Leo VI 'The Wise' Byzantine Emperor

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Leo

Greek: Λέων
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Constantinople, Eastern Roman Empire
Death: Died in Constantinple, Eastern Roman Empire
Immediate Family:

Son of Michael III, Byzantine Emperor and Eudokia Ingerina, Byzantine Empress
Husband of <private> Zaoutzaina; Theophano Martiniake, Byzantine Empress; Zoe Zaoutzaina; Eudocia Baiana and Zoë Karbonopsina, Byzantine Empress
Father of <private> of Provence & Italy; Eudocia; Basil; Anna Myakes, Byzantine princess and Constantine VII, Byzantine Emperor
Brother of Stephanus I, Patriarch of Constantinople
Half brother of Anastasia Mamikonid; Constantine; Gregoria and Alexandros III, Byzantine Emperor

Occupation: Kejsare i Byzan 886-912, Empereur de Byzance, Empereur de Constantinople (886-912), Empereur de Byzance (866), Kejsare, Empereur d'Orient (42e, 886-912), emperor 886-912, Emperor of Byzantium, byzantinischer Kaiser von 886 bis 912
Managed by: Nathan De Graw
Last Updated:

About Leo VI 'The Wise' Byzantine Emperor

The identity of his father is uncertain. His mother was the wife of Basil I but mistress of Michael III.

--------------------

OBS!

Son till kejsare Mikael III "Fylltratten", som redan finns på annan plats i släktträdet. Gå dit för att följa grenen vidare!

Leo VI "the Wise" or "the Philosopher" (Greek: Λέων ΣΤ΄, Leōn VI), (September 19, 866 – May 11, 912) was Byzantine emperor from 886 to 912 during one of the most brilliant periods of the state's history.

Contents [hide]

1 Background

2 Domestic Policy

3 Foreign Policy

4 Fourth marriage dispute

5 Succession

6 Legends

7 External links

8 Citations

9 References

[edit] Background

Leo was born to Eudokia Ingerina who was at the time mistress of Emperor Michael III and wife of his Caesar Basil. Which of the two men was his father is uncertain. He was officially acknowledged by Basil as his son, but he apparently regarded Leo as Michael's son and favored his undisputedly biological son Constantine.

On the night of September 23-September 24, 867, Michael was assassinated by Basil who succeeded him as Emperor Basil I. As the second eldest son of the Emperor, Leo was associated on the throne in 870 and became the direct heir on the death of his older half-brother Constantine in 879. However, he and his father hated each other and Basil almost had Leo blinded as a teenager. On August 29, 886, Basil died in a hunting accident, though he claimed on his deathbed that there was an assassination attempt in which Leo was possibly involved.

Leo's sobriquet may be explained by the facts that he "was less ignorant than the greater part of his contemporaries in church and state, that his education had been directed by the learned Photios, and that several books of profane and ecclesiastical science were composed by the pen, or in the name, of the emperor, according to the imperial philosopher" (Edward Gibbon).

[edit] Domestic Policy

One of the first actions of Leo VI after his succession was the reburial of Michael III in Constantinople, which may have contributed to the suspicion that he was Michael's son. Seeking political reconciliation, the new emperor secured the support of the officials in the capital, and surrounded himself with bureaucrats like Stylianos Zoutzes and the eunuch Samonas. His attempts to control the great aristocratic families (e.g., the Phokadai and the Doukai) occasionally led to serious conflicts. Leo also attempted to control the church through his appointments to the patriarchate. He dismissed the Patriarch Photios of Constantinople, who had been his tutor, and replaced him with his own 19-year old brother Stephen in December 886. On Stephen's death in 893, Leo replaced him with Zaoutzes' nominee, Antony II Kaleuas, who died in 901. Leo then promoted his own imperial secretary (mystikos) Nicholas, but replaced him with his spiritual father Euthymios in 907.

Leo completed work on the Basilica, the Greek translation and update of the law code issued by Justinian I, which had been started during the reign of Basil.

[edit] Foreign Policy

Leo VI was not as successful in battle as Basil had been. In indulging his chief counselor Stylianos Zaoutzes, Leo provoked a war with Simeon I of Bulgaria in 894, but was defeated. Bribing the Magyars to attack the Bulgarians from the north, Leo scored an indirect success in 895. However, deprived of his new allies, he lost the major Battle of Boulgarophygon in 896 and had to make the required commercial concessions and to pay annual tribute.

The Emirate of Sicily took Taormina, the last Byzantine outpost on the island of Sicily, in 902. In 904 the renegade Leo of Tripolis sacked Thessalonica with his Muslim pirates (an event described in The Capture of Thessalonica by John Kameniates). In 907 Constantinople was attacked by the Kievan Rus' under Oleg of Novgorod, who was seeking favourable trading rights with the empire. Leo paid them off, but they attacked again in 911, and a trade treaty was finally signed. The admiral Himerios, a relative of Leo's last wife, Zoe Karbonopsina scored some successes against the Muslim fleets in 908 and raided Cyprus in 910, but in 912 a fleet of 112 dromons and 75 pamphyloi was soundly defeated in its attempt to conquer Crete.

Fourth marriage dispute

caused a major scandal with his numerous marriages which failed to produce a legitimate heir to the throne. His first wife, whom Basil had forced him to marry, died in 897, and he married Zoe Zaoutzaina, the daughter of his adviser Stylianos Zaoutzes, though she died as well in 899. Upon this marriage Leo created the title of basileopatōr ("father of the emperor") for his father-in-law.

After Zoe's death a third marriage was technically illegal, but he married again, only to have his third wife die in 901. Instead of marrying a fourth time, which would have been an even greater sin than a third marriage (according to the Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos) Leo took as mistress, Zoe Karbonopsina. He married her only after she had given birth to a son in 905, but incurred the opposition of the patriarch. Replacing Nicholas Mystikos with Euthymios, Leo got his marriage recognized by the church, but opened up a conflict within it and allowed new grounds for papal intervention into Byzantine affairs when he sought and obtained papal consent.

[edit] Succession

The future Constantine VII was the illegitimate son born before Leo's uncanonical fourth marriage to Zoe Karbonopsina. To strengthen his son's position as heir, Leo had him crowned as co-emperor on May 15, 908, when he was only two years old. Leo VI died on May 2, 912. He was succeeded by his younger brother Alexander, who had reigned as emperor alongside his father and brother since 879.

[edit] Legends

According to Bishop Liutprand of Cremona, and probably inspired by stories about the caliph Harun al-Rashid, Leo would sometimes disguise himself and look for injustice or corruption. On one account, he was even captured by the city guards during one of his investigations. He wanted to know if the city patrol was doing its job appropriately. He was walking alone, disguised, late in the evening without any documentation. He bribed two patrols for 12 nomismata, and moved on. However, the third city patrol arrested him. When a terrified guardian recognized the jailed ruler in the morning, the arresting officer was rewarded for doing his duty, while the other patrols were dismissed and punished severely.

References

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991.

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leo_VI_the_Wise

Leo VI the Wise

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Leo VI

Emperor of the Byzantine Empire

A mosaic in Hagia Sophia showing Leo VI paying homage to Christ

Byzantine Emperor

Reign 29 August 886 – 11 May 912

Coronation 869 as co-emperor

Predecessor Basil I

Successor Alexander

Spouse Theophano

Zoe Zaoutzaina

Eudokia Baïana

Zoe Karbonopsina

Issue

Eudokia

Anna

Anna

Basil

Constantine VII

Full name

Leo VI "the Wise" or "the Philosopher"

Dynasty Macedonian

Father Michael III (probable) or Basil I

Mother Eudokia Ingerina

Born 19 September 866(866-09-19)

Died 11 May 912 (aged 45)

Burial Church of the Holy Apostles, Constantinople

Leo VI, surnamed the Wise or the Philosopher (Greek: Λέων ΣΤ΄ ὁ Σοφός, Leōn VI ho Sophos, 19 September 866 – 11 May 912), was Byzantine emperor from 886 to 912. The second ruler of the Macedonian dynasty (although his parentage is unclear), he was very well-read, leading to his surname. During his reign, the renaissance of letters begun by his predecessor Basil I continued, but the Empire also saw several military defeats in the Balkans against Bulgaria and against the Arabs in Sicily and the Aegean.

Contents

[show]

   * 1 Background
   * 2 Domestic policy
   * 3 Foreign policy
   * 4 Fourth marriage dispute
   * 5 Succession
   * 6 Works
   * 7 Notes
   * 8 External links
   * 9 References

[edit] Background

Leo was born to Eudokia Ingerina, the former mistress of Emperor Michael III, and Caesar Basil.[1][2][3] In 867, Michael was assassinated by Basil, who succeeded him as Emperor Basil I. As the second eldest son of the Emperor, Leo was associated on the throne in 870 and became the direct heir on the death of his older half-brother Constantine in 879. However, he and his father hated each other and Basil almost had Leo blinded as a teenager. On August 29, 886, Basil died in a hunting accident, though he claimed on his deathbed that there was an assassination attempt in which Leo was possibly involved.

[edit] Domestic policy

One of the first actions of Leo VI after his succession was the reburial of Michael III in Constantinople, which may have contributed to the suspicion that he was Michael's son. Seeking political reconciliation, the new emperor secured the support of the officials in the capital, and surrounded himself with bureaucrats like Stylianos Zaoutzes and the eunuch Samonas. His attempts to control the great aristocratic families (e.g., the Phokadai and the Doukai) occasionally led to serious conflicts. Leo also attempted to control the church through his appointments to the patriarchate. He dismissed the Patriarch Photios of Constantinople, who had been his tutor, and replaced him with his own 19-year old brother Stephen in December 886. On Stephen's death in 893, Leo replaced him with Zaoutzes' nominee, Antony II Kaleuas, who died in 901. Leo then promoted his own imperial secretary (mystikos) Nicholas, but replaced him with his spiritual father Euthymios in 907.[citation needed]

The magnificent Church of Ayios Lazaros in Larnaca was built during Leo VI rule in the late 9th century. The church is one of the best examples of Byzantine architecture. Leo also completed work on the Basilica, the Greek translation and update of the law code issued by Justinian I, which had been started during the reign of Basil.[citation needed]

Bishop Liutprand of Cremona gives an account similar to those related about caliph Harun al-Rashid, stating that Leo would sometimes disguise himself and look for injustice or corruption. On one account, he was even captured by the city guards during one of his investigations. He wanted to know if the city patrol was doing its job appropriately. Late in the evening, he was walking alone and disguised. Though he bribed two patrols for 12 nomismata, and moved on, the third city patrol arrested him. When a terrified guardian recognized the jailed ruler in the morning, the arresting officer was rewarded for doing his duty, while the other patrols were dismissed and punished severely.

[edit] Foreign policy

Gold solidus of Leo VI and Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos, 908–912.

Leo VI was not as successful in battle as Basil had been. In indulging his chief counselor Stylianos Zaoutzes, Leo provoked a war with Simeon I of Bulgaria in 894, but was defeated. Bribing the Magyars to attack the Bulgarians from the north, Leo scored an indirect success in 895. However, deprived of his new allies, he lost the major Battle of Boulgarophygon in 896 and had to make the required commercial concessions and to pay annual tribute.

The Emirate of Sicily took Taormina, the last Byzantine outpost on the island of Sicily, in 902. In 904 the renegade Leo of Tripolis sacked Thessalonica with his Muslim pirates (an event described in The Capture of Thessalonica by John Kaminiates). In 907 Constantinople was attacked by the Kievan Rus' under Oleg of Novgorod, who was seeking favourable trading rights with the empire. Leo paid them off, but they attacked again in 911, and a trade treaty was finally signed.

Leo VI (right) and his father Basil I, from the 11th century manuscript by John Skylitzes.

[edit] Fourth marriage dispute

Leo VI caused a major scandal with his numerous marriages which failed to produce a legitimate heir to the throne. His first wife Theophano, whom Basil had forced him to marry, died in 897, and he married Zoe Zaoutzaina, the daughter of his adviser Stylianos Zaoutzes, though she died as well in 899. Upon this marriage Leo created the title of basileopatōr ("father of the emperor") for his father-in-law.

After Zoe's death a third marriage was technically illegal, but he married again, only to have his third wife Eudokia Baïana die in 901. Instead of marrying a fourth time, which would have been an even greater sin than a third marriage (according to the Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos) Leo took as mistress, Zoe Karbonopsina. He married her only after she had given birth to a son in 905, but incurred the opposition of the patriarch. Replacing Nicholas Mystikos with Euthymios, Leo got his marriage recognized by the church, but opened up a conflict within it and allowed new grounds for papal intervention into Byzantine affairs when he sought and obtained papal consent.

[edit] Succession

The future Constantine VII was the illegitimate son born before Leo's uncanonical fourth marriage to Zoe Karbonopsina. To strengthen his son's position as heir, Leo had him crowned as co-emperor on May 15, 908, when he was only two years old. Leo VI died on May 11, 912. He was succeeded by his younger brother Alexander, who had reigned as emperor alongside his father and brother since 879.

[edit] Works

A collection of oracular poems and some short divinatory texts, at least in part based on earlier Greek sources, were attached to the emperor's name in later centuries. He is also the author, or at least sponsor, of the Tactica, a notable treatise on military operations.

He is credited with translating the relics of St. Lazarus to Constantinople in the year 890. There are several stichera (hymns) attributed to him which are chanted on Lazarus Saturday in the Eastern Orthodox Church. He also composed hymns which are sung on the Great Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross.

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ (French) Adontz, Nicholas. "L'Age et l'origine de l'empereur Basil I." Byzantion, 8, 1933, pp. 475–550; 9, 1934, pp. 223–260.
  2. ^ "There was some gossip recorded and passed on by the chronicles that Basil's successor, Leo VI, was actually sired by Michael III and as a consequence was not Basil's genuine son. The careful study of this gossip has shown that it has no basis in fact": Charanis, Peter (1963). The Armenians in the Byzantine Empire. Lisbon: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. p. 35.
  3. ^ "The question as to whether Leo VI was the legitimate son of Basil I or the illegitimate son of Michael III has been frequently and hotly disputed, but it can now be taken as proved that he was the son of Basil I": Ostrogorsky, George (1969). History of the Byzantine State. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press, p. 233, note 1.

[edit] External links

   * Media related to Leo VI at Wikimedia Commons
   * French translations of a Turkish-language compendium of divinatory works, including some ascribed to Leo the Sage available at http://www.ancientlibrary.com/turk-div/.

[edit] References

   * The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991.

Leo VI the Wise

Macedonian Dynasty

Born: 19 September 866 Died: 11 May 912

Regnal titles

Preceded by

Basil I Byzantine Emperor

886–912 Succeeded by

Alexander

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Michael VIII Palaiologos · Andronikos II Palaiologos · Michael IX Palaiologos · Andronikos III Palaiologos · John V Palaiologos · John VI Kantakouzenos · Matthew Kantakouzenos · Andronikos IV Palaiologos · John VII Palaiologos · Andronikos V Palaiologos · Manuel II Palaiologos · John VIII Palaiologos · Constantine XI Palaiologos

This page was last modified on 6 August 2010 at 10:23. -------------------- Leo VI 'the Wise', Emperor of Constantinople held the office of Co-regent of Constantinople in 870. He succeeded to the title of Emperor Leo VI of Constantinople in 886. -------------------- The family of Léon VI le Sage de MACÉDOINE and ..

[128945] MACÉDOINE (de), Léon VI le Sage (Basile Ier & .. [128944]), empereur Byzantin, born about 862, died 912

  • married about 881

.., .. (..)

     1) Anna, born about 882, married about 896 Louis III ..

http://www.francogene.com/quebec--genealogy/128/128945.php --------------------

Kejsare Östromerska riket 886-912

Makedoniska dynastin 867-1059:

Leon VI Sofos 886...912 Sofos ="den vise"

bråk med kyrkan om fjärde äktenskapet

Leo VI "the Wise" or "the Philosopher" (Greek: ???? ???, Le?n VI; Armenian: ????? ?. ????????, ????????[1]), (September 19, 866 – May 11, 912) was Byzantine emperor from 886 to 912 during one of the most brilliant periods of the state's history.

Contents [hide]

1 Background

2 Domestic Policy

3 Foreign Policy

4 Fourth marriage dispute

5 Succession

6 Legends

7 External links

8 References

[edit] Background

Leo was born to Eudokia Ingerina who was at the time mistress of Emperor Michael III and wife of his Caesar Basil. Which of the two men was his father is uncertain. He was officially acknowledged by Basil as his son, but he apparently regarded Leo as Michael's son-although Basil only had eyes for his son Constantine, which may have worsened Leo and his Basil's relations and contributed to Basil's belief in Leo's illegitimacy.

On the night of September 23-September 24, 867, Michael was assassinated by Basil who succeeded him as Emperor Basil I. As the second eldest son of the Emperor, Leo was associated on the throne in 870 and became the direct heir on the death of his older half-brother Constantine in 879. However, he and his father hated each other and Basil had almost had Leo blinded as a teenager. On August 29, 886, Basil died in a hunting accident, though he claimed on his deathbed that there was an assassination attempt in which Leo was possibly involved.

Leo's sobriquet may be explained by the facts that he "was less ignorant than the greater part of his contemporaries in church and state, that his education had been directed by the learned Photios, and that several books of profane and ecclesiastical science were composed by the pen, or in the name, of the imperial philosopher" (Edward Gibbon).

on the coin writes in greek: "leo, by the grace of god, king of romans"

[edit] Domestic Policy

One of the first actions of Leo VI after his succession was the reburial of Michael III in Constantinople, which may have contributed to the suspicion that he was Michael's son. Seeking political reconciliation, the new emperor secured the support of the officials in the capital, and surrounded himself with bureaucrats like Stylianos Zoutzes and the eunuch Samonas. His attempts to control the great aristocratic families (e.g., the Phokadai and the Doukai) occasionally led to serious conflicts. Leo also attempted to control the church through his appointments to the patriarchate. He dismissed the Patriarch Photios of Constantinople, who had been his tutor, and replaced him with his own 19-year old brother Stephen in December 886. On Stephen's death in 893, Leo replaced him with Zaoutzes' nominee, Antony II Kaleuas, who died in 901. Leo then promoted his own imperial secretary (mystikos) Nicholas, but replaced him with his spiritual father Euthymios in 907.

Leo completed work on the Basilica, the Greek translation and update of the law code issued by Justinian I, which had been started during the reign of Basil.

[edit] Foreign Policy

Leo VI was not as successful in battle as Basil had been. In indulging his chief counselor Stylianos Zaoutzes, Leo provoked a war with Simeon I of Bulgaria in 894, but was defeated. Bribing the Magyars to attack the Bulgarians from the north, Leo scored an indirect success in 895. However, deprived of his new allies, he lost the major Battle of Boulgarophygon in 896 and had to make the required commercial concessions and to pay annual tribute.

The Emirate of Sicily took Taormina, the last Byzantine outpost on the island of Sicily, in 902. In 904 the renegade Leo of Tripolis sacked Thessalonica with his Muslim pirates (an event described in The Capture of Thessalonica by John Kameniates). In 907 Constantinople was attacked by the Kievan Rus' under Oleg of Novgorod, who was seeking favourable trading rights with the empire. Leo paid them off, but they attacked again in 911, and a trade treaty was finally signed. The admiral Himerios, a relative of Leo's last wife, Zoe Karbonopsina scored some successes against the Muslim fleets in 908 and raided Cyprus in 910, but in 912 was soundly defeated in his attempt to conquer Crete.

[edit] Fourth marriage dispute

Leo VI (right) and his father Basil I, from the 11th century manuscript by John Skylitzes.Leo VI caused a major scandal with his numerous marriages which failed to produce a legitimate heir to the throne. His first wife, whom Basil had forced him to marry, died in 897, and he married Zoe Zaoutzaina, the daughter of his adviser Stylianos Zaoutzes, though she died as well in 899. Upon this marriage Leo created the title of basileopat?r ("father of the emperor") for his father-in-law.

After Zoe's death a third marriage was technically illegal, but he married again, only to have his third wife die in 901. Instead of marrying a fourth time, which would have been an even greater sin than a third marriage (according to the Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos) Leo took as mistress, Zoe Karbonopsina. He married her only after she had given birth to a son in 905, but incurred the opposition of the patriarch. Replacing Nicholas Mystikos with Euthymios, Leo got his marriage recognized by the church, but opened up a conflict within it and allowed new grounds for papal intervention into Byzantine affairs when he sought and obtained papal consent.

[edit] Succession

The future Constantine VII was the illegitimate son born before Leo's uncanonical fourth marriage to Zoe Karbonopsina. To strengthen his son's position as heir, Leo had him crowned as co-emperor on May 15, 908, when he was only two years old. Leo VI died on May 2, 912. He was succeeded by his younger brother Alexander, who had reigned as emperor alongside his father and brother since 879.

[edit] Legends

According to Bishop Liutprand of Cremona, and probably inspired by stories about the caliph Harun al-Rashid, Leo would sometimes disguise himself and look for injustice or corruption. On one account, he was even captured by the city guards during one of his investigations. He wanted to know if the city patrol was doing its job appropriately. He was walking alone, disguised, late in the evening without any documentation. He bribed two patrols for 12 nomismata, and moved on. However, the third city patrol arrested him. When a terrified guardian recognized the jailed ruler in the morning, the arresting officer was rewarded for doing his duty, while the other patrols were dismissed and punished severely.

[edit] External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Leo VIPreceded by

Basil I Byzantine Emperor

886–912 Succeeded by

Alexander

[edit] References

^ http://ermeni.org/ermenice/shirakavan_uni.htm

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991.

Anna von Byzanz (* 886/888, † vor 914) Tochter des Kaisers Leo VI.,

-------------------- Wikipedia:

Leo VI, Leo den vise, född 866, död 912, var bysantinsk kejsare 886-912.

Leo var son till Basileios I, vilken han som omyndig efterträdde 886. Han fortsatte fortsatte faderns lagstiftningsarbete. Mest känd blev Leo VI genom sina fyra äktenskap, de båda sista var i strid med både kyrkans och hans egen lag, men ingicks för att trygga tronföljden. Hans son med Zoe "Karbonopsina" 905 födde son Konstantin blev slutligen trots kyrkans häftiga motstånd genom förmedling av påven förklarad för äktfödd.[1]

О {profile::pre} (Русский)

Лъв VI Философ (Мъдри) (на гръцки Λέων ΣΤ' ο Σοφός; 19 септември 866 — 11 май 912) е византийски император от 886 г. до смъртта си. Извършва редица държавни промени — засилва самодържавието, ограничава ролята на сената и димите, премахва градското самоуправление. Претърпява поражение при Булгарофигон (896) от българските войски. През 903 г. е направен неуспешен опит да бъде убит, а през 905 избухнал бунт воден от Андроник Дука. Лъв VI предизвикал и дворцов скандал след четвъртия си брак със Зоя Карбонопсина - майка на император Константин Багренородни. Издава сборник със закони „Василики“. По негово време арабите превземат Солун през 904 година.

view all 22

Leo VI 'The Wise' Byzantine Emperor's Timeline

866
September 19, 866
Constantinople, Eastern Roman Empire
885
885
Age 18
Turkey
886
886
Age 19
Byzantium (Constantinople), Istanbul, Turkey
886
Age 19
900
900
Age 33
905
May 17, 905
Age 38
Constantinople, Turkey (Byzantium)
912
May 11, 912
Age 45
Constantinple, Eastern Roman Empire
????
September 6
Constantinople, Turkey
????
????