Lucy Webb Hayes, First Lady ("Lemonade Lucy")

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Lucy Ware Hayes (Webb)

Also Known As: "Lemonade Lucy"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Chillicothe, Ross, Ohio, United States
Death: Died in Fremont, Sandusky, Ohio, United States
Cause of death: stroke
Immediate Family:

Daughter of James Webb and Maria Cook
Wife of Rutherford B. Hayes, 19th President of the USA
Mother of Sardis Birchard Austin Hayes; Col. Webb Cook Hayes; Rutherford Platt Hayes; Joseph Thompson Hayes; George Cook Hayes and 4 others
Sister of Joseph Webb and James Webb
Half sister of Infant Webb

Occupation: First Lady of the United States, 16th First Lady, First Lady
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Lucy Webb Hayes, First Lady ("Lemonade Lucy")

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucy_Webb_Hayes

I ADDED THIS PERSON, I DID ALL THE WORK AND NOW I HAVE 27 PARTNERS TAKING CREDIT. WALTER ASHWORTH

Lucy Ware Webb Hayes (August 28, 1831 – June 25, 1889) was a First Lady of the United States and the wife of President Rutherford B. Hayes.

Historians have christened her "Lemonade Lucy" due to her staunch support of the temperance movement. However, contrary to popular belief, she was never referred to by that nickname while living, and it was her husband who banned alcohol from the White House.[1]

Born in Chillicothe, Ohio, the daughter of James Webb, a physician, and Maria Cook-Webb, Lucy was descended from seven veterans of the American Revolution. Her father died when she was an infant. With her mother, she moved to Delaware, Ohio, where in 1847 she met Rutherford B. Hayes. Later that year, she enrolled at Wesleyan Women’s College (now Ohio Wesleyan University) in Delaware, Ohio (class of 1850); she was the first First Lady to have graduated from college. Hayes was by this time practicing law in Cincinnati, and the two began dating seriously. He proposed in June 1851.

Rutherford Hayes, aged 30, married Lucy Webb, aged 21, on December 30, 1852, at the home of the bride’s mother in Cincinnati, Ohio. After the wedding, performed by Dr. L.D. McCabe of Delaware, the couple honeymooned at the home of the groom’s sister and brother-in-law in Columbus, Ohio.

The Hayes had four sons and a daughter to live to maturity:

Sardis “Birchard Austin” Birchard Hayes (1853–1926) - lawyer. Born in Cincinnati, he graduated from Cornell University (1874) and Harvard Law School (1877). He settled in Toledo, Ohio, where he prospered as a real estate and tax attorney.

James Webb Cook Hayes (1856–1934) - businessman, soldier. Born in Cincinnati, he followed his brother to Cornell and on graduation became presidential secretary to his father. He later helped found a small business that eventually grew into Union Carbide. During the Spanish-American War, he was commissioned a major and served in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines.

Rutherford Platt Hayes (1858–1931) - library official. Born in Cincinnati, he attended the University of Michigan, graduated from Cornell University (1880), and did post-graduate work at Boston Institute of Technology. He worked as a bank clerk in Fremont, Ohio, for a time but devoted his life to promoting libraries. He also helped develop Asheville, North Carolina, into a health and tourist resort.

Joseph Thompson Hayes (1861–1863).

George Crook Hayes (1864–1866).

Frances “Fanny” Hayes-Smith (1867–1950). Born in Cincinnati, she was educated at a private girls’ school in Farmington, Connecticut. In 1897, she married Ensign Harry Eaton Smith of Fremont, Ohio, later an instructor at the U.S. Naval Academy.

Scott Russell Hayes (1871–1923) - businessman. Born in Cincinnati, he was still a youngster during his father’s presidency. At six he and his sister played host to other Washington area children in the first Easter egg roll conducted on the White House lawn. He was an executive with railroad service companies in New York City.

Manning Force Hayes (1873–1874).

A vigorous opponent of slavery, Hayes contributed to her husband’s decision to abandon the Whigs for the antislavery Republican Party. During the American Civil War, she visited Hayes often in the field. While her husband was governor of Ohio, she helped establish the state Home for Soldiers’ Orphans at Xenia.

As First Lady, Hayes brought her zeal for temperance to the White House and supported her husband's ban of alcoholic beverages at state functions, excepting only the reception for Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich of Russia in 1877, at which wine was served. The Women's Christian Temperance Union hailed her policy and in gratitude commissioned a full-length portrait of her, which now hangs in the White House. She also instituted the custom of conducting an Easter egg roll on the White House lawn. A devout Methodist, she joined the president in saying prayers after breakfast and conducting group hymn sings with the cabinet and congressmen on Sunday evenings.

The social highlight of the Hayes years was their twenty-fifth wedding anniversary celebration, at which the president and First Lady repeated their vows at a White House ceremony before many of the same guests who had attended the original nuptials in Cincinnati.

In 1881 she retired with the president to Spiegel Grove in Fremont, Ohio. She died of a stroke on June 25, 1889, and was buried at Spiegel Grove. Upon her death, flags across the United States were lowered to half-staff in honor of the “most idolized woman in America.”

Fictional depictions

In Leonard Bernstein’s musical comedy 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, the First Lady sings the “Duet for One,” in which she transforms from Mrs. Grant into Lucy Webb Hayes.

In the Lucky Luke comic book Sarah Bernhardt, which is set in the late 19th-century Wild West, President Rutherford B. Hayes’ wife is portrayed as being one of many who strongly disapproves of the titular actress' tour of the United States, given her reputation for loose morality. Disguised as a man called “George,” the First Lady infiltrates Sarah’s entourage and sabotages their tour throughout the US, though she does come to accept Sarah when the French actress’ charms and singing talent moves a tribe of hostile Indians. ‘The president’s wife’ is not mentioned by name in the book, and thus might be regarded as fictional, although she and her husband do resemble Rutherford and Lucy Hayes in many ways. Hayes himself is portrayed as a man who is very taken aback by his wife's hostility towards Sarah, and keeps making the same speech over and over again, even when there is no one there to listen to him.

Lucy Ware Webb Hayes (1831-1889)

First Lady

Lucy Ware Webb Hayes convinced her husband, Rutherford B. Hayes, to fight in the Union army and to oppose slavery. He later became an influential part of the abolitionist cause.

LUCY WARE WEBB HAYES

B.1831 -- D.1889

There was no inaugural ball in 1877--when Rutherford B. Hayes and his wife, Lucy, left Ohio for Washington, the outcome of the election was still in doubt. Public fears had not subsided when it was settled in Hayes' favor; and when Lucy watched her husband take his oath of office at the Capitol, her serene and beautiful face impressed even cynical journalists.

She came to the White House well loved by many. Born in Chillicothe, Ohio, daughter of Maria Cook and Dr. James Webb, she lost her father at age two. She was just entering her teens when Mrs. Webb took her sons to the town of Delaware to enroll in the new Ohio Wesleyan University, but she began studying with its excellent instructors. She graduated from the Wesleyan Female College in Cincinnati at 18, unusually well educated for a young lady of her day.

"Rud" Hayes at 27 had set up a law practice in Cincinnati, and he began paying calls at the Webb home. References to Lucy appeared in his diary: "Her low sweet voice is very winning ... a heart as true as steel.... Intellect she has too.... By George! I am in love with her!" Married in 1852, they lived in Cincinnati until the Civil War, and he soon came to share her deeply religious opposition to slavery. Visits to relatives and vacation journeys broke the routine of a happy domestic life in a growing family. Over twenty years Lucy bore eight children, of whom five grew up.

She won the affectionate name of "Mother Lucy" from men of the 23rd Ohio Volunteer Infantry who served under her husband's command in the war. They remembered her visits to camp--to minister to the wounded, cheer the homesick, and comfort the dying. Hayes' distinguished combat record earned him election to Congress, and three postwar terms as governor of Ohio. She not only joined him in Washington for its winter social season, she also accompanied him on visits to state reform schools, prisons, and asylums. As the popular first lady of her state, she gained experience in what a woman of her time aptly called "semi-public life."

Thus she entered the White House with confidence gained from her long and happy married life, her knowledge of political circles, her intelligence and culture, and her cheerful spirit. She enjoyed informal parties, and spared no effort to make official entertaining attractive. Though she was a temperance advocate and liquor was banned at the mansion during this administration, she was a very popular hostess. She took criticism of her views in good humor (the famous nickname "Lemonade Lucy" apparently came into use only after she had left the mansion). She became one of the best-loved women to preside over the White House, where the Hayeses celebrated their silver wedding anniversary in 1877, and an admirer hailed her as representing "the new woman era."

The Hayes term ended in 1881, and the family home was now "Spiegel Grove," an estate at Fremont, Ohio. There husband and wife spent eight active, contented years together until her death in 1889. She was buried in Fremont, mourned by her family and hosts of friends.

Lucy Ware Webb Hayes

NAME: Lucy Ware Webb Hayes

DATE OF BIRTH: August 28, 1831

PLACE OF BIRTH: Chillicothe, Ohio

FAMILY BACKGROUND: Lucy Ware Webb Hayes was the daughter of James Webb and Maria Cook Webb, and sister to two older brothers (James and Joseph). Lucy's father was a medical doctor from Lexington, Kentucky. Going against his Southern conventions, he and his family were highly oppossed to slavery. After inheriting 15-20 slaves from his aunt, Dr. Webb returned to his family home to free them. After freeing the slaves, he worked tirelessly to care for the slaves who were suffering from a cholera epidemic. Despite his efforts, Dr. Webb lost his parents and a brother, and eventually died himself from cholera. Lucy was two years old when he died. When a family friend encouraged Mrs. Webb to sell these slaves after her husband's death, she was adamant in her belief that she would "take in washing" to support her family before selling slaves. The family then lived near Mrs. Webb's family in Chillicothe, Ohio.

EDUCATION: Lucy attended elementary school in Chillicothe. In 1844, her family moved to Delaware, Ohio, to be near her brothers attending the newly formed Ohio Wesleyan University. Both of them became medical doctors. Although women were not allowed to study at Wesleyan, Lucy was permitted to attend classes in the preparatory department, earning a few credits in the collegiate division. Mrs. Webb worried that Lucy would be forced into marriage with a new Methodist minister, so in 1847, she enrolled Lucy in one of the few colleges in the U.S. that granted degrees to women, Cincinnati Wesleyan Female College. Lucy was 16 years old. Lucy excelled here and became a member of the highly respected Young Ladies Lyceum during her last year. She graduated in 1850.

ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Mrs. Lucy Webb Hayes was the first First Lady to be called "First Lady." Unlike her predecessors, she was extremely popular and well loved by the American people. She was intelligent; the first presidential wife to be college educated. The American public loved her for her easy manner with people. As First Lady she was very much an equal to her husband, sharing his interest in politics and people. One reporter said with sarcasm that when she took a trip without her husband, President Hayes would be "acting President" in her absence.

According to family lore, Rutherford Birchard Hayes first heard the "merry peal" of Lucy's laughter on the Wesleyan campus when she was only fifteen. He was visiting his birthplace in Delaware. In January 1850, he began a new law practice in Cincinnati and they met again while members of a wedding party. At this wedding, Rutherford gave Lucy a gold ring, a prize in his piece of wedding cake. When Lucy and Rutherford were married at her parents' home on December 30, 1852, Lucy gave Rutherford this gold ring; he wore it for the rest of his life. The Hayes had eight children, three who died in infancy: Birchard Austin (1853-1926), Webb Cook (1856-1934), Rutherford Platt (1858-1927), Joseph Thompson (1861-1863), George Crook (1864-1866), Frances "Fanny" (1867-1950), Scott Russell (1871-1923), and Manning Force (1873-1874).

Lucy and Rutherford were partners, respecting each other's ideals and goals. While practicing law in Cincinnati, he was influenced by her anti-slavery sentiments and defended runaway slaves who had crossed the Ohio River. When the Civil War erupted, Lucy's enthusiasm encouraged Rutherford to enlist as a major in the Twenty-third Ohio Volunteer Infantry. He was almost 40 years old, with three small sons. Lucy's brother Joe also joined the Ohio regiment as surgeon. As often as was possible and safe, Lucy visited Rutherford in the field, sometimes camping out there with her mother and children, and helped her brother care for the sick and wounded.

During the war, Lucy found time to visit hospitals and correspond with her husband. Their letters back and forth brought them even closer together; Rutherford wrote in his diary: "Darling wife, how this painful separation is made a blessing by the fine character it develops or brings to view. How I love her more and more!" A couple times during the war, Rutherford was wounded -- the first time was quite minor, while the second time he almost lost his arm. After hit in the left arm with a musket ball, Rutherford continued to lead his men despite the serious and painful injury, until his men insisted upon carrying him from the field. Lucy's brother dressed his wound in the field hospital, probably saving his arm from amputation. He was taken to Middletown, Maryland, to the home of Jacob Rudy.

On both injury occasions, Rutherford requested a telegram be sent to his wife. However, the second time he also requested two other telegrams be sent, but the orderly had only enough money for two telegrams. He chose to send the telegrams to the two men, rather than the wife. When Lucy found out later, she was incensed. A few days later, Lucy received a telegram stating "I am here, come to me. I shall not lose my arm." The telegram had a Washington byline, so Lucy entrusted the children with relatives and caught the morning stage coach. She met up with Rutherford's brother-in-law, William Platt, who accompanied her. It took them a week to get to Washington -- but Rutherford was nowhere to be found. She made a round of all the hospitals, including the Patent Office (made into a hospital during the war) and the Surgeon General's Office. William noticed on the original draft of the telegram that Middletown was crossed off and Washington was added. Lucy went back to the Patent Office and called out, "Twenty-third Ohio." Several wounded soldiers anwered her and told her Colonel Hayes was in Middletown. With relief, she finally found her husband and that he was recuperating well.

On the trip back to Ohio a couple weeks later, Lucy and Rutherford were joined by six or seven disabled soldiers from the regiment. When they had to change trains at one point, and finding no seats in the coaches, Lucy led the men into the Pullman car with the fashionable crowd returning from Saratoga. Oblivious to the looks of scorn, Lucy helped her "boys" into empty seats. Later, a telegraph messenger walked through paging Colonel Hayes. Suddenly the "society folk" were interested in the men, offering them grapes and other treats. Lucy disdainfully declined them. The troops affectionately nicknamed her "Mother Lucy." When she stayed in camp with them, she cared for them when they were ill, sewed and repaired their uniforms, and listened to their troubles. During the long war years, she and Rutherford lost two sons before they turned two years old.

Lucy’s interest in her husband’s career and confidence in his ability not only supported and encouraged him as a soldier, but as a congressman, governor of Ohio, and finally President of the United States. In August, 1864, political supporters in Cincinnati nominated Rutherford for Congress from the second district (previously he had served as City Solicitor for Cincinnati). Lucy wrote to Rutherford's Uncle Sardis (who had raised him as a son): "Of course dear Uncle it is gratifying to know how he stands with our citizens and friends -- I wonder if all women or wives have such a unbounded admiration for their better half." Rutherford answered the plea to canvass a campaign, much as expected by his wife and friends, with: "An officer fit for duty who at this crisis would abandon his post to electioneer for a seat in Congress ought to be scalped." Doubtless his concept of duty, war record, and reputation for integrity contributed to Rutherford winning the election anyway in October.

Rutherford did not resign from the Army until May of 1865, after the South surrendered and President Lincoln was assassinated. Although Lucy and the children did not move to Washington to live, she visited Rutherford often and sat in the gallery of the House to listen to debates -- particularly those on Reconstruction. In letters, she wrote her husband that she missed being able to talk politics with him. Her interest was growing. While serving his second term in Congress, Rutherford was nominated for governor of Ohio by the Union Republican party. While he was campaigning, she gave birth to their long-awaited daughter, whom they named after Rutherford's sister (who had passed away shortly after they had married).

Rutherford was elected governor of Ohio in November, 1867, but the two state houses had Democratic majorities. With not much hope of passing controversial legislation, he focused on overdue reform of state institutions. Lucy often accompanied him on visits to prisons, correctional institutions for boys and girls, and hospitals for the mentally ill, deaf and mute. She particularly was satisfied in establishing a soldiers' orphans home, without any state support. Eventually the home became a state institution, in 1870, with Lucy exerting pressure on friends in the Senate to have the home approved during the controversy.

During Rutherford's two-term governorship, Lucy began her role as hostess, entertaining and lodging friends and political visitors in their rented houses near the Capitol. She gave birth to their sixth son during this time. In 1871, Rutherford chose not to run for a third term and, in the spring of 1873, the family moved to Fremont, Ohio, into the home at Spiegel Grove that Uncle Sardis Birchard had built with them in mind. In August, Lucy gave birth to her eighth and final baby, another son -- just weeks before she turned 47 years old. Unfortunately, this son, like his two brothers born during the war, did not survive past two years old.

In 1875, leaders of the Republican party pleaded with Rutherford to run for an unprecedented third term as governor. He won, and during this term was nominated for President at the Republican convention in June 1876. At that time, custom decreed that other people do the talking for the nominated candidate. During this campaign, Lucy became a prime newspaper article subject for the first time. A writer for the New York Herald wrote: "Mrs. Hayes is a most attractive and lovable woman..." A year later, another reporter wrote: "Mrs. Hayes is said to be a student of politics, and to talk intelligently upon their changing phases."

The election was extremely close and had to be decided through a special Electoral Commission. Lucy's confidence in Rutherford helped him through this tense difficulty -- which was not concluded until March 2, 1877, after all the electoral votes were counted and Congress declared Rutherford B. Hayes as the duly elected President. With their sons Birchard and Rutherford in college, Lucy and Rutherford moved into the White House with six-year-old Scott, nine-year-old Fanny, and 21-year-old Webb (who served as his father's personal secretary). Presidential wives did not have staffs then, but Lucy invited nieces, cousins and daughters of friends to help her with social duties. Many of them stayed so long they virtually joined the family, and certainly enlivened White House events.

During her time as First Lady, from 1877 to 1881, she was well loved by her staff and visitors alike. Her husband said that she "hated" formal state dinners and that she felt comfortable at informal gatherings. Although most likely a joint decision, Lucy earned the unfortunate name "Lemonade Lucy" for their decision to not serve alcohol at the White House (although the nickname apparently did not come up until they were out of the White House). In actuality, Rutherford realized the political importance of the temperance movement and its advocates to the Republican party. He also felt public officials should maintain a dignified demeanor. Despite the lack of alcohol, Lucy was a very popular hostess.

Lucy continued to work for veterans' benefits, Native American welfare, rehabilitation of the South, and young people while in the White House -- making frequent trips to Gallaudet College (even supporting various students), the National Deaf Mute College, and the Hampton Institute (where she sponsored a scholarship for Native American students). She contributed generously to Washington charities, and often sent servants on nightly errands delivering a note and money to someone in need. Lucy also started what has become a tradition: the Easter egg roll. When children were banned from rolling eggs on the Capitol grounds, she invited them to use the White House lawn on the Monday after Easter. By the time she left Washington, Lucy was acclaimed the "most widely known and popular President's wife the country has known."

During their stay at the White House, the Hayeses had bathrooms with running water installed and a crude wall telephone added. With a renovating appropriation delayed (due to strained relations with Congress), Lucy scoured the cellar and attic, finding and restoring furniture. After the appropriation was approved, rather than undertaking extensive redecoration, Lucy decided to enlarge the conservatories by converting the connecting billiard room into a greenhouse, which was viewable from the dining room. Together, the Hayeses committed themselves to finishing the Washington Monument and were the first President and First Lady to visit the West Coast, in 1880. Lucy often accompanied Rutherford on trips.

And it was Lucy who was dubbed the title of "First Lady" -- courtesy of Mary Clemmer Ames, a reporter who called her "the first lady of the land," in an account of President Hayes' inauguration. Other reporters liked the title so much (it was much better than "Presidentess"), they continued to use the title for Lucy, as well as her successors.

When he had accepted the presidency, Rutherford said he would only serve one term and he kept his word. And, for as much as she enjoyed Washington, Lucy was also ready to leave. They returned to Spiegel Grove in March, 1881. Lucy devoted herself to her activities: joining the Woman's Relief Corps (founded in 1883), teaching a Sunday School class, attending reunions of the Twenty-third Ohio Volunteer Infantry, entertaining guests, and continuing her work for better prison conditions and veterans' treatment. Later, she was persuaded to serve as national president of the recently formed Woman's Home Missionary Society of the Methodist Church, which worked for the betterment of poor and destitute women.

On a summer afternoon, while sewing beside her bedroom bay window and watching Scott and Fanny and their friends playing tennis, Lucy suffered a severe stroke. Early in the morning on June 25, 1889, she died in her sleep. She was two months from turning 58 years old. Rutherford was grief-stricken; he had lost his partner in all aspects of his life. Later, he would refer to their marriage as "the most interesting fact" of his life. On his forty-eighth birthday, he had written to Lucy: "My life with you has been so happy -- so successful -- so beyond reasonable anticipations, that I think of you with a loving gratitude that I do not know how to express." Their son Webb wrote: "My Mother was all that a Mother could be and in addition was a most joyous and lovable companion."

Rutherford died three years later; the two are buried together at Spiegel Grove. In 1912, their second son, Colonel Webb Cook Hayes, deeded Spiegel Grove to the state of Ohio, including his father's library collection of 12,000 books, and began building a museum on the property. In 1916, he opened the first presidential library and museum in the United States using his own money and some from the state. (See website information below.) In the late 1960s, Lucy's birthplace was restored and opened to the public as the Lucy Webb Hayes Heritage Center (90 West Sixth Street, Chillicothe, OH; 740-775-5829; open Fridays and Saturdays from 1-4 p.m.; $2 admission).

From Women in History, http://www.lkwdpl.org/WIHOHIO/haye-luc.htm

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Lucy Webb Ware Hayes (August 28, 1831 – June 25, 1889) was the wife of President Rutherford B. Hayes of the United States of America and one of the most popular First Ladies of the nineteenth century. Deeply religious, she despised slavery and converted her husband – whose successful career in the Union Army later led him into politics – to the abolitionist cause.

Once in the White House, Lucy Hayes was considered the most popular hostess since Dolley Madison. She was a strong supporter of Temperance, and no alcohol was served in the White House during the Hayes administration, prompting the press to dub her "Lemonade Lucy." She also introduced the custom of having children roll Easter eggs on the White House lawn.

Upon her death, flags across the United States were lowered to half-mast in honor of the "most idolized woman in America." Lucy Hayes was educated at Ohio Wesleyan University, as the first American First Lady to graduate from college.

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Lucy Ware Webb was an advocate for the abolition of slavery and the rights of women in nineteenth century America. She was the wife of President Rutherford B. Hayes.

Lucy Ware Webb was born on August 28, 1831, in Chillicothe, Ohio. Her father, James Webb, was a physician and strong believer in the importance of education. Lucy attended private schools in Chillicothe, before enrolling in a preparatory academy for women, affiliated with Ohio Wesleyan University, in Delaware, Ohio. She attended this school for six years before enrolling in the Wesleyan Female College near Cincinnati, Ohio. Webb graduated with honors in 1850.

On December 30, 1852, Hayes married Lucy Ware Webb. They had eight children (Sardis, James, Rutherford, Frances, Scott, and three died young). In 1856, he was nominated for but declined a municipal judgeship, but in 1858 accepted appointment as Cincinnati city solicitor by the city council and won election outright to that position in 1859, losing a reelection bid in 1860.

Before the American Civil War, Lucy Hayes supported the abolition and women's rights movements. Hayes's sister-in-law inspired her to play an active role in both movements. After her sister-in-law's death in 1855, Hayes became less involved in the women's movement, but she remained committed to abolitionism. During the Civil War, Rutherford enlisted in the Union army. Lucy Hayes reportedly disliked being a woman and unable to fight on the battlefield for the North. Her husband served as the commander of the Twenty-third Ohio Volunteer Infantry Regiment.

Lucy Hayes routinely visited his camp and assisted in military hospitals. She also secured supplies from Northern civilians to better equip the Union soldiers. Soldiers in the Twenty-third Ohio nicknamed Lucy Hayes "Mother of the Regiment" for her contributions to their welfare.

Following the Civil War, voters in Ohio elected Rutherford Hayes governor of the state. He remained in office from 1868 to 1872. Lucy Hayes played an active role in her husband's administration and lobbied the state legislature to provide more funding to schools, orphanages, and insane asylums. In 1876, the Republican Party selected Rutherford Hayes to run as the party's nominee for president. The Presidential election of 1876 was one of the most controversial in the country's history. Hayes was not declared the winner until March 1, 1877, five months after Election Day. In the early days of his administration, the North's military occupation of the South and the Reconstruction era came to an end.

Lucy Hayes was a very popular First Lady. Women copied her hairstyle and clothing. She earned the nickname "Lemonade Lucy" because she refused to serve alcohol in the White House. Hayes was a strong supporter of the temperance movement, but it was her husband who prohibited the serving of alcohol. She believed in education and allowed White House servants to take time off from their duties to attend school. Lucy Hayes wanted women to have greater access to education. She believed that women needed to be educated before receiving the right to vote. She also donated up to one thousand dollars per month to assist the homeless. While Lucy Hayes was admired by the American people, she did not enjoy being First Lady. She was thankful when Rutherford Hayes's term of office ended in 1881.

Rutherford and Lucy Hayes returned to their home, Spiegel Grove, in Fremont, Ohio, in 1881. Today, Spiegel Grove is operated by the Ohio Historical Society and is open to the public. Lucy Hayes remained devoted to her charity work. She played an active role in the Methodist Missionary Society and gave speeches in support of the organization. She died on June 25, 1889, from complications from a stroke. Her husband survived her by four years.

Ohio History Central

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rom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lucy Ware Webb Hayes (August 28, 1831 – June 25, 1889) was a First Lady of the United States and the wife of President Rutherford B. Hayes. While First Lady, she was given the moniker "Lemonade Lucy".

Born in Chillicothe, Ohio, the daughter of James Webb, a physician, and Maria Cook-Webb, Lucy was descended from seven veterans of the American Revolution. Her father died when she was an infant. With her mother, she moved to Delaware, Ohio, where in 1847 she met Rutherford B. Hayes. Later that year, she enrolled at Wesleyan Women’s College (now Ohio Wesleyan University) in Delaware (class of 1850); she was the first First Lady to have graduated from college. Hayes was by this time practicing law in Cincinnati, and the two began dating seriously. He proposed in June 1851.

Rutherford Hayes, aged 30, married Lucy Webb, aged 21, on December 30, 1852, at the home of the bride’s mother in Cincinnati, Ohio. After the wedding, performed by Dr. L.D. McCabe of Delaware, the couple honeymooned at the home of the groom’s sister and brother-in-law in Columbus, Ohio.

The Hayes had four sons and a daughter to live to maturity:

Sardis “Birchard Austin” Birchard Hayes (1853-1926) - lawyer. Born in Cincinnati, he graduated from Cornell University (1874) and Harvard Law School (1877). He settled in Toledo, Ohio, where he prospered as a real estate and tax attorney.

James Webb Cook Hayes (1856-1934) - businessman, soldier. Born in Cincinnati, he followed his brother to Cornell and on graduation became presidential secretary to his father. He later helped found a small business that eventually grew into Union Carbide. During the Spanish-American War, he was commissioned a major and served in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines.

Rutherford Platt Hayes (1858-1931) - library official. Born in Cincinnati, he attended the University of Michigan, graduated from Cornell University (1880), and did post-graduate work at Boston Institute of Technology. He worked as a bank clerk in Fremont, Ohio, for a time but devoted his life to promoting libraries. He also helped develop Asheville, North Carolina, into a health and tourist resort.

Joseph Thompson Hayes (1861-1863).

George Crook Hayes (1864-1866).

Frances “Fanny” Hayes-Smith (1867-1950). Born in Cincinnati, she was educated at a private girls’ school in Farmington, Connecticut. In 1897, she married Ensign Harry Eaton Smith of Fremont, Ohio, later an instructor at the U.S. Naval Academy.

Scott Russell Hayes (1871-1923) - businessman. Born in Cincinnati, he was still a youngster during his father’s presidency. At six he and his sister played host to other Washington area children in the first Easter egg roll conducted on the White House lawn. He was an executive with railroad service companies in New York City.

Manning Force Hayes (1873-1874).

A vigorous opponent of slavery, Hayes contributed to her husband’s decision to abandon the Whigs for the antislavery Republican Party. During the American Civil War, she visited Hayes often in the field. While her husband was governor of Ohio, she helped establish the state Home for Soldiers’ Orphans at Xenia.

As First Lady, Hayes brought her zeal for temperance to the White House. She banned all alcoholic beverages at state functions, excepting only the reception for Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich of Russia in 1877, at which wine was served. Detractors dubbed her “Lemonade Lucy”[citation needed]; the Women's Christian Temperance Union hailed her policy and in gratitude commissioned a full-length portrait of her, which now hangs in the White House. She also instituted the custom of conducting an Easter egg roll on the White House lawn. A devout Methodist, she joined the president in saying prayers after breakfast and conducting group hymn sings with the cabinet and congressmen on Sunday evenings.

Rutherford and Lucy Hayes on their wedding day.

The social highlight of the Hayes years was their twenty-fifth wedding anniversary celebration, at which the president and First Lady repeated their vows at a White House ceremony before many of the same guests who had attended the original nuptials in Cincinnati.

In 1881 she retired with the president to Spiegel Grove in Fremont, Ohio. She died of a stroke on June 25, 1889, and was buried at Spiegel Grove. Upon her death, flags across the United States were lowered to half-staff in honor of the “most idolized woman in America.”

WGA

-------------------- Lucy Ware Webb Hayes (1831-1889) First Lady Lucy Ware Webb Hayes convinced her husband, Rutherford B. Hayes, to fight in the Union army and to oppose slavery. He later became an influential part of the abolitionist cause.

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Lucy Webb Hayes, First Lady ("Lemonade Lucy")'s Timeline

1831
August 28, 1831
Chillicothe, Ross, Ohio, United States
1852
December 30, 1852
Age 21
Cincinnati, Ohio
1853
November 4, 1853
Age 22
Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
1856
March 20, 1856
Age 24
Cincinnati, Franklin, Ohio, United States
1858
January 24, 1858
Age 26
Cincinnati, Hamilton, Ohio, United States
1861
December 21, 1861
Age 30
Cincinnati, Hamilton, Ohio, United States
1864
September 29, 1864
Age 33
Chillicothe, Ross, Ohio, United States
1867
September 2, 1867
Age 36
Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
1871
February 18, 1871
Age 39
Columbus, Franklin, Ohio, United States
1873
August 1, 1873
Age 41
Fremont, Sandusky, Ohio, United States