) for their entire life, and gave orders to call them ‘the royal ones’ so that they would not be responsible to any magistrate but the king alone. When one of the other Romans had escaped and managed to seek refuge in Xusro's Antioch and when one of the inhabitants claimed that he was a relative, the owner was no longer allowed to remove this captive, not even if one of the highest ranking Persians happened to have enslaved the man. ”

During the following years he secured the defection of Lazica and fought inconclusively in Mesopotamia.[citation needed]

In 545, an armistice was concluded, but in 547 the Lazi returned to their Roman allegiance and the Lazic War resumed, continuing until a truce was agreed in 557. At last, in 562, a peace was concluded for fifty years, in which the Persians left Lazica to the Romans, and promised not to persecute the Christians, if they did not attempt to make proselytes among the Zarathustrians; on the other hand, the Romans had to pay annual subsidies to Persia.

Meanwhile in the east, the Hephthalites had been attacked by the Turks (Göktürks). About 560, Khosrau I united with them to destroy the Hephthalite Empire. In 567 he conquered Bactria, while he left the country north of the Oxus to the Turks. Many other rebellious tribes were subjected. About 570 the Himyarite dynasts of Yemen, who had been subdued by the Ethiopians of Axum, applied to Khosrau I for help. The Emperor Khosrau sent a fleet with a small army under Vahriz, who expelled the Ethiopians. From that time till the conquests by Islam, Yemen was dependent on Persia, and a Persian governor resided here. In 572, Armenia and Iberia rebelled against Persia with Roman support, beginning a new war in which Khosrau I conquered the city of Dara on the Euphrates in 573, but after a largely unsuccessful incursion of Anatolia in 576 he was heavily defeated by the Romans in a battle near Melitene. He sued for peace in 579, but while negotiations with the Emperor Tiberius II (578–582) were still going on, Khosrau I died and was succeeded by his son Hormizd IV (579–590).

[edit]Religious tolerance

This section does not cite any references or sources.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2009)

Although Khosrau I had in the last years of his father extirpated the heretical and communistic Persian sect of the Mazdakites, Kavadh I,[citation needed] he was an adherent of Zoroastrian orthodoxy[citation needed] and even ordered that the religion's holy text, the Avesta be codified[citation needed], but he was not prone to persecution.[citation needed] He tolerated every Christian confession.[citation needed] When one of his sons had rebelled about 550 and was taken prisoner, he did not execute him; nor did he punish the Christians who had perhaps supported him.[citation needed]

After Justinian I had closed the Academy of Athens, one of the last seats of paganism in the Roman Empire, the last seven teachers of Neoplatonism emigrated to Persia in 531.[citation needed] But they soon found out that neither Khosrau I nor his state corresponded to the Platonic ideal, and Khosrau I, in his treaty with Justinian I, stipulated that they should return unmolested.[citation needed]

[edit]Reforms

Khosrau I introduced a rational system of taxation, based upon a survey of landed possessions, which his father had begun, and tried in every way to increase the welfare and the revenues of his empire. In Babylonia he built or restored the canals. His army was in discipline decidedly superior to the Romans, and apparently was well paid. He was also interested in literature and philosophical discussions. Under his reign, chess was introduced from India[citation needed] and many books were brought from India and translated into Pahlavi. Some of these later found their way into the literature of the Islamic world. His famous minister Burzoe translated Indian Panchatantra from Sanskrit into middle Persian language of Pahlavi and named it Kelileh o Demneh. This Middle Persian version was a few centuries later translated by Iranian Muslims into Arabic and then found its way to Europe. The Arabic version was also used to render a New Persian version of the book.

Khosrau I

Sassanid dynasty

Preceded by

Kavadh I Great King (Shah) of Persia

531 –579 Succeeded by

Hormizd IV


-------------------- His reign signifies the promotion and possibly even the creation of the Silk Road between ancient China, India, and the western world.[39] Richard Frye makes the argument that Khosrau's rationale behind his numerous wars with the Byzantine empire as well as the eastern Hephthalites was to establish the Sassanian dominance on this trade route.[

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khosrau_I -------------------- 21st Sassanid King of Iran

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hormizd_IV -------------------- 20th Sassanid King of Iran

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khosrau_I