Louis III the Blind, Holy Roman Emperor

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Louis III "Beronides", Holy Roman Emperor

Also Known As: "Louis Beronides", "L'aveugle Beronides", "o Cego", "Lodewijk III", "de Blinde", "L'Aveugle", "Ludwig "the Blind" Emperor of the West/", "King /Louis/ III", "Louis "the Blind" King of /Provence/", "Louis the Blind"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Arles, (Present department Bouches de Rhone), Royaume Provence, (Present France)
Death: Died in Arles, (Present department Bouches du Rhone), Royaume Provence, Frankish Empire (Present France)
Immediate Family:

Son of Boson d'Autun, Comte de Vienne, Dux de Provence and Ermengardis d'Italie, Queen of Provence
Husband of Anna of Byzantium Porphyrogenitus; Anna Myakes, Byzantine princess; Adélaïs of Burgundy and Wife of Louis Beronides, Holy Roman Emperor
Father of Charles Constantine of Vienne, Count of Vienne; Rodolphe de Vienne; Anna N.N. and Charles Constantine, count of Vienne
Brother of Ermengarde de Bourgogne, Daughter of Boson; Rudolph II Graf von Vienne; Richardis de Metz; Folmar von Metzgau; Willa, Queen of Upper Burgundy and 2 others
Half brother of William

Occupation: King of Provence 887-928, King of Italy 900-905, Emperor of the West 901-905
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Louis III the Blind, Holy Roman Emperor

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/PROVENCE.htm

son of Boson and Ermengarde:

LOUIS (late 882 or after-Arles 5 Jun 928).

Herimannus names "puer Ludowicus" son of Boson "ex filia Ludowici Italiæ imperatoris" when recording that he was adopted by Emperor Karl III after his father's death[38].

The Annales Bertiniani name "Richardus frater Bosonis" when recording that, after the capture of Vienne by the forces of King Carloman, he took “uxorem Bosonis et filiam eius” back to “comitatum suum Augustudensem” in 882[39], which suggests that Louis was born after the siege of Vienne. The Annales Fuldenses record the death in 887 of "Buosone", leaving a young son by "filia Hludowici Italici regis" but does not name him[40]. His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 6 Jun 903 under which "Hludovicus…imperator augustus" confirmed privileges which Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks had ceded to "fideles nostri Liutfridus, Hugo atque Teutbertus comites" at the request of "Adalelmo comite et eius coniugi Rotlindi", the charter naming "rex genitor nostri Boso"[41].

"Ludovico" is named as brother of Engelberga in the latter's donation to Cluny dated Jan 917[42].

He was adopted by his maternal great uncle Emperor Karl III "der Dicke/le Gros" at Kirchen-am-Rhein end May 887, at the request of his mother, rendering him eligible to be elected king according to the rules of Carolingian succession[43].

He was elected LOUIS King [of Provence] at Valence in 890 by the Archbishops of Lyon, Arles, Vienne and Embrun, ruling over Provence and Viennois under the regency of his mother[44].

He was called to Italy in 896 by opponents of Berengario King of Italy, captured Pavia, expelled Berengario, and was elected LOUIS III King of Italy at Pavia 12 Oct 900, crowned the same day.

He claimed the imperial crown from Pope Benedict IV, and was crowned Emperor LUDWIG III in Rome 15 or 22 Feb 901, although this was only recognised in Lombardy and Tuscany. He was expelled from Pavia by King Berengario in Jul 902, whereupon he returned to Vienne, continuing to call himself emperor.

He was recalled to Italy in 905 by Adalbero II Marchese of Tuscany and reconquered the kingdom, but was captured by King Berengario at Verona and blinded 21 Jul 905. Regino records that "Hludowicus filius Bosonis" expelled "Berengarium" from Italy in 905[45]. He was freed and returned to Provence, where he continued to reign at Vienne, but in name only as Hugues Comte d'Arles was appointed governor[46].

"Ludowicus imperator augustus" restored property to the church of Avignon at the request of "comes nosterque propinquus Boso" by charter dated to [907/10][47].

Betrothed ([Jun/Jul] 900]) ANNA, daughter of Emperor LEON VI & his second wife Zoe Zautsina ([886/88]-[901/early 904], bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles). The basis for this betrothal is a letter written by Nikolaos Mystikos, which Settipani quotes in French translation, recalling the writer's admonishing Emperor Leon VI for his unsuitable third marriage (dated to Spring 900), excused because of "l'accord…conclu avec le Franc…tu lui destinais comme épouse ta fille unique…[au] cousin de Berta auquel il est arrivé l'infortune que l'on sait"[48]. The date, the relationship with "Berta" (assuming, as Settipani proposes, that this is Berta daughter of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia who married Adalbert Marchese of Tuscany), and "l'infortune" (his blinding) are consistent with "le Franc" being identified with Louis III King of Italy (his title in 900). Settipani assumes that the marriage actually took place. However, the translation only refers to a proposed marriage ("…tu lui destinais…") and provides no proof that the marriage ever happened or, if it did occur, that the bride ever left Byzantium for Provence. Anna is not named in any of the surviving charters of Emperor Louis, nor has any mention of her been found in any of the primary sources so far consulted. This would have been the first marriage between the families of the eastern and western emperors as no previous betrothal resulted in a marriage. This absence from contemporary western documentation is therefore striking. It also contrasts sharply with the extensive records which relate the Byzantine origin of Theophano, wife of Emperor Otto II, even though Theophano's precise ancestry is still a mystery[49].

Traditional genealogies[50] show Emperor Louis III's son, Charles Constantin, as the child of this alleged first marriage of Emperor Louis, presumably because of his grandiose name. However, another possible explanation is that the name was a symbol of the emperor's hope that his son would one day unite the two successor parts of the ancient Roman empire, in the name of his illustrious predecessors Emperors Charlemagne and Constantine I "the Great", completely independent of his mother's maternal ancestry.

Tougher suggests that Anna was legitimate, born after her parents' marriage, and that the marriage to King Louis did not take place[51]. If he is correct about her legitimacy at birth, this excludes her from being the mother of King Louis's son Charles Constantin, if the latter's birth date is correctly estimated below. Anna was crowned Augusta in Constantinople in [899/900], after the death of her mother and before the third marriage of her father[52]. Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Anna et Eudocia, filiæ beati eiusdem Leonis ex [secunda uxore] Zoe", the Greek text specifying "Aννα και Aννα" although the editor suggests that "Ευδοκία" be substituted for the second Anna (without giving his reasons: this may result from confusion with Anna's older half-sister of that name), were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[53]. It is not known whether this is an error, but in any case both daughters named Anna (assuming that there were two) must have died young, and presumably the second daughter must have been the one betrothed to Louis [de Provence] (assuming the betrothal took place). Her burial in Constantinople suggests that Anna never left her father's court.

m ([Jun 902/905]) ADELAIS, daughter of ---. "Hludowicus…imperator augustus" granted property at Tressin, Viennois to "fideli nostro Girardo" at the request of "coniux nostra Adalaida" by charter dated 18 Jan 915[54]. Her origin is not known. According to Poupardin[55], she was Adelais, relative [maybe niece] of Rudolf I King of Upper Burgundy [Welf]. Presumably this is based on the two charters dated 28 Mar 943 and 18 May 943 under which "Carolus comes" is named "consanguineus noster" by Conrad I King of Burgundy[56]. The potential problem with this is the apparently impossible marriage of King Louis with his own niece. The solution would be either that Adelais was the daughter of King Rudolf by an earlier otherwise unrecorded marriage, or that King Rudolf's known wife Willa was not the daughter of Boson King [of Provence]. The problem is discussed fully by Settipani[57]. The discussion proceeds on the basis that Adelais was in some way related to King Rudolf, but the precise basis for this speculation does not appear to be clearly stated. The estimated date for this relatively obscure marriage is based on its having taking place during the ex-emperor's period of exile in Vienne, before his recall to Italy, at a time when he would not have been considered a great marriage prospect by more prominent prospective fathers-in-law. The problem also is that “consanguineus” in the 943 charters could indicate a much more remote relationship than second cousin.

Emperor Louis III & his wife had two children:

a) CHARLES CONSTANTIN ([905/10]-after Jan 962). Flodoard names "Karlo Constantino, Lucdowici Orbi filio"[58]. "Hludovicus…imperator augustus" gave three serfs to "fideli nostro Bononi" at the request of "filius noster Karolus" by charter dated 3 Jun 924[59]. His birth date range is estimated on the basis of his having been a young adult or adolescent at the time of the 924 charter in which he is named. The absence of proof that Charles Constantin was the grandson of the Byzantine emperor is discussed above in relation to his father's betrothal. "Carolus comes" is named "consanguineus noster" by Conrad I King of Burgundy in two charters of the latter dated 28 Mar 943 and 18 May 943[60], which suggests that he may have been the son of Adelais, assuming that her Burgundian origin is correct and assuming also that the Burgundian origin of Willa, wife of Rudolf I King of Burgundy, is incorrect (see above). He was named Comte de Vienne in 926 by his cousin Raoul King of France, in succession to his cousin Hugues Comte d'Arles, when the latter was proclaimed King of Italy. The province of Vienne was taken from him in [Aug/Sep] 928 and given to Héribert de Vermandois to govern in the name of the latter's son Eudes. Charles Constantin remained at Vienne. He swore allegiance to Conrad "le Pacifique" King of Burgundy in 943[61]. "Karolus comes" sold land "in villa Brociano" by charter dated 19 May 960 which names "Teutbergi comitisse"[62]. m TEUTBERGA, daughter of --- (-after 19 May 960). "Teutbergi comitisse" is named in the charter of "Karolus comes" dated 19 May 960 selling land "in villa Brociano"[63]. Her origin is not known. Her name suggests a connection with the family of the Comtes de Troyes and it has been suggested[64] that she was Teutberga [de Troyes, daughter of Warnarius [Garnier] Vicomte de Sens [Comte de Troyes] & his wife Teutberga d'Arles]. Gingins-la-Sarra points out that Teutberge was the name of the third wife and widow of Engelbert, of the family of the vicomtes de Vienne, and that she could have married Charles Constantin as her second husband[65]. There seems to be no basis for this speculation other than the name.

b) RAOUL [Rodolphe] (-after 19 Mar 929). He is named "Rodulfi filii Ludowici imperatoris" in the grant of "Adeleydis comitissa soror Rodulfi" to Cluny dated 14 Jun 929[71].

------------------------

Ludwig III. Bosonides genannt der Blinde († 5. Juni 928 in Arles) 887 König von Provence, 900-905 König von Italien, 901/902 römischer Kaiser, 905 geblendet ? I um 900 Anna von Byzanz (* 886/888, † vor 914) Tochter des Kaisers Leo VI.,

Roman beginnings and early Middle Ages

The name Vindobona derives from a Celtic language, demonstrating that the region must have been inhabited even before Roman times. The Romans created a military camp (occupied by Legio X Gemina) during the 1st century on the site of the city centre of present-day Vienna. The settlement was raised to the status of a municipium in 212. Even today, the streets of the First District show where the encampment placed its walls and moats. The Romans stayed until the 5th century.

Roman Vindobona was located in the outskirts of the empire and thus fell prey to the chaos of the Völkerwanderung. There are some indications that a catastrophic fire occurred around the beginning of the 5th century. However, the remains of the encampment were not deserted, and a small settlement remained. The streets and houses of early medieval Vienna followed the former Roman walls, which gives rise to the conclusion that parts of the fortification were still in place and used by the settlers. The first documented mention of the city during the Middle Ages dates to 881 when a battle apud Weniam was fought against the Magyars. However, it is unclear whether this refers to the city or the River Wien. Early Vienna was centred around the Berghof.

Byzantine copper coins from the 6th century have been found several times in the area of today's city centre, indicating considerable trade activity. Graves from the 6th century were found during excavations next to the Berghof, in an area around Salvatorgasse. At that time, the Langobards controlled the area, with Slavs and Avars following later. The Salzburg Annals mention a battle against the Magyars at a location called Wenia in 881, which may be a reference to Vienna. Emperor Otto I defeated the Magyars in 955 in the Battle of Lechfeld. This allowed early Vienna to start to develop towards the Middle Ages.

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The family of Louis III .. and Anna de MACÉDOINE

[128946] .., Louis III (..), empereur d'Occident

  • married about 896

MACÉDOINE (de), Anna (Léon VI le Sage & .. [128945]), born about 882

1) Charles-Constantin, comte de Vienne, born about 901, married about 920 ..

Bibliographie : Histoire de la maison royale de France (Père Anselme)

http://www.francogene.com/quebec--genealogy/128/128946.php

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Louis the Blind

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Louis the Blind (c. 880 – 28 June 928) was the king of Provence from 887, king of Italy from 900, and briefly Holy Roman Emperor, as Louis III, between 901 and 905. He was the son of Boso, the usurper king of Provence, and Ermengard, a daughter of the Emperor Louis II. Through his father, he was a Bosonid, but through his mother, a Carolingian.

He succeeded his father upon his death in January 887, though at that time, the kingdom of Provence was restricted to the environs of Vienne. The Provençal barons elected Ermengard to act as his regent, with the support of Louis's uncle, Richard the Justiciar, Duke of Burgundy. In May, Ermengard travelled with Louis to the court of her relative, the emperor Charles the Fat, and received his recognition of the young Louis as king. Charles adopted Louis as his son and put both mother and son under his protection. In May 889, she travelled to Charles' successor, Arnulf, to make submission anew. The short work Visio Karoli Grossi may have been written shortly after Charles' death to support Louis's claim. If so, Louis must have had the support of Fulk the Venerable, Archbishop of Reims. On the other hand, the Visio may have been written later, circa 901, to celebrate (and support) Louis's imperial coronation.

In 890, at Valence, a council of prelates and feudatories of the realm, elected Louis as King of Arles, Provence, and Cisjurane Burgundy. In 894, Louis himself did homage to Arnulf.

In 896, Louis waged war on the Saracens. Throughout his reign, he had to deal with the depredations of these Moslem invaders, who had landed and established a base at Fraxinet in 889.

In 900, Louis, as the grandson and heir of the Emperor Louis II, was invited into Italy by various lords, including Adalbert II of Tuscany, who were suffering under the ravages of the Magyars and the incompetent rule of Berengar I. Louis thus marched his army across the Alps and defeated Berengar, chasing him from Pavia, the old Lombard capital, where, in the church of San Michele, he was crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy on 12 October. He travelled onwards to Rome, where, in 901, he was crowned Emperor by Pope Benedict IV. The next year (902), however, Berengar defeated Louis's armies and forced him to flee to Provence and promise never to return.

In 905, Louis launched another attempt to invade Italy. He was again defeated by Berengar, with the aid of Bavarian troops, captured, and imprisoned in Verona, where, on 21 July 905, he had his eyes put out (for breaking his oath) and was forced to relinquish his royal Italian and imperial crowns. Later, Berengar became Emperor. After this last attempt to restore Carolingian power over Italy, Louis continued to rule Provence for many more years, though Hugh, Count of Arles, was the dominant figure in the territory.

Louis returned to Vienne, his capital, and by 911, he had put most of the royal powers in the hands of Hugh. Hugh was made Margrave of Provence and moved the capital to Arles. As regent, Hugh married Louis's sister Willa. Louis lived out his days until his death in obscurity.

[edit]Marriages and heirs

By a relationship, whether marriage or not, Louis fathered a son called Charles-Constantine, who would become Count of Vienne. Charles' mother is not named in any sources. There has been modern genealogical speculation that she might be Anna, daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Leo VI and his second wife Zoe Zaoutzaina. However, this identification has been disputed as it is based entirely on onomastics, supposing that Charles-Constantine's name suggest a Byzantine mother. Richer specifically stated that Charles' mother's line (without naming her) was tainted with illegitimacy and mentioned nothing of her supposed illustrious Byzantine parentage. Her father, at the time of Charles' birth was the reigning Emperor, the silence dooms this speculation. In addition Liutprand of Cremona, makes no mention of this, and it would have been very interesting to him, he was a thorough gossip, had been ambassador to Constantinople and devoted several chapters to the misadventures of Louis in Italy with no mention of these Byzantine connections.

In 914, Louis entered a second union, which would then be either his first or second marriage, by marrying Adelaide, daughter of Rudolph I of Upper Burgundy.

[edit]Sources

Previté Orton, C. W. "Italy and Provence, 900-950." The English Historical Review, Vol. 32, No. 127. (Jul., 1917), pp 335-347.

--------------------

Louis the Blind (c. 880 – 28 June 928) was the king of Provence from 887, king of Italy from 900, and briefly Holy Roman Emperor, as Louis III, between 901 and 905. He was the son of Boso, the usurper king of Provence, and Ermengard, a daughter of the Emperor Louis II. Through his father, he was a Bosonid, but through his mother, a Carolingian.

He succeeded his father upon his death in January 887, though at that time, the kingdom of Provence was restricted to the environs of Vienne. The Provençal barons elected Ermengard to act as his regent, with the support of Louis's uncle, Richard the Justiciar, Duke of Burgundy. In May, Ermengard travelled with Louis to the court of her relative, the emperor Charles the Fat, and received his recognition of the young Louis as king. Charles adopted Louis as his son and put both mother and son under his protection. In May 889, she travelled to Charles' successor, Arnulf, to make submission anew. The short work Visio Karoli Grossi may have been written shortly after Charles' death to support Louis's claim. If so, Louis must have had the support of Fulk the Venerable, Archbishop of Reims. On the other hand, the Visio may have been written later, circa 901, to celebrate (and support) Louis's imperial coronation.

In 890, at Valence, a council of prelates and feudatories of the realm, elected Louis as King of Arles, Provence, and Cisjurane Burgundy. In 894, Louis himself did homage to Arnulf.

In 896, Louis waged war on the Saracens. Throughout his reign, he had to deal with the depredations of these Moslem invaders, who had landed and established a base at Fraxinet in 889.

In 900, Louis, as the grandson and heir of the Emperor Louis II, was invited into Italy by various lords, including Adalbert II of Tuscany, who were suffering under the ravages of the Magyars and the incompetent rule of Berengar I. Louis thus marched his army across the Alps and defeated Berengar, chasing him from Pavia, the old Lombard capital, where, in the church of San Michele, he was crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy on 12 October. He travelled onwards to Rome, where, in 901, he was crowned Emperor by Pope Benedict IV. The next year (902), however, Berengar defeated Louis's armies and forced him to flee to Provence and promise never to return.

In 905, Louis launched another attempt to invade Italy. He was again defeated by Berengar, with the aid of Bavarian troops, captured, and imprisoned in Verona, where, on 21 July 905, he had his eyes put out (for breaking his oath) and was forced to relinquish his royal Italian and imperial crowns. Later, Berengar became Emperor. After this last attempt to restore Carolingian power over Italy, Louis continued to rule Provence for many more years, though Hugh, Count of Arles, was the dominant figure in the territory.

Louis returned to Vienne, his capital, and by 911, he had put most of the royal powers in the hands of Hugh. Hugh was made Margrave of Provence and moved the capital to Arles. As regent, Hugh married Louis's sister Willa. Louis lived out his days until his death in obscurity.

[edit] Marriages and heirs

By a relationship, whether marriage or not, Louis fathered a son called Charles-Constantine, who would become Count of Vienne. Charles' mother is not named in any sources. There has been modern genealogical speculation that she might be Anna, daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Leo VI and his second wife Zoe Zaoutzaina. However, this identification has been disputed as it is based entirely on onomastics, supposing that Charles-Constantine's name suggest a Byzantine mother. Richer specifically stated that Charles' mother's line (without naming her) was tainted with illegitimacy and mentioned nothing of her supposed illustrious Byzantine parentage. Her father, at the time of Charles' birth was the reigning Emperor, the silence dooms this speculation. In addition Liutprand of Cremona, makes no mention of this, and it would have been very interesting to him, he was a thorough gossip, had been ambassador to Constantinople and devoted several chapters to the misadventures of Louis in Italy with no mention of these Byzantine connections.

In 914, Louis entered a second union, which would then be either his first or second marriage, by marrying Adelaide, daughter of Rudolph I of Upper Burgundy.

[edit] Sources

   * Previté Orton, C. W. "Italy and Provence, 900-950." The English Historical Review, Vol. 32, No. 127. (Jul., 1917), pp 335-347.

Emperor Louis III the Blind

Carolingian dynasty

Died: 28 June 928

Regnal titles

Preceded by

Boso King of Provence

890 – 928 Succeeded by

Hugh

Preceded by

Berengar I King of Italy

900 – 905 Succeeded by

Berengar I

Preceded by

Arnulf (Holy) Roman Emperor

901 – 905 -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Blind

Louis the Blind

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to:navigation, search

Louis the Blind (c. 880 – 28 June 928) was the king of Provence from 887, king of Italy from 900, and briefly Holy Roman Emperor, as Louis III, between 901 and 905. He was the son of Boso, the usurper king of Provence, and Ermengard, a daughter of the Emperor Louis II. Through his father, he was a Bosonid, but through his mother, a Carolingian.

He succeeded his father upon his death in January 887, though at that time, the kingdom of Provence was restricted to the environs of Vienne. The Provençal barons elected Ermengard to act as his regent, with the support of Louis's uncle, Richard the Justiciar, Duke of Burgundy. In May, Ermengard travelled with Louis to the court of her relative, the emperor Charles the Fat, and received his recognition of the young Louis as king. Charles adopted Louis as his son and put both mother and son under his protection. In May 889, she travelled to Charles' successor, Arnulf, to make submission anew. The short work Visio Karoli Grossi may have been written shortly after Charles' death to support Louis's claim. If so, Louis must have had the support of Fulk the Venerable, Archbishop of Reims. On the other hand, the Visio may have been written later, circa 901, to celebrate (and support) Louis's imperial coronation.

In 890, at Valence, a council of prelates and feudatories of the realm, elected Louis as King of Arles, Provence, and Cisjurane Burgundy. In 894, Louis himself did homage to Arnulf.

In 896, Louis waged war on the Saracens. Throughout his reign, he had to deal with the depredations of these Moslem invaders, who had landed and established a base at Fraxinet in 889.

In 900, Louis, as the grandson and heir of the Emperor Louis II, was invited into Italy by various lords, including Adalbert II of Tuscany, who were suffering under the ravages of the Magyars and the incompetent rule of Berengar I. Louis thus marched his army across the Alps and defeated Berengar, chasing him from Pavia, the old Lombard capital, where, in the church of San Michele, he was crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy on 12 October. He travelled onwards to Rome, where, in 901, he was crowned Emperor by Pope Benedict IV. The next year (902), however, Berengar defeated Louis's armies and forced him to flee to Provence and promise never to return.

In 905, Louis launched another attempt to invade Italy. He was again defeated by Berengar, with the aid of Bavarian troops, captured, and imprisoned in Verona, where, on 21 July 905, he had his eyes put out (for breaking his oath) and was forced to relinquish his royal Italian and imperial crowns. Later, Berengar became Emperor. After this last attempt to restore Carolingian power over Italy, Louis continued to rule Provence for many more years, though Hugh, Count of Arles, was the dominant figure in the territory.

Louis returned to Vienne, his capital, and by 911, he had put most of the royal powers in the hands of Hugh. Hugh was made Margrave of Provence and moved the capital to Arles. As regent, Hugh married Louis's sister Willa. Louis lived out his days until his death in obscurity.

[edit] Marriages and heirs

By a relationship, whether marriage or not, Louis fathered a son called Charles-Constantine, who would become Count of Vienne. Charles' mother is not named in any sources. There has been modern genealogical speculation that she might be Anna, daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Leo VI and his second wife Zoe Zaoutzaina. However, this identification has been disputed as it is based entirely on onomastics, supposing that Charles-Constantine's name suggest a Byzantine mother. Richer specifically stated that Charles' mother's line (without naming her) was tainted with illegitimacy and mentioned nothing of her supposed illustrious Byzantine parentage. Her father, at the time of Charles' birth was the reigning Emperor, the silence dooms this speculation. In addition Liutprand of Cremona, makes no mention of this, and it would have been very interesting to him, he was a thorough gossip, had been ambassador to Constantinople and devoted several chapters to the misadventures of Louis in Italy with no mention of these Byzantine connections.

In 914, Louis entered a second union, which would then be either his first or second marriage, by marrying Adelaide, daughter of Rudolph I of Upper Burgundy.

[edit] Sources

   * Previté Orton, C. W. "Italy and Provence, 900-950." The English Historical Review, Vol. 32, No. 127. (Jul., 1917), pp 335–347.

Emperor Louis III the Blind

Carolingian dynasty

Died: 28 June 928

Regnal titles

Preceded by

Boso King of Provence

890 – 928 Succeeded by

Hugh

Preceded by

Berengar I King of Italy

900 – 905 Succeeded by

Berengar I

Preceded by

Arnulf (Holy) Roman Emperor

901 – 905

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This page was last modified on 25 May 2010 at 16:42

-------------------- Louis III l'Aveugle de Provence -------------------- Titles: King of Provence & King of the Lombards. Berenger 1st, King of Italy captured Louis in 905, blinded him & banished him to Provence for the rest of his life.

Sources:

The book, 'The Dark Ages'

Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia -------------------- Louis the Blind (c. 880 – 28 June 928) was the king of Provence from 887, king of Italy from 900, and briefly Holy Roman Emperor, as Louis III, between 901 and 905. He was the son of Boso, the usurper king of Provence, and Ermengard, a daughter of the Emperor Louis II. Through his father, he was a Bosonid, but through his mother, a Carolingian.

He succeeded his father upon his death in January 887, though at that time, the kingdom of Provence was restricted to the environs of Vienne. The Provençal barons elected Ermengard to act as his regent, with the support of Louis's uncle, Richard the Justiciar, Duke of Burgundy. In May, Ermengard travelled with Louis to the court of her relative, the emperor Charles the Fat, and received his recognition of the young Louis as king. Charles adopted Louis as his son and put both mother and son under his protection. In May 889, she travelled to Charles' successor, Arnulf, to make submission anew. The short work Visio Karoli Grossi may have been written shortly after Charles' death to support Louis's claim. If so, Louis must have had the support of Fulk the Venerable, Archbishop of Reims. On the other hand, the Visio may have been written later, circa 901, to celebrate (and support) Louis's imperial coronation.

In 890, at Valence, a council of prelates and feudatories of the realm, elected Louis as King of Arles, Provence, and Cisjurane Burgundy. In 894, Louis himself did homage to Arnulf.

In 896, Louis waged war on the Saracens. Throughout his reign, he had to deal with the depredations of these Moslem invaders, who had landed and established a base at Fraxinet in 889.

In 900, Louis, as the grandson and heir of the Emperor Louis II, was invited into Italy by various lords, including Adalbert II of Tuscany, who were suffering under the ravages of the Magyars and the incompetent rule of Berengar I. Louis thus marched his army across the Alps and defeated Berengar, chasing him from Pavia, the old Lombard capital, where, in the church of San Michele, he was crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy on 12 October. He travelled onwards to Rome, where, in 901, he was crowned Emperor by Pope Benedict IV. The next year (902), however, Berengar defeated Louis's armies and forced him to flee to Provence and promise never to return.

In 905, Louis launched another attempt to invade Italy. He was again defeated by Berengar, with the aid of Bavarian troops, captured, and imprisoned in Verona, where, on 21 July 905, he had his eyes put out (for breaking his oath) and was forced to relinquish his royal Italian and imperial crowns. Later, Berengar became Emperor. After this last attempt to restore Carolingian power over Italy, Louis continued to rule Provence for many more years, though Hugh, Count of Arles, was the dominant figure in the territory.

Louis returned to Vienne, his capital, and by 911, he had put most of the royal powers in the hands of Hugh. Hugh was made Margrave of Provence and moved the capital to Arles. As regent, Hugh married Louis's sister Willa. Louis lived out his days until his death in obscurity.

Marriages and heirs

By a relationship, whether marriage or not, Louis fathered a son called Charles-Constantine, who would become Count of Vienne. Charles' mother is not named in any sources. There has been modern genealogical speculation that she might be Anna, daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Leo VI and his second wife Zoe Zaoutzaina. However, this identification has been disputed as it is based entirely on onomastics, supposing that Charles-Constantine's name suggest a Byzantine mother. Richer specifically stated that Charles' mother's line (without naming her) was tainted with illegitimacy and mentioned nothing of her supposed illustrious Byzantine parentage. Her father, at the time of Charles' birth was the reigning Emperor, the silence dooms this speculation. In addition Liutprand of Cremona, makes no mention of this, and it would have been very interesting to him, he was a thorough gossip, had been ambassador to Constantinople and devoted several chapters to the misadventures of Louis in Italy with no mention of these Byzantine connections.

In 914, Louis entered a second union, which would then be either his first or second marriage, by marrying Adelaide, daughter of Rudolph I of Upper Burgundy.

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Louis III the Blind, Holy Roman Emperor's Timeline

883
883
Arles, (Present department Bouches de Rhone), Royaume Provence, (Present France)
887
January 887
- June 28, 928
Age 4
Arles, Provenza
890
890
- present
Age 7
king of Provence
900
October 12, 900
- November 902
Age 17
Pavia, Lombardia, Italy
901
February 15, 901
- June 28, 928
Age 18
Roma, Italy
901
Age 18
Provence, France
903
903
Age 20
Arles,Bouches Du Rhone,Provence,France
928
June 5, 928
Age 45
Arles, (Present department Bouches du Rhone), Royaume Provence, Frankish Empire (Present France)
928
Age 45
????