Pépin III "le Bref", King of the Franks

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Pépin III "le Bref" Martel (av Franken), roi des Francs

Also Known As: "Pepin the Short", "Pepin Caroling the Younger", "King Pepin the Short of the Franks and Mayor of the Palaces of Neustria and Austrasia", "Pâepin le Bref", "Pepin The Short //", "The Short //", "Pepin the Younger", "il Breve", "Den Lille", "le Bref", "Pepin III Krótki", "P....."
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Jupille-sur-Meuse (Liège), Wallonia, Belgium
Death: Died in Saint-Denis, Département de la Seine-Saint-Denis, Ile-de-France, France
Place of Burial: La Basilique Saint-Denis, Saint-Denis, Département de la Seine-Saint-Denis, Ile-de-France, France
Immediate Family:

Son of Charles "Martel", Prince of the Franks and Rotrude
Husband of Leuthergis and Bertha Broadfoot of Laon, Queen of the Franks
Father of Charlemagne, Emperor of the West; Ermengarde des Francs; Chrothais Princess Of des Franks Karolinger, [Princess of]; Gertrude Princess of The Franks Martel, Princess Of France; Bertbelle (Fictional) and 12 others
Brother of Carloman, King of the Franks; Aude of Austrasia; Hiltrud d'Austrasie, Duchess of Bavaria; Bernard, duc de Saint Quentin; Gisèle d'Austrasie and 4 others
Half brother of Emma of Austrasia; Grifo and N.N. d'Austrasie

Occupation: King of the Franks, Mayor of the Palaces of Neustria and Austrasia, King Pepin of France, Rei dos Francos, (Rey de los Francos, Mayordomo del Palacio de Neustria, Mayordomo del Palacio de Austrasia), Foi rei dos Francs (751-768). Foi o primeiro rei da din
Managed by: Sharon Doubell
Last Updated:

About Pépin III "le Bref", King of the Franks

From the English Wikipedia page on Pepin III The Short:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepin_the_Short

and in French: http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/P%C3%A9pin_le_Bref

Pepin or Pippin (714 – 24 September 768), called the Short, and often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III,[1] was the Mayor of the Palace and Duke of the Franks from 741 and King of the Franks from 751 to 768. He was the father of Charlemagne.

He was the son of Charles Martel, mayor of the palace and duke of the Franks, and of Rotrude of Trier (690–724).

Assumption of power

Pepin's father, Charles Martel, died in 741. He divided the rule of the Frankish kingdom between Pepin and his elder brother, Carloman, his surviving sons by his first wife: Carloman became Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, Pepin became Mayor of the Palace of Neustria.

Grifo, Charles's son by his second wife, Swanahild (also known as Swanhilde), demanded a share in the inheritance, but he was imprisoned in a monastery by his two half-brothers.

As in the Frankish realm the unity of the kingdom was essentially connected with the person of the king, Carloman, to secure this unity raised the Merovingian Childeric to the throne (743). In 747 he resolved to enter a monastery. This left Francia in the hands of Pepin as sole mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum, a title originated by his grandfather and namesake Pepin of Heristal.

At the time of Carloman's retirement, Grifo escaped his imprisonment and fled to Duke Odilo of Bavaria, who was married to Hiltrude, Pepin's sister. Pepin put down the renewed revolt led by his half-brother and succeeded in completely restoring the boundaries of the kingdom.

Under the reorganization of Francia by Charles Martel the dux et princeps Francorum were the commanders of the armies of the kingdom, in addition to their administrative duties as mayor of the palace, and specifically commander of the standing guard which Charles Martel had begun maintaining year-round since Toulouse in 721.

First Carolingian king

Pepin was subject to the decisions of Childric who had only the title of King but no power. Childric was considered a joke by the people. Since Pepin had control over the magnates and actually had the power of the king, he now addressed to Pope Zachary the suggestive question: In regard to the kings of the Franks who no longer possess the royal power, is this state of things proper?

Hard pressed by the Lombards, Pope Zacharias welcomed this advance of the Franks which aimed at ending an intolerable condition of things, and at laying the constitutional foundations for the exercise of the royal power. The pope replied that such a state of things was not proper. The de facto power is more important than the de jure power.

After this decision the throne was declared vacant. The crown was given him not by the Pope but by the Franks. According to the ancient custom Pepin was then elected King of the Franks by an assembly of Frankish leading-men, with a large portion of his army on hand (in the event that the nobility inclined not to honor the Papal bull), and anointed at Soissons, by Boniface, Archbishop of Mainz, who, along with his niece, Saint Leoba, was a court advisor.

Meanwhile, Grifo continued his rebellion, but was eventually killed in the battle of Saint-Jean de Maurienne in 753. Childeric III was deposed, his hair shaved off and he was confined to a monastery. He was the last of the Merovingians.

Expansion of the Frankish realm

Pepin added to his power after Pope Stephen II traveled all the way to Paris to anoint him in a lavish ceremony at Saint Denis Basilica, bestowing upon him the additional title of patricius Romanorum (Patrician of the Romans). As life expectancies were short in those days, and Pepin wanted family continuity, the Pope also anointed Pepin's sons, Charles (eventually known as Charlemagne) and Carloman.

Pepin the Short's first major act was to go to war against the Lombard king Aistulf, who had a policy of expansion into the ducatus Romanum, as a partial repayment for papal support in his quest for the crown. Victorious, he forced the Lombard king to return property seized from the Church and confirmed the papacy in possession of Ravenna and the Pentapolis, the so-called Donation of Pepin whereby the Papal States was founded.[2]

In 759, he drove the Saracens out of Gaul with the capture of Narbonne and then consolidated his power further by integrating Aquitaine into the kingdom. In taking Narbonne, and formally annexing Aquitaine (whose status was always dependent on the strength of her suzerains), he completed the work of his father save for one last task: fully subduing the Saxons. He was preparing for war against them when his health began to fail, and thus, this final task was left for his son, the great Charlemagne.

Legacy

Pepin died during a campaign and was brought to Saint Denis to be buried near the saint in 768 and is interred there in the basilica with his wife Bertrada. Pepin was buried "outside that entrance [of Saint Denis Basilica] according to his wishes, face down, for the sins of his father Charles Martel".[3]

The Frankish realm was fractioned according to salic law between his two sons: Charlemagne and Carloman I.

Historical opinion often seems to regard him as the lesser son and lesser father of two greater men, though a great man in his own right. He continued to build up the heavy cavalry which his father had begun. He maintained the standing army that his father had found necessary to protect the realm and form the core of its full army in wartime.

He not only maintained his father's policy of containing the Moors, he drove them over and across the Pyrenees with the capture of Narbonne. He continued his father's expansion of the Frankish church (missionary work in Germany and Scandinavia) and the infrastructure (feudalism) that would prove the backbone of medieval Europe.

His rule, while not as great as either his father's or son's, was historically important and of great benefit to the Franks as a people. It can certainly be argued that Pepin's assumption of the crown, and the title of Patrician of Rome, were harbingers of his son's imperial coronation which is usually seen as the founding of the Holy Roman Empire. He certainly made the Carolingians de jure what his father had made them de facto—the ruling dynasty of the Franks and the foremost power of Europe. While not known as a great general, he was undefeated during his lifetime.

Family

[4].

In 741, Pepin married Bertrada of Laon. Her father, Charibert, was the son of Pepin II's brother, Martin of Laon. They are known to have had eight children, at least three of whom survived to adulthood:

  1. Charles (2 April 742 – 28 January 814), (Charles the Great)
  2. Carloman (751 – 4 December 771)
  3. Gisela (757–810)
  4. Pepin, died in infancy.
  5. Chrothais, died young, buried Metz.
  6. Adelais, died young, buried Metz.
  7. and
  8. Two unnamed daughters[5]

Pepin the Younger

  • Reign: 751–768
  • Born 714, probably - Jupille-sur-Meuse (now part of Liege)
  • Died 24 September 768 (aged 54)
  • Predecessor Childeric III
  • Successor Charlemagne and Carloman I, joint rulers
  • Dynasty Carolingian
  • Father Charles Martel
  • Mother Rotrude of Trier

Notes

1.^ Pepin's name can be very confusing. Historically, historians have vacillated between preference for Pepin, derived from the French Pépin, and the German Pippin. His nickname is also subject to whims, le Bref being translated as either "the Short" or "the Younger". The Younger is explained as referring to the fact that he was the younger of the two Arnulfing Pepins who ruled as mayors of the palace; the Short as deriving from the tales of Notker Balbalus regarding the King's diminutive size. More novel suggestions include a suggestion that "the Short" referred to his hair—since he was the first Frankish king to wear his hair shorn short. Dutton, PE, Charlemagne's Mustache.

2.^ Charles Knight, The English Cyclopaedia: Volume IV, (London : 1867); pg 733 "We have no circumstantial account of this important event, except that Pepin was anointed at Soissons, in March 752, by Boniface, bishop of Mainz, called the Apostle of Germany, before the assembly of the nation."

3.^ Claudio Rendina & Paul McCusker, The Popes: Histories and Secrets, (New York : 2002), pg 145

4.^ "Pepin the Short". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.

5.^ http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/sugar.html

6.^ Treffer Gerd Die französischen Königinnen. Von Bertrada bis Marie Antoinette (8.-18. Jahrhundert) Pustet, Regensburg (1996) pp. 23-29 ISBN 3791715305 ISBN 978-3791715308

7.^ Medieval Lands - Franks, Carolingian Kings Retrieved on 8 November 2008

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From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Carolingians:

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#PepinleBrefFranksB

PEPIN, son of CHARLES "Martel" & his first wife Chrothrudis (715-Saint-Denis 24 Sep 768, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint Denis). Einhard names "Karlomannum…et Pippinum atque Grifonem" as the three sons of "Karlus maior domus" when recording the latter's death[1].

He succeeded his father as maior domus jointly with his brother Carloman. They deprived their half-brother Grifo of his inheritance and defeated him after he rebelled against them.

In the division of territories agreed with his brother Carloman, Pepin governed Neustria, Burgundy, Provence, Metz and Trier. The brothers were faced with revolts in Frisia, Bavaria, Alemannia and Aquitaine. As a symbolic assertion of their authority, they nominated Childeric III as Merovingian king in 743. In 745, Pepin appropriated the province of Alemannia for himself.

He deposed King Childeric III at Soissons in Nov 751, with approval from Pope Zacharius[2], and succeeded as PEPIN “le Bref” King of the Franks.

He was anointed king at Saint-Denis 28 Jul 754 by Pope Stephen III [II], who had come to France to seek Pepin's help against the Lombards[3].

During his expedition to Italy the following year, Pepin obliged the Lombards to accept the independence of Rome, marking the beginning of the Papal State. He captured Narbonne from the Muslim invaders in [759], and finally conquered Aquitaine after the death of Duke Waifar in 768.

The necrology of Prüm records the death "768 VIII Kal Oct" of "Pippinus vir illuster"[4]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "VIII Kal Oct" of "Pipinus rex"[5]. The Annales Metenses record the death "VIII Kal Oct" of "Pippinus" and his burial "in basilica beati Dionysii"[6]. His burial place is confirmed by the Annales Laurissenses which record that the body of "domna Berta regina" was transferred to "ecclesia sancti Dionysii martiris" next to her husband[7].

m ([743/44]) BERTRADA [Berta] "au Grand Pied", daughter of CHARIBERT Comte de Laon & his wife --- ([720]-Choisy-au-Bac, near Compiègne 12 Jul 783[8], bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint Denis). The Annales Laurissenses record the marriage in 749 of "Bertradem cognomine Bertam, Cariberti Laudunensis comitis filiam" and "Pippinus"[9]. "Pippinus rex Francorum" donated property to found Kloster Prüm by charter dated 13 Aug 762 which names "coniux mea Bertrada…genitor suus Heribertus"[10]. Pepin planned to divorce his wife, but was convinced otherwise by Pope Paul I in 762. After the death of her husband, she assumed a prominent role in government. She tried unsuccessfully to reconcile her two sons, meeting with Carloman at Seltz and also travelling to Italy in 770[11]. The Annales Fuldenses record that "Berhta regina" brought "filiam Desiderii regis Langobardorum" back from Italy as the wife for "Karolo filio suo"[12]. The Annales Laurissenses record the death "783 IV Id Jul" of "domna Berta regina", her burial "in Cauciaco", and the subsequent transfer of her body to "ecclesia sancti Dionysii martiris" next to her husband[13]. The necrology of Argenteuil Priory records the death "IV Id Jul" of "Bertrada regina"[14].

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Mayor of the Palace and Duke of the Franks from 741 and King of the Franks from 751 to 768.

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Unattributed biography: Pepin the Short

Mayor of the Palace of the whole Frankish kingdom (both Austrasia and Neustria), and later King of the Franks; born 714; died at St. Denis, 24 September, 768.

He was the son of Charles Martel. Pepin and his older brother Carloman were taught by the monks of St. Denis, and the impressions received during their monastic education had a controlling influence upon the relations of both princes to the Church.

When the father died in 741 the two brothers began to reign jointly but not without strong opposition, for Griffon, the son of Charles Martel and the Bavarian Sonnichilde, demanded a share in the government. Moreover, the Duke of the Aquitanians and the Duke of the Alamannians thought this a favourable opportunity to throw off the Frankish supremacy.

The young kings were repeatedly involved in war, but all their opponents, including the Bavarians and Saxons, were defeated and the unity of the kingdom re-established.

As early as 741 Carloman had entered upon his epoch-making relations with St. Boniface, to whom was now opened a new field of labour, the reformation of the Frankish Church. On 21 April, 742, Boniface was present at a Frankish synod presided over by Carloman at which important reforms were decreed.

As in the Frankish realm the unity of the kingdom was essentially connected with the person of the king, Carloman to secure this unity raised the Merovingian Childeric to the throne (743). In 747 he resolved to enter a monastery. The danger, which up to this time had threatened the unity of the kingdom from the division of power between the two brothers, was removed, and at the same time the way was prepared for the deposing of the last Merovingian and for the crowning of Pepin.

Pepin put down the renewed revolt led by his step-brother Griffon, and succeeded in completely restoring the boundaries of the kingdom. Pepin now addressed to the Pope the suggestive question: In regard to the kings o the Franks who no longer possess the royal power, is this state of things proper?

Hard pressed by the Lombards, Pope Zacharias welcomed this advance of the Franks which aimed at ending an intolerable condition of things, and at laying the constitutional foundations for the exercise of the royal power. The pope replied that such a state of things was not proper. After this decision the place Pepin desired to occupy was declared vacant.

The crown was given him not by the pope but by the Franks. According to the ancient custom Pepin was then elected king and soon after this was anointed by Boniface. This consecration of the new kingdom by the head of the Church was intended to remove any doubt as to its legitimacy. On the contrary, the consciousness of having saved the Christian world from the Saracens produced, among the Franks, the feeling that their kingdom owed its authority directly to God. Still this external cooperation of the pope in the transfer of the kingdom to the Carolingians would necessarily enhance the importance of the Church.

The relations between the two controlling powers of Christendom now rapidly developed. It was soon evident to what extent the alliance between Church and State was to check the decline of ecclesiastical and civil life; it made possible the conversion of the still heathen German tribes, and when that was accomplished provided an opportunity for both Church and State to recruit strength and to grow.

Ecclesiastical, political, and economic developments had made the popes lords of the ducatus Romanus. They laid before Pepin their claims to the central provinces of Italy, which had belonged to them before Liutprand's conquest.

When Stephen II had a conference with King Pepin at Ponthion in January, 754, the pope implored his assistance against his oppressor the Lombard King Aistulf, and begged for the same protection for the prerogatives of St. Peter which the Byzantine exarchs had extended to them, to which the king agreed, and in the charter establishing the States of the Church, soon after given at Quiercy, he promised to restore these prerogatives. The Frankish king received the title of the former representative of the Byzantine Empire in Italy, i.e. "Patricius", and was also assigned the duty of protecting the privileges of the Holy See.

When Stephen II performed the ceremony of anointing Pepin and his son at St. Denis, it was St. Peter who was regarded as the mystical giver of the secular power, but the emphasis thus laid upon the religious character of political law left vague the legal relations between pope and king. After the acknowledgment of his territorial claims the Pope was in reality a ruling sovereign, but he had placed himself under the protection of the Frankish ruler and had sworn that he and his people would be true to the king. Thus his sovereignty was limited from the very start as regards what was external to his domain.

The connection between Rome and the Frankish kingdom involved Pepin during the years 754-56 in war with the Lombard King Aistulf, who was forced to return to the Church the territory he had illegally held.

Pepin's commanding position in the world of his time was permanently secured when he took Septimania from the Arabs. Another particularly important act was his renewed overthrow of the rebellion in Aquitaine which was once more made a part of the kingdom.

He was not so fortunate in his campaigns against the Saxons and Bavarians. He could do no more than repeatedly attempt to protect the boundaries of the kingdom against the incessantly restless Saxons. Bavaria remained an entirely independent State and advanced in civilization under Duke Tassilo.

Pepin's activity in war was accompanied by a widely extended activity in the internal affairs of the Frankish kingdom, his main object being the reform of legislation and internal affairs, especially of ecclesiastical conditions. He continued the ecclesiastical reforms commenced by St. Boniface. In doing this Pepin demanded an unlimited authority over the Church. He himself wished to be the leader of the reforms. However, although St. Boniface changed nothing by his reformatory labours in the ecclesiastico-political relations that had developed in the Frankish kingdom upon the basis of the Germanic conception of the State, nevertheless he had placed the purified and united Frankish Church more definitely under the control of the papal see than had hitherto been the case. From the time of St. Boniface the Church was more generally acknowledged by the Franks to be the mystical power appointed by God.

When he deposed the last of the Merovingians Pepin was also obliged to acknowledge the increased authority of the Church by calling upon it for moral support. Consequently the ecclesiastical supremacy of the Frankish king over the Church of his country remained externally undiminished. Nevertheless by his life-work Pepin had powerfully aided the authority of the Church and with it the conception of ecclesiastical unity.

He was buried at St. Denis where he died. He preserved the empire created by Clovis from the destruction that menaced it; he was able to overcome the great danger arising from social conditions that threatened the Frankish kingdom, by opposing to the unruly lay nobility the ecclesiastical aristocracy that had been strengthened by the general reform.

When he died the means had been created by which his greater son could solve the problems of the empire. Pepin's policy marked out the tasks to which Charlemagne devoted himself: quieting the Saxons, the subjection of the duchies and lastly, the regulation of the ecclesiastical question and with it that of Italy.

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Summary of Pepin III , "the Short"

Name:

Pepin III , "the Short"

Gender:

Male

Father:

Charles "The Hammer" Martel

Mother:

Hrotrude

Facts and Events

Death

9-24-768, St. Denis, Paris, Seine, France.

Birth

714, Austrasia, France.

Marriages

Bertrada "Broadfoot" Laon, Queen of Franks

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From Darryl Lundy's Peerage page (Forrás / Source):

http://www.thepeerage.com/p10325.htm#i103248

Pepin III, King of the Franks (1)

M, #103248, b. 714, d. 24 September 768

Last Edited=20 Aug 2005

Pepin III, King of the Franks was born in 714. He was the son of Charles Martel, King of the Franks and Rotrud (?).

He married Bertha de Laon, daughter of Heribert de Laon, Comte de Laon, in 740.

He died on 24 September 768 at Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France.

Pepin III, King of the Franks also went by the nick-name of Pepin 'the Short' (?). He gained the title of King Pepin of the Franks in 751. (1)

Children of Pepin III, King of the Franks and Bertha de Laon

-1. Charlemagne, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire+ b. 2 Apr 742, d. 28 Jan 814 (1)

-2. Carloman, King of the Franks b. c 751, d. 771 (1)

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Pipin den yngre[1] (fransk: Pépin le Bref, nederlandsk: Pepijn de Korte og tysk: Pippin der Kleine, Pippin der Kurze eller Pippin der Jüngere) (714–24. september 768), ofte kjente under den misforståtte oversettelsen Pipin den lille eller med rekketall Pipin III, var frankernes konge fra 751 til 768.

Veien til makten

Da Pipins far, Karl Martell, døde i 741, ble makten overført til Karls legitime sønner, Pipin og Karloman som rikshovmestere av henholdsvis Neustria og Austrasia. Det var kanskje også meningen at Karls uekte sønn, Grifo, men han ble fengslet i et kloster av sine to halvbrødre.

Karloman som var en dypt religiøs mann, trakk seg tilbake til et kloster i 747. Dette etterlot Frankia i hendene til Pipin som enslig rikshovmester og dux et princeps Francorum, en tittel som oppstod med hans bestefar Pipin av Herstal. Under reorganiseringen til Karl Martell av Frankia, var dux et princeps Francorum kommandantene til kongedømmets arméer, i tillegg til deres administrative plikter som rikshovmestre og spesifikt kommandanter av den stående livvakten som Martell hadde begynt å opprettholde året rundt siden Toulouse i 721.

Da de tok makten insatte Pipin og Karloman som ikke hadde hevdet seg i slag til rikets forsvar slik deres far hadde, den merovingerkongen Childerik III som konge, selv om Martell hadde etterlatt tronen tom siden Teoderik IVs død. Childerik hadde tittelen som konge, men han var en marionett. Ettersom tiden gikk, og hans bror forsvant ut av bildet, ble Pipin misfornøyd med nærværet av kongelig makt utover ham selv. Da Karloman trakk seg tilbake, flyktet Grifo fra sin varetekt og flyktet til hertug Odilo av Bayern som var gift med Hiltrude, Pipins søster. Odilo ble tvunget av Pipin til å anerkjenne frankisk overherredømme, men døde kort tid etterpå (18. januar 748). Pipin invaderte Bayern og innsatte Tassilo III som hertug under frankisk herredømme.

Første karolingerkonge

Siden Pipin hadde kontroll over magnatene og faktisk hadde kongens makt, bestemte han seg for at det var på tide å gjøre det som hans far aldri hadde brydd seg med: gjøre karlongernes navn kongelige i loven slik det allerede reelt sett var. Pipin spurte pave Sakarias om hvem som skulle være den kongelige herskeren: personen med tittelen konge eller personen som tok avgjørelsene til en konge. Paven var avhengig av frankernes arméer for sin uavhengighet og hadde vært avhengig av dem som beskyttelse mot langobardene siden Karl Martells dager. Pipin kontrollerte disse arméene som hans far hadde gjort, derfor var pavens svar avgjort på forhånd. Paven gikk med på at de facto–makt var viktigere enn de jure–makt.

På denne måten skaffet Pipin seg støtte fra paven og dempet dermed opposisjonen mot hans hus. Han ble valgt til frankernes konge av en forsamling av frankiske ledende menn. Han hadde en stor del av arméen for hånden, i tilfelle adelen ikke sluttet seg til den pavelige uttalelsen. Han ble innsatt i Soissons, kanskje av Boniface, erkebiskop av Mainz. Imens fortsatte Grifo sitt opprør, men ble til slutt drept i slaget ved Saint-Jean de Maurienne i 753.

Ekspansjon av det frankiske riket

Han styrket sin makt etter at pave Stefan III reiste hele veien til Paris for å velsigne Pipin i en prangende seremoni i Basilique Saint-Denis og gav ham tilleggstittelen patricius Romanorum (romernes patrisier). Ettersom forventet levealder var lav i de dager og Pipin ønsket kontinuitet i familien, velsignet paven også Pipins sønner, Karl og Karloman.

Pipins første betydelige handling var å gå til krig mot den langobardiske kongen Aistulf som førte en ekspansjonspolitikk inn i ducatus Romanum, delvis som takk for den pavelige støtten i hans forsøk på å overta kronen. Da han seiret, tvang han den langobardiske kongen til å gi tilbake eiendom som ble tatt fra kirken og bekreftet pavens kontroll over Ravenna og Pentapolis, også kalt Pipins donasjon hvor kirkestaten ble grunnlagt. I 759 drev han sarasenerne ut av Gallia da han erobret Narbonne og konsoliderte så sin makt videre ved å integrere Aquitaine inn i kongedømmet. Ved å ta Narbonne og formelt annektere Aquitaine (hvis status alltid hadde vært avhengig av hennes herskere), fullførte han arbeidet til sin far med unntak av en siste oppgave, fullstendig kue sakserne. Han forberedte seg for krig mot dem da helsen hans begynte å bli dårligere, og dermed ble den siste oppgaven overlatt til hans sønn, Karl den store.

Arv

Pipin døde i Saint Denis i 768 og er gravlagt der sammen med sin kone Bertrada.

Historisk ser det ofte ut til at han er regnet som en mindre sønn og en mindre far av to store menn, selv om han var en stor mann etter sine egne bedrifter. Han fortsatte å å bygge opp det tunge kavaleriet som hans far satte i gang. Han opprettholdt den stående hæren som hans far grunnla for å beskytte riket og som dannet kjernen i hans regulære hær i krigstid. Han ikke bare opprettholdt sin fars politikk i å begrense maurerne til sine områder, men drev dem tilbake over Pyreneene da han tok Narbonne. Han fortsatte sin fars ekspansjon av den frankiske kirken (misjon i Tyskland og Skandinavia) og infrastrukturen (føydalisme) som ville bli ryggraden i middelalderens Europa. Hans styre var riktignok ikke like strålende som hans fars eller hans sønns, men det var historisk viktig og av stor fordel for den frankiske folk. Det kan hevdes at Pipins overtagelse av tronen og tittelen patrisier av Roma var forløpere til hans sønns keiserlige kroning som vanligvis blir sett på som grunnleggelsen av det tysk-romerske riket. Han gjorde karolingerne de jure, der hans far gjorde dem de facto, det herskende dynastiet av frankerne og den fremste makten i Europa. Mens han ikke var kjent som en stor general, var han ubeseiret i sin livstid.

Familie

I 740 giftet Pipin seg med Bertrada av Laon, hans tremennig. Hennes far, Charibert, var sønn til Pipin av Herstals bror, Martin av Laon. Av deres barn, ble to sønner og en datter voksne[2].

Karl (2. april 742–28. januar 814), kjent som Karl den store

Karloman (751–4. desember 771)

Gisela (757–810)

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Nascimento: em Jupille, parte da comuna de Liège; ou n/d 715, ou n/d c. 715. União com Berta: ou c. 740, ou 741. Casamento com Berta: ou 744, ou c. 744.

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Pepin III , King of Franks,

Mayor of the palaces of Neustria & Austrasia.

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From the Axeholm Ancestry collaboration site (user input):

http://www.red1st.com/tng603/getperson.php?personID=I1748534526&tree=Axholme

Son of Charles 'the Hammer' Martel, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia,

b. 23 Aug 688, Herstal, Liege, Belgium

d. 22 Oct 741, Quierzy-sur-Oise, Aisne, Picardie, France

AND

Chrotrudis (Rotrou), Duchess of Austrasia,

b. 690, Treves, Austrasia d. 724

Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, Prince of the Franks, Duke of Brenard

Born between 706 and 716. Despite his piety, Carloman could be ruthless towards opponents. After repeated armed revolts and rebellions in 746 he convened an assembly of the Alamanni magnates at Cannstatt and had most of them, numbering in the thousands, arrested and executed for high treason in the "Blood Court at Cannstatt". This eradicated virtually the entire tribal leadership of the Alamanni and ended the independance of the tribal duchy of Alamannia.

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ID: I00146

Name: *Carloman DE HERISTAL

Sex: M

Birth: BET 706 AND 716 1

Death: 17 AUG 754 in Poitiers, Poitou-Charentes, Vienne, France 2

Burial: Monte Cassino, Italy 2

Occupation: BET 741 AND 747 Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia and Chrotrud 1

Note: Wikipedia entry

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Wikipedia page on his brother Carloman:

Carloman (between 706 and 716[1] – 17 August[2] 754) was the eldest son of Charles Martel, major domo or mayor of the palace and duke of the Franks, and his wife Chrotrud.

On Charles' death (741), Carloman and his brother Pippin the Short succeeded to their father's legal positions, Carloman in Austrasia, and Pippin in Neustria. He was a member of the family later called the Carolingians and it can be argued that he was instrumental in consolidating their power at the expense of the ruling Merovingian kings of the Franks. He withdrew from public life in 747 to take up the monastic habit.

After the death of his father, power was not initially divided to include Grifo, another of Charles' sons. This was per Charles' wishes, though Grifo demanded a portion of the realm from his brothers, who refused him.

By 742, Carloman and Pippin had ousted Grifo and forced him into a monastery, and each turned his attention towards his own area of influence as major domo, Pippin in the West (in what was called Neustria, roughly what is now France) and Carloman in the East (in what was called Austrasia, roughly what is now Germany), which was the Carolingian base of power.

With Grifo contained, the two mayors, who had not yet proved themselves in battle in defence of the realm as their father had, on the initiative of Carloman, installed the Merovingian Childeric III as king (743), even though Martel had left the throne vacant since the death of Theuderic IV in 737.

Unlike most medieval instances of fraternal power sharing, Carloman and Pippin for seven years seemed at least willing to work together; certainly, they undertook many military actions together. Carloman joined Pippin against Hunald of Aquitaine's rising in 742 and again in 745. Pippin assisted Carloman against the Saxons 742-743, when Duke Theoderic was forced to come to terms, and against Odilo of Bavaria in 742 and again in 744, when peace was established between the brothers and their brother-in-law, for Odilo had married their sister Hiltrude.

Strengthening of the dynasty

In his own realm, Carloman strengthened his authority in part via his support of the Anglo-Saxon missionary Winfrid (later Saint Boniface), the so-called "Apostle of the Germans," whom he charged with restructuring the church in Austrasia. This was in part the continuation of a policy begun under his grandfather, Pippin of Herstal, and continued to under his father, Charles Martel, who erected four dioceses in Bavaria (Salzburg, Regensburg, Freising, and Passau) and gave them Boniface as archbishop and metropolitan over all Germany east of the Rhine, with his seat at Mainz.

Boniface had been under Charles Martel's protection from 723 on; indeed the saint himself explained to his old friend, Daniel of Winchester, that without it he could neither administer his church, defend his clergy, nor prevent idolatry.

Carloman was instrumental in convening the Concilium Germanicum in 742, the first major Church synod to be held in the eastern regions of the Frankish kingdom. Chaired jointly by him and Boniface, the synod ruled that priests were not allowed to bear arms or to host females in their houses and that it was one of their primary tasks to eradicate pagan beliefs. While his father had frequently confiscated church property to reward his followers and to pay for the standing army that had brought him victory at Tours, (a policy supported by Boniface as necessary to defend Christianity) by 742 the Carolingians were wealthy enough to pay their military retainers and still support the Church. For Carloman, a deeply religious man, it was a duty of love, for Pippin a practical duty. Both saw the necessity of strengthening the ties between their house and the Church. Therefore, Carloman sought to increase the assets of the church. He donated, for instance, the land for one of Boniface's most important foundations, the monastery of Fulda.

Political ruthlessness

Despite his piety, Carloman could be ruthless towards real or perceived opponents. After repeated armed revolts and rebellions, Carloman in 746 convened an assembly of the Alamanni magnates at Cannstatt and then had most of the magnates, numbering in the thousands, arrested and executed for high treason in the Blood Court at Cannstatt. This eradicated virtually the entire tribal leadership of the Alamanni and ended the independence of the tribal duchy of Alamannia, which was thereafter governed by counts appointed by their Frankish overlords.

These actions strengthened Carloman's position, and that of the family as a whole, especially in terms of their rivalries with other leading barbarian families such as the Bavarian Agilolfings.

Withdrawal from public life

On 15 August 747, Carloman renounced his position as major domo and withdrew to a monastic life, being tonsured in Rome by Pope Zachary. All sources from the period indicate that Carloman's renunciation of the world was volitional, although some have speculated that he went to Rome for other, unspecified reasons and was "encouraged" to remain in Rome by the Pope, acting on a request from Pepin to keep Carloman in Italy.[3]

Carloman founded a monastery on Monte Soratte and then went to Monte Cassino. All sources from the period indicate that he believed his calling was the Church. He withdrew to Monte Cassino and spent most of the remainder of his life there, presumably in meditation and prayer. His son, Drogo, demanded from Pippin the Short his father's share of the family patrimony, but was swiftly neutralised.[4]

At the time of Carloman's retirement, Grifo escaped his imprisonment and fled to Bavaria, where Duke Odilo provided support and assistance. But when Odilo died a year later and Grifo attempted to seize the duchy of Bavaria for himself,

Pippin, who had become sole major domo and dux et princeps Francorum, took decisive action by invading Bavaria and installing Odilo's infant son, Tassilo III, as duke under Frankish suzerainty. Grifo continued his rebellion, but was eventually killed in the battle of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne in 753.

Seven years after Carloman's retirement and on the eve of his death, he once more stepped briefly on the public stage. In 754, Pope Stephen II had begged Pippin, now king, to come to his aid against the king of the Lombards, Aistulf. Carloman left Monte Cassino to visit his brother to ask him not to march on Italy (and possibly to drum up support for his son Drogo).[5]

Pippin was unmoved, and imprisoned Carloman in Vienne, where he died on 17 August. He was buried in Monte Cassino.

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Kung Pippin den lille av Franken (även Pippin den yngre)

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Sepultura: "Pepin died during a campaign and was brought to Saint Denis to be buried near the saint in 768 and is interred there in the basilica with his wife Bertrada. Pepin was buried 'outside that entrance [of Saint Denis Basilica] according to his wishes, face down, for the sins of his father Charles Martel'".

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Pipino III de los Francos, más conocido como Pipino el Breve. Su apodo de "El Breve" se debe a su baja estatura. Nació hacia el 715 en Jupille (cerca de Lieja, Bélgica, de donde arranca una gran parte de la dinastía Merovingia y Carolingia) y murió el 24 de septiembre de 768 en Saint-Denis (en el norte de Francia). Hijo menor de Carlos Martel y de Rotrudis de Tréveris. Sus cargos fueron:

   * Mayordomo de palacio de Neustria (741-751) con Borgoña y Provenza
   * Mayordomo de palacio de Austrasia (747-751)
   * Rey de los francos (751-768

A la muerte de Carlos Martel repartió, a la usanza de la época, sus títulos entre sus dos hijos: Carloman heredó el cargo de mayordomo (especie de Jefe de Gobierno o Primer Ministro) del palacio de Austrasia y Pipino, el de mayordomato del palacio de Neustria.

Es el periodo de la decadencia de la dinastía merovingia, cuando los jóvenes "reyes holgazanes" no tienen ya ninguna autoridad y los mayordomos de palacio son los verdaderos gobernantes del Estado. Carlomán y Pipino se reparten entonces el poder del reino franco, que gobernarán entre los dos, luchando, en primer lugar, por devolver la estabilidad a las fronteras del reino.

Comienzan enseguida una reforma de la Iglesia con la ayuda del obispo San Bonifacio y se realizan dos concilios: el primero en Austrasia, convocado por Carlomán en 742-743; el segundo por Pipino, en 744 en Soissons (Neustria), en el que adoptará las decisiones tomadas en el concilio de Austrasia. Esta reforma establecerá la jerarquía en el seno del clero franco, a cuya cabeza se encuentra Bonifacio (evangelizador de Germania), como dirigente de los obispos repartidos por las ciudades del reino.

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From a GEDCOM file:

Pepin, known as The Short, was born in 0714 in Austrasia, France.1

The Short's father was Charles (Martel The Hammer) Austrasia and his mother was Rotrude (Chrotude) Treves. His paternal grandparents were Paepin II d'Heristal and Alpaide Austrasia; his maternal grandparents were Saint/Bishop Leutwinus Treves and daughter of Chrodobertus.

He had three brothers and a sister, named Carloman I, Bernard, Hieronymus and Landree. He was the second oldest of the five children. He had a half-sister named Aude.

He died at the age of 54 on September 24th, 0768 in St. Denis, Paris, Seine, France.

The Short and Bertrade were married. They had a son and a daughter, named Charlemagne and Bertbelle.

Note: Pepin III, King des Francs (Andre Roux: Scrolls, 191.)

  1. Note: (Rosamond, Frankish kingdom under Carolingians.)
  2. Note: (Stuart, Royalty for Commoners, Page 129, Line 171-42.)
  3. Note: (Andre Castelot, Histoire de La France, Tome 1, Pages 269 - 283, 369). Also Known As: Pepin "Le Bref".
  4. Note: Born: in 714 in Austrasia, son of Charles Martel and Rotrude=Chrotrud, Duchesse d'Austrasie ). Married circa 740: Berthe=Bertrada de Laon, daughter of Charibert, Count de Laon and Bertrade N? ;

Berthe was for may years, at least since 740, the concubine of Pepin III. In 749 she convinced him to marry her. Note - between 742 and 753: Pepin III was baptized by the then future Saint Willibrod, famous apostle of Frisia and was brought up at the Monastery of Saint-Denis. He would protect the bishops.

  1. Note: Title: Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on
  2. Note: Page: Pepin III
  3. Note: Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999

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Mayor of the Palace; first king of the Franks of the second race,751-768; m.Bertha.-- dau. of Count Canbert of Laon. (Weis) 1

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First Carolingian King

Pepin died during a campaign and was brought to Saint Denis to be buried near the saint in 768 and is interred there in the basilica with his wife Bertrada. Pepin was buried "outside that entrance [of Saint Denis Basilica] according to his wishes, face down, for the sins of his father Charles Martel".

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On the death of Pippin's father, Charles Martel, in 741, power was passed down to Charles' legitimate sons, Carloman and Pippin as mayors of the palaces of Neustria and Austrasia respectively. Power may also have been intended for Charles' illegitimate son, Grifo, but he was imprisoned in a monastery by his two half-brothers. Carloman, who by all evidence was a deeply pious man, retired to a monastery in 747. This left Francia in the hands of Pippin as sole mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum, a title originated by his grandfather and namesake Pippin of Heristal.

Under the reorganization of Francia by Charles Martel the dux et princeps Francorum were the commanders of the armies of the Kingdom, in addition to their administrative duties as mayor of the palace, and specifically commander of the standing guard which Martel had begun maintaining year-around since Toulouse in 721.

Upon their assumption, Pippin and Carloman, who had not proved themselves in battle in defense of the realm as their father had, installed the Merovingian Childeric III as king, even though Martel had left the throne vacant since the death of Theuderic IV. Childeric had the title of king, but he was a puppet. As time passed, and his brother bowed out of the picture, Pippin became discontent with the presence of any royal power but himself.

At the time of Carloman's retirement, Grifo escaped his imprisonment and fled to Duke Odilo of Bavaria, who was married to Hiltrude, Pippin's sister. Odilo was forced by Pippin to acknowledge Frankish overlordship, but died soon after (January 18, 748). Pippin invaded Bavaria and installed Tassilo III as duke under Frankish overlordship.

In 740, Peppin married Bertrada of Laon, his second cousin. Her father, Charibert, was the son of Pippin II's brother, Martin of Laon. Of their children, two sons and a daughter survived to adulthood.

Charles (April 2, 742 – January 28, 814), Charlemagne (Charles the Great)

Carloman (751 – December 4, 771)

Gisela (757 – 810)

Pippin died at Saint Denis in 768 and is interred there in the basilica with his wife Bertrada. Pippin was buried "outside that entrance (of St. Denis basilica), face down, for the sins of his father Charles Martel".[1] Historical opinion often seems to regard him as the lesser son and lesser father of two greater men, though a great man in his own right. He continued to build up the heavy cavalry which his father had begun. He maintained the standing army that his father had found necessary to protect the realm and form the core of its full army in wartime. He not only maintained his father's policy of containing the Moors, he drove them over and across the Pyrenees with the capture of Narbonne. He continued his father's expansion of the Frankish church (missionary work in Germany and Scandinavia) and the infrastructure (feudalism) that would prove the backbone of medieval Europe. His rule, while not as great as either his father's or son's, was historically important and of great benefit to the Franks as a people.

In 768 AD Pepin the Short died leaving his son, who was to become the greatest Carolingian and perhaps the greatest king of France, as his successor. This son became known as Charles the Great or Carolus Magnus in Latin but we know him best as Charlemagne. This great man was to truly change the history of France, mark the true beginning of the Middle Ages with feudalism, seignorialism and the code of chivalry. In fact, not only was he the father of feudalism but the father of the county system. His impact on the history of France and the rest of Europe was immense not just for the system of government he invented. He was also a man modern genealogists should praise for his influence over learning and record keeping by both church and state.

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Pepin the Short or Pippin[1] (714 – September 24, 768), often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III, was the King of the Franks from 751 to 768 and is best known for being the father of Charlemagne, or Charles the Great.

He was born in 714 in Jupille, close to the city of Liège, in what is today Belgium, where the Carolingian dynasty originated. That territory was then a part of the kingdom of Austrasia. His father was Charles Martel, mayor of the palace and duke of the Franks, and his mother was Chrotrud (a.k.a. Rotrude of Treves) (690-724).

On the death of Pepin's father, Charles Martel, in 741, power was passed down to Charles' legitimate sons, Carloman and Pepin as mayors of the palaces of Neustria and Austrasia respectively. Power may also have been intended for Charles' illegitimate son, Grifo, but he was imprisoned in a monastery by his two half-brothers. Carloman, who by all evidence was a deeply pious man, retired to a monastery in 747. This left Francia in the hands of Pepin as sole mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum, a title originated by his grandfather and namesake Pepin of Heristal.

Under the reorganization of Francia by Charles Martel the dux et princeps Francorum were the commanders of the armies of the Kingdom, in addition to their administrative duties as mayor of the palace, and specifically commander of the standing guard which Martel had begun maintaining year-around since Toulouse in 721.

Upon their assumption, Pepin and Carloman, who had not proved themselves in battle in defense of the realm as their father had, installed the Merovingian Childeric III as king, even though Martel had left the throne vacant since the death of Theuderic IV. Childeric had the title of king, but he was a puppet. As time passed, and his brother bowed out of the picture, Pepin became discontent with the presence of any royal power but himself.

At the time of Carloman's retirement, Grifo escaped his imprisonment and fled to Duke Odilo of Bavaria, who was married to Hiltrude, Pepin's sister. Odilo was forced by Pepin to acknowledge Frankish overlordship, but died soon after (January 18, 748). Pepin invaded Bavaria and installed Tassilo III as duke under Frankish overlordship.

Since Pepin had control over the magnates and actually had the power of the king, he decided it was time to do what his father had never bothered to do, make the Carolingian name royal in law as well as fact. Pepin asked Pope Zachary who should be the royal ruler: the person with the title of King, or the person who makes the decisions as King. Since the Pope depended on the Frankish armies for his independence, and had depended on them for protection from the Lombards since the days of Charles Martel, and Pepin, as his father had, controlled those armies, the Pope's answer was determined well in advance. The Pope agreed that the de facto power was more important than the de jure power. Thus, Pepin, having obtained the support of the papacy, discouraged opposition to his house. He was elected King of the Franks by an assembly of Frankish leading-men (it must be noted he had a large portion of his army on hand, in the event that the nobility inclined not to honor the Papal Bull) and anointed at Soissons, perhaps by Boniface, Archbishop of Mainz, who, along with his niece, Saint Leoba, was a court advisor. Meanwhile, Grifo continued his rebellion, but was eventually killed in the battle of Saint-Jean de Maurienne in 753.

Childeric III was deposed, his hair was shaved off and he was confined to a monastery. He was the last of the Merovingians.

Pepin added to his power after Pope Stephen II traveled all the way to Paris to anoint him in a lavish ceremony at Saint Denis Basilica, bestowing upon him the additional title of patricius Romanorum (Patrician of the Romans). As life expectancies were short in those days, and Pepin wanted family continuity, the Pope also anointed Pepin's sons, Charles (eventually known as Charlemagne) and Carloman.

Pepin's first major act was to go to war against the Lombard king Aistulf, who had a policy of expansion into the ducatus Romanum, as a partial repayment for papal support in his quest for the crown. Victorious, he forced the Lombard king to return property seized from the Church and confirmed the papacy in possession of Ravenna and the Pentapolis, the so-called Donation of Pepin whereby the Papal States was founded. In 759, he drove the Saracens out of Gaul with the capture of Narbonne and then consolidated his power further by integrating Aquitaine into the kingdom. In taking Narbonne, and formally annexing Aquitaine (whose status was always dependent on the strength of her suzerains), he completed the work of his father save for one last task: fully subduing the Saxons. He was preparing for war against them when his health began to fail, and thus, this final task was left for his son, the great Charlemagne.

Pepin died at Saint Denis in 768 and is interred there in the basilica with his wife Bertrada. Pepin was buried "outside that entrance (of St. Denis basilica), face down, for the sins of his father Charles Martel".[1] Historical opinion often seems to regard him as the lesser son and lesser father of two greater men, though a great man in his own right. He continued to build up the heavy cavalry which his father had begun. He maintained the standing army that his father had found necessary to protect the realm and form the core of its full army in wartime. He not only maintained his father's policy of containing the Moors, he drove them over and across the Pyrenees with the capture of Narbonne. He continued his father's expansion of the Frankish church (missionary work in Germany and Scandinavia) and the infrastructure (feudalism) that would prove the backbone of medieval Europe. His rule, while not as great as either his father's or son's, was historically important and of great benefit to the Franks as a people. It can certainly be argued that Pepin's assumption of the crown, and the title of Patrician of Rome, were harbingers of his son's imperial coronation which is usually seen as the founding of the Holy Roman Empire. He certainly made the Carolingians de jure what his father had made them de facto—the ruling dynasty of the Franks and the foremost power of Europe. While not known as a great general, he was undefeated during his lifetime.

In 740, Pepin married Bertrada of Laon, his second cousin. Her father, Charibert, was the son of Pepin II's brother, Martin of Laon. Of their children, two sons and a daughter survived to adulthood.

• Charlemagne (April 2, 742 – January 28, 814), (Charles the Great)

• Carloman (751 – December 4, 771)

• Gisela (757 – 810)

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From http://www.rpi.edu/~holmes/Hobbies/Genealogy/ps03/ps03_449.htm

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The first king of the Frankish Carolingian dynasty and the father of Charlemagne. A son of Charles Martel, Pepin became sole de facto ruler of the Franks in 747 and then, on the deposition of Childeric III in 751, king of the Franks. He was the first Frankish king to be anointed--first by St. Boniface and later (754) by Pope Stephen II.

Background and kingship.

For years the Merovingian kings had been unable to prevent power from slipping from their hands into those of the counts and other magnates. The kings were gradually eclipsed by the mayors of the palace, whose status developed from that of officer of the household to regent or viceroy. Among the mayors, a rich family descended from Pepin of Landen (Pepin I) held a position of especial importance. When Charles Martel, the scion of that family, died in 741, he left two sons: the elder, Carloman, mayor of Austrasia, Alemannia, and Thuringia, and Pepin III, mayor of Neustria, Burgundy, and Provence. No king had ruled over all the Franks since 737, but to maintain the fiction of Merovingian sovereignty, the two mayors gave the crown to Childeric III in 743. (See mayor of the palace.)

Charles had had a third son, however--Grifo, who had been born to him by a Bavarian woman of high rank, probably his mistress. In 741, when his two brothers were declared mayors of the Franks, Grifo rebelled. He led a number of revolts in subsequent years and was several times imprisoned. In 753 he was killed amid the Alpine passes on his way to join the Lombards, at this time enemies of the Franks as well as of the papacy.

Numerous other rebellions broke out. In 742 men of the Aquitaine and Alemannia were in revolt; in 743 Odilo, duke of Bavaria, led his men into battle; in 744 the Saxons rebelled, in 745 Aquitaine, and in 746 Alemannia, both the latter for the second time.

In 747, when Carloman decided to enter monastic life at Rome, a step he had been considering for years, Pepin became sole ruler of the Franks. But Pepin was ambitious to govern his people as king, not merely as mayor. Like his father, he had courage and resolution; unlike his father, he had a strong desire to unite the papacy with the Frankish realm. In 750 he sent two envoys to Pope Zacharias with a letter asking: "Is it wise to have kings who hold no power of control?" The pope answered: "It is better to have a king able to govern. By apostolic authority I bid that you be crowned King of the Franks." Childeric III was deposed and sent to a monastery, and Pepin was anointed as king at Soissons in November 751 by Archbishop Boniface and other prelates.

Pepin and Pope Stephen II.

The pope was in need of aid. Aistulf, king of the Lombards, had seized Ravenna with its lands, known as the exarchate. Soon, Lombard troops marched south, surrounded Rome, and prepared to lay siege to its walls. So matters stood when in 752 Zacharias died and Stephen II became pope. In November 753 Pope Stephen made his way over the stormy mountain passes to Frankish territory. He remained in France until the summer of 754, staying at the abbey of Saint-Denis, Paris. There he himself anointed Pepin and his sons, Charles and Carloman, as king and heirs of the crown. (See Italy, history of.)

The pope returned to Italy accompanied by Pepin and his army. A fierce battle was fought in the Alps against Aistulf and the Lombards. The Lombard king fled back to his capital, Pavia; Pepin and his men plundered the land around Pavia until Aistulf promised to restore to papal possession Ravenna and all the Roman properties claimed by the pope.

Aistulf broke his word. Again and again Pope Stephen wrote to Pepin of his difficulties. In 756 the Frankish king once more entered Italy. Aistulf was once more constrained to make promises, but the same year he died--of a fall from his horse--and in April 757 a new king, Desiderius, became ruler of the Lombards. That year Stephen II also died, and Paul I was elected pope. He, too, constantly wrote to Pepin asking for help.

But the King of the Franks had other concerns. He had to put down revolts in Saxony in 748 and 753 and a rising in Bavaria in 749. He was continually marching against rebellious Aquitaine. In 768 Pepin died at Saint-Denis, on his way back from one of his Aquitainian expeditions.

Pepin is remembered not only as the first of the Carolingians but also as a strong supporter of the Roman Church. The papal claims to territory in Italy originated with Pepin's campaigns against Aistulf and the latter's pledge to return the Roman territories. His letters also show him calling for archbishoprics in Frankish territory, promoting synods of clergy and layfolk, and as deeply interested in theology.

Pippin was crowned at Soissons in 11-751 and consecrated King at St. Denis in 754 by Winfred (St. Boniface, b. ca. 675 in Devonshire, England, a monk who was commissioned by the pope to work in Germany, murdered in 754 by pagans, called the Apostle to the Germans; his consecration of Pippin was approved by the pope, wherein the church acknowledged his royal title and which Pippin rewarded by establishing the temporal power of the papacy). He extended Austrasian power beyond the Rhine and the Pyrenees, and his alliance with the church opened the way for restoration of

the western empire (achieved by his son, Charles the Great). Pippin was the first king of the new monarchy which would take its name (Carolingian) from his great son (Carolus = Charles). A younger son, Carloman, received the southern half of his domains, but on Carloman's death in Dec. 771 Charles siezed these lands.

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gedoopt: Utrecht

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http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/P%C3%A9pin_le_Bref

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepin_the_Short

http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/III._Pipin_frank_kir%C3%A1ly

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He and his wife were first cousins once removed

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Pepin or Pippin (714 – 24 September 768), called the Short, and often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III,[1] was the Mayor of the Palace and Duke of the Franks from 741 and King of the Franks from 751 to 768. He was the father of Charlemagne.

He was the son of Charles Martel, mayor of the palace and duke of the Franks, and of Rotrude of Trier (690-724).

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Pepin or Pippin, called the Short, and often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III, was the Mayor of the Palace and Duke of the Franks from 741 and King of the Franks from 751 to 768.

Pepin's father, Charles Martel, died in 741. He divided the rule of the Frankish kingdom between Pepin and his elder brother, Carloman, his surviving sons by his first wife: Carloman became Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, Pepin became Mayor of the Palace of Neustria. Grifo, Charles's son by his second wife, Swanahild (aka Swanhilde), may also have been intended to receive an inheritance, but he was imprisoned in a monastery by his two half-brothers. Carloman, who by all evidence was a deeply pious man, retired to a monastery in 747. This left Francia in the hands of Pepin as sole mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum, a title originated by his grandfather and namesake Pepin of Heristal.

Around 735 (?) Pepin married Leutberga (712?-760?) from the Danube region. They had five children. She was repudiated some time after the birth of Charlemagne and her children were sent to convents. According to some sources, she settled in Lorsch, possibly in a convent.

In 740, Pepin married Bertrada of Laon, his second cousin. Her father, Charibert, was the son of Pepin II's brother, Martin of Laon. They are known to have had at least four children, including our ancestor Charlemagne.

Since Pepin had control over the magnates and actually had the power of the king, he suggested the Pope make the Carolingian name royal in law as well as fact. Pepin asked Pope Zachary, "Is it right that the royal power sit with the person with the title of King, or the person who makes the decisions as King?" The Pope answered that the de facto power is more important than the de jure power. Thus, Pepin, having obtained the support of the papacy, discouraged opposition to his house. He was elected King of the Franks by an assembly of Frankish leading-men, with a large portion of his army on hand (in the event that the nobility inclined not to honor the Papal bull), and anointed at Soissons, by Boniface, Archbishop of Mainz, who, along with his niece, Saint Leoba, was a court advisor. Meanwhile, Grifo continued his rebellion, but was eventually killed in the battle of Saint-Jean de Maurienne in 753. Childeric III was deposed, his hair shaved off and he was confined to a monastery. He was the last of the Merovingians.

Pepin added to his power after Pope Stephen II traveled all the way to Paris to anoint him in a lavish ceremony at Saint Denis Basilica, bestowing upon him the additional title of patricius Romanorum (Patrician of the Romans). As life expectancies were short in those days, and Pepin wanted family continuity, the Pope also anointed Pepin's sons, Charles (eventually known as Charlemagne) and Carloman.

Pepin's first major act was to go to war against the Lombard king Aistulf, who had a policy of expansion into the ducatus Romanum, as a partial repayment for papal support in his quest for the crown. Victorious, he forced the Lombard king to return property seized from the Church and confirmed the papacy in possession of Ravenna and the Pentapolis, the so-called Donation of Pepin whereby the Papal States was founded.[2] In 759, he drove the Saracens out of Gaul with the capture of Narbonne and then consolidated his power further by integrating Aquitaine into the kingdom. In taking Narbonne, and formally annexing Aquitaine (whose status was always dependent on the strength of her suzerains), he completed the work of his father save for one last task: fully subduing the Saxons. He was preparing for war against them when his health began to fail, and thus, this final task was left for his son, the great Charlemagne.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pippin_the_Short for more information.

--------------------

Pepin or Pippin (714 – 24 September 768), called the Short, and often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III, was the Mayor of the Palace and Duke of the Franks from 741 and King of the Franks from 751 to 768. He was the father of Charlemagne.

He was the son of Charles Martel, mayor of the palace and duke of the Franks, and of Rotrude of Trier (690–724).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepin_the_Short

--------------------

Pepin the Short

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pepin the Short

King of the Franks, Mayor of the Palaces of Neustria and Austrasia


Reign 751 – 768

Born 714

Died 24 September 768

Predecessor Childeric III

Successor Charlemagne

Carloman I, joint ruler with Charlemagne

Dynasty Carolingian

Carolingian dynasty

Pippinids

Pippin the Elder (c. 580–640)

Grimoald (616–656)

Childebert the Adopted (d. 662)


Arnulfings

Arnulf of Metz (582–640)

Chlodulf of Metz (d. 696 or 697)

Ansegisel (c.602–before 679)

Pippin the Middle (c.635–714)

Grimoald II (d. 714)

Drogo of Champagne (670–708)

Theudoald (d. 714)


Carolingians

Charles Martel (686–741)

Carloman (d. 754)

Pepin the Short (714–768)

Carloman I (751–771)

Charlemagne (d. 814)

Louis the Pious (778–840)


After the Treaty of Verdun (843)

Lothair I, Holy Roman Emperor (795–855)

(Middle Francia)

Charles the Bald (823–877)

(Western Francia)

Louis the German (804–876)

(Eastern Francia)


Pepin or Pippin (714 – 24 September 768), called the Short, and often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III,[1] was the Mayor of the Palace and Duke of the Franks from 741 and King of the Franks from 751 to 768. He was the father of Charlemagne.

He was the son of Charles Martel, mayor of the palace and duke of the Franks, and of Rotrude of Trier (690-724).


Assumption of power

Pepin's father, Charles Martel, died in 741. He divided the rule of the Frankish kingdom between Pepin and his elder brother, Carloman, his surviving sons by his first wife: Carloman became Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, Pepin became Mayor of the Palace of Neustria. Grifo, Charles's son by his second wife, Swanahild (aka Swanhilde), may also have been intended to receive an inheritance, but he was imprisoned in a monastery by his two half-brothers. Carloman, who by all evidence was a deeply pious man, retired to a monastery in 747. This left Francia in the hands of Pepin as sole mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum, a title originated by his grandfather and namesake Pepin of Heristal.

Under the reorganization of Francia by Charles Martel the dux et princeps Francorum were the commanders of the armies of the kingdom, in addition to their administrative duties as mayor of the palace, and specifically commander of the standing guard which Martel had begun maintaining year-round since Toulouse in 721.

Upon their assumption, Pepin and Carloman, who had not proved themselves in battle in defense of the realm as their father had, installed Childeric III as king, even though Martel had left the throne vacant since the death of Theuderic IV. Childeric had the title of king, but he was considered weak. As time passed, and his brother bowed out of the picture, Pepin became discontent with the royal power being with Childeric.

At the time of Carloman's retirement, Grifo escaped his imprisonment and fled to Duke Odilo of Bavaria, who was married to Hiltrude, Pepin's sister. Odilo was forced by Pepin to acknowledge Frankish overlordship, but died soon after (January 18, 748). Pepin invaded Bavaria and installed Tassilo III as duke under Frankish overlordship.

[edit] First Carolingian king

Since Pepin had control over the magnates and actually had the power of the king, he suggested the Pope make the Carolingian name royal in law as well as fact. Pepin asked Pope Zachary, "Is it right that the royal power sit with the person with the title of King, or the person who makes the decisions as King?" The Pope answered that the de facto power is more important than the de jure power. Thus, Pepin, having obtained the support of the papacy, discouraged opposition to his house. He was elected King of the Franks by an assembly of Frankish leading-men, with a large portion of his army on hand (in the event that the nobility inclined not to honor the Papal bull), and anointed at Soissons, by Boniface, Archbishop of Mainz, who, along with his niece, Saint Leoba, was a court advisor. Meanwhile, Grifo continued his rebellion, but was eventually killed in the battle of Saint-Jean de Maurienne in 753. Childeric III was deposed, his hair shaved off and he was confined to a monastery. He was the last of the Merovingians.

[edit] Expansion of the Frankish realm

Pepin added to his power after Pope Stephen II traveled all the way to Paris to anoint him in a lavish ceremony at Saint Denis Basilica, bestowing upon him the additional title of patricius Romanorum (Patrician of the Romans). As life expectancies were short in those days, and Pepin wanted family continuity, the Pope also anointed Pepin's sons, Charles (eventually known as Charlemagne) and Carloman.

Pepin's first major act was to go to war against the Lombard king Aistulf, who had a policy of expansion into the ducatus Romanum, as a partial repayment for papal support in his quest for the crown. Victorious, he forced the Lombard king to return property seized from the Church and confirmed the papacy in possession of Ravenna and the Pentapolis, the so-called Donation of Pepin whereby the Papal States was founded.[2] In 759, he drove the Saracens out of Gaul with the capture of Narbonne and then consolidated his power further by integrating Aquitaine into the kingdom. In taking Narbonne, and formally annexing Aquitaine (whose status was always dependent on the strength of her suzerains), he completed the work of his father save for one last task: fully subduing the Saxons. He was preparing for war against them when his health began to fail, and thus, this final task was left for his son, the great Charlemagne.

Legacy

Pepin died during a campaign and was brought to Saint Denis to be buried near the saint in 768 and is interred there in the basilica with his wife Bertrada. Pepin was buried "outside that entrance [of Saint Denis Basilica] according to his wishes, face down, for the sins of his father Charles Martel".[3]

The Frankish realm was fractioned according to salic law between his two sons: Charlemagne and Carloman I.

Historical opinion often seems to regard him as the lesser son and lesser father of two greater men, though a great man in his own right. He continued to build up the heavy cavalry which his father had begun. He maintained the standing army that his father had found necessary to protect the realm and form the core of its full army in wartime. He not only maintained his father's policy of containing the Moors, he drove them over and across the Pyrenees with the capture of Narbonne. He continued his father's expansion of the Frankish church (missionary work in Germany and Scandinavia) and the infrastructure (feudalism) that would prove the backbone of medieval Europe.

His rule, while not as great as either his father's or son's, was historically important and of great benefit to the Franks as a people. It can certainly be argued that Pepin's assumption of the crown, and the title of Patrician of Rome, were harbingers of his son's imperial coronation which is usually seen as the founding of the Holy Roman Empire. He certainly made the Carolingians de jure what his father had made them de facto—the ruling dynasty of the Franks and the foremost power of Europe. While not known as a great general, he was undefeated during his lifetime.

Family

In 740, Pepin married Bertrada of Laon, his second cousin. Her father, Charibert, was the son of Pepin II's brother, Martin of Laon. They are known to have had four children:

Charles (April 2, 742 – January 28, 814), (Charles the Great)

Carloman (751 – December 4, 771)

Gisela (757 – 810)

Pepin, who died in infancy.

Chrothais, died young, buried Metz.

Adelais, died young, buried Metz.

2 un-named daughters[4]

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pippin_the_Short

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Pipino III de los Francos, más conocido como Pipino el Breve. Su apodo de "El Breve" se debe a su baja estatura. Nació hacia el 715 en Jupille (cerca de Lieja, Bélgica, de donde arranca una gran parte de la dinastía Merovingia y Carolingia) y murió el 24 de septiembre de 768 en Saint-Denis (en el norte de Francia). Hijo menor de Carlos Martel y de Rotrudis de Tréveris. Sus cargos fueron:

   * Mayordomo de palacio de Neustria (741-751) con Borgoña y Provenza
   * Mayordomo de palacio de Austrasia (747-751)
   * Rey de los francos (751-768)

A la muerte de Carlos Martel repartió, a la usanza de la época, sus títulos entre sus dos hijos: Carloman heredó el cargo de mayordomo (especie de Jefe de Gobierno o Primer Ministro) del palacio de Austrasia y Pipino, el de mayordomato del palacio de Neustria.

Es el periodo de la decadencia de la dinastía merovingia, cuando los jóvenes "reyes holgazanes" no tienen ya ninguna autoridad y los mayordomos de palacio son los verdaderos gobernantes del Estado. Carlomán y Pipino se reparten entonces el poder del reino franco, que gobernarán entre los dos, luchando, en primer lugar, por devolver la estabilidad a las fronteras del reino.

Comienzan enseguida una reforma de la Iglesia con la ayuda del Obispo San Bonifacio y se realizan dos concilios: el primero en Austrasia, convocado por Carlomán en 742-743; el segundo por Pipino, en 744 en Soissons (Neustria), en el que adoptará las decisiones tomadas en el concilio de Austrasia. Esta reforma establecerá la jerarquía en el seno del clero franco, a cuya cabeza se encuentra Bonifacio (evangelizador de Germania), como dirigente de los obispos repartidos por las ciudades del reino.En el año 747 Carlomán se retira a la vida monástica y cede la mayoría de Austrasia a su hermano pequeño, con lo cual Pipino se convierte en el dirigente efectivo de todo el reino franco. Desde ese momento, comienza un duro enfrentamiento para deshacerse de Childerico III, el soberano merovingio del que depende oficialmente. Para demostrar la inutilidad de los reyes merovingios, Carlos Martel había dejado vacante el trono tras la muerte de Teodorico IV en 737 (durante los siete años de vacío real, todos los documentos oficiales llevarán la fecha de 737). En 743, Pipino libera a Childerico del monasterio en el que lo había encerrado su padre y le permite ocupar el trono del que había sido desposeído. Su retorno propicia la coalición formada, entre otros, por el duque de los alemanes y Hunald, de Aquitania, que reaccionan mal ante la eliminación política de Grifon (hermanastro de Pipino y Carlomán) pero, al reponer a Childerico en el trono, Pipino consigue un medio para apaciguarlos durante un tiempo.

Hacia 744, contrae nupcias con Bertrada de Laon, llamada la del pie grande, hija de Cariberto, Conde de Laon (el apodo se le puso por tener un pie más grande que el otro).

En 750, Pipino envía una delegación franca a entrevistarse con el Papa Zacarías I, en solicitud de una autorización para poner fin al decadente reino merovingio y ocupar el trono de Childerico. Zacarías acepta y declara que "debe ser Rey el que ejerce la realidad del poder".

En noviembre de 751, Pipino depone a Childerico III y se hace coronar en el campo de mayo en Soissons, siendo proclamado por una asamblea de obispos, nobles y Leudes (grandes del reino). Esta elección se consigue sin derramamiento de sangre. Childerico III, tras ser depuesto, es tonsurado (pierde sus largos cabellos, signo del poder entre los francos) y termina sus días encerrado en el monasterio de San Bertin, cerca de Saint-Omer.

Pero aunque Pipino haya conseguido el título de Rey y su poder, éste no le pertenece, y esta ruptura de la dinastía merovingia precisa de una nueva que deberá reemplazar la sucesión natural de padres a hijos. Esta continuidad queda asegurada por la consagración real seguida de la unción, simbolizada en el bautismo de Clodoveo I y la alianza particular entre la Iglesia y los reyes francos. Es en Soissons, donde el obispo Bonifacio, su consejero diplomático, le ungirá marcando su frente con el aceite santo —el Saint-Chrême— como ya se hacía a lo largo de una ceremonia en la que se consagraba a los reyes visigodos de Toledo. Por medio de esta unción, el rey de los francos, a partir de ese momento investido de una misión de guía militar y religiosa, detenta la fuerza moral del "derecho divino", es decir, de "dirigir los pueblos que Dios le confía"; pero esta legitimidad tiene un coste: el de la fidelidad a la Iglesia y a quien la dirige, el Papa Zacarías que, desde Roma, ha dado su consentimiento para el cambio de dinastía.

Pipino será consagrado por segunda vez, por Bonifacio, en diciembre de ese mismo año, en Maguncia, como señor de Austrasia.El cisma de Bizancio obligó al Papado a aliarse con el rey de los francos. El nuevo Papa, Esteban II (sucesor de Zacarías muerto en 752) pide ayuda militar para luchar contra los lombardos y su Rey Astolfo (o Astolf), que amenazan a Roma. Si el Papa Esteban se decide a atravesar los Alpes para solicitar la ayuda del rey de los francos (es la primera vez que un Papa emprende semejante viaje), es porque no tiene otra elección. El protector habitual de la Iglesia es el Emperador bizantino que gobierna en Constantinopla bajo el Imperio romano de Oriente, pero éste se encuentra en precarias condiciones y no tiene posibilidad de concurrir en auxilio del papado.

El 6 de enero, en el palacio de Ponthion, en el sur de Champaña, el rey Pipino se postra delante del Papa Esteban II y, con suma deferencia, toma la brida de su caballo, reproduciendo el mismo gesto elegante del emperador Constantino I el Grande ante el Papa Silvestre I. Fue un acto político muy hábil. Esteban II le propone a Pipino una alianza asegurándole una segunda consagración, realizada por él mismo, la "gracia divina" para el rey de los francos y para sus hijos. El acuerdo definitivo se pacta el 14 de abril en Quierzy-sur-Oise, en el norte de París. En tanto que el Papa aporta su apoyo espiritual a Pipino, este último se compromete a ofrecer a la Santa Sede un dominio lo suficientemente grande como para que pueda preservarle de toda agresión.

El domingo 28 de julio de 754, en la basílica de Saint Dennis, el Papa Esteban II consagra a Pipino y le confiere los títulos de Rey de los Francos y Patricio de los romanos (Patricius Romanorum). Los hijos y herederos de Pipino, Carlomán y Carlos, también son consagrados en la misma ceremonia, al igual que su madre Berta. El Papa establece, por medio de este acto, un estrecho lazo de continuidad entre la unción realizada a los reyes del Antiguo Testamento y los reyes de la nueva dinastía. Esta consagración pone fin, oficialmente, a la dinastía merovingia y legaliza el advenimiento de los Carolingios al poder.

Asegurando el reinado de Pipino III sobre los francos y consagrándole el mismo como tal, el Papa ha marcado las distancias con el emperador de Bizancio. La Santa Sede se somete, a partir de ahora y para su seguridad, a los soberanos francos. Es el principio de una larga colaboración, aunque a menudo tormentosa, con los Carolingios y sus lejanos herederos del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico. Y como consecuencia de esta consagración, la legitimidad del rey de los francos, a veces de "derecho divino", no dependerá exclusivamente de los señores francos electores del rey. Pipino se considera, sin embargo, el primer rey por la voluntad de Dios y el principio de este reinado de "derecho divino" durará en Francia sin interrupción durante ciento once años.

Pipino no puede, por tanto, rehusar la petición del Papa. Nuevo "David" y primer rey cristiano, por la "gracia de Dios", está obligado a cumplir con el Papa Esteban II (en tanto que hijo amado de la Iglesia, tomando la defensa de su Santa Madre) y a romper su alianza con los lombardos. El envío de una delegación el 14 de octubre de 754 para calmar a los lombardos en sus reivindicaciones, no surtirá efecto; y en 755 Pipino lanza contra ellos una primera expedición de la que sale victorioso. Pero al año siguiente, los lombardos ponen sitio a Roma. Por tanto, de 756 a 758 deberá lanzar Pipino tres campañas contra ellos hasta conseguir echarlos hasta las cercanías de Rávena.

Al final de estas expediciones, Pipino el Breve acude a entregar al Papa los territorios conquistados: veintidós ciudades de la Italia central, Ravena, Perusa y las provincias de Emilia-Romagna y de la Pentacole se unen a Roma, formándose así el nuevo Estado Pontificio. No obstante, Pipino, tras esta victoria, multiplicará sus esfuerzos diplomáticos para intentar restablecer la concordia entre los lombardos y Roma.

Durante su reinado, Pipino consiguió devolver el orden en su reino:

   * Con los grandes señores, obtuvo su vasallaje por medio de juramentos de fidelidad
   * Logró expulsar definitivamente a los árabes de la Septimania, provincia del reino franco, tras la toma de Narbona en el 759.
   * Recuperó la Aquitania tras una larga serie de batallas contra Gaifier, duque de Aquitania, de 761 a 768.

No obstante, deberá continuar luchando para asegurar su autoridad en las fronteras, especialmente en Germania donde, después de la abdicación de Carlomán en 747, tuvo que enfrentarse con su hermanastro Grifon, hijo ilegítimo de Carlos Martel, que se había hecho reconocer como duque de Baviera. Una vez vencido, fue nombrado duque del Meno, marca creada por él; fue la manera de alejarlo de los bávaros y disuadirle de cualquier revuelta. Pero, desgraciadamente, se enfrentó a los lombardos y fue asesinado.

En 754-755, Pipino inicia una reforma monetaria con la adopción del denario de plata en 755 e instaurando el diezmo en 756. El Edicto de Ver fue una primera tentativa de uniformar el peso y el aspecto del denario de plata franco, pero la marca de la autoridad real no figura sistemáticamente en la moneda hasta la llegada de Carlomagno, a partir de 793.

Murió el 24 de septiembre de 768 en Saint-Denis, tras haber repartido el reino, siguiendo la vieja costumbre franca, entre sus dos hijos Carlos I (el futuro Carlomagno) y Carlomán. Fue enterrado en la abadía de Saint-Denis, donde también reposan su hijo Carlomán, muerto en 771, y su esposa Bertrada, fallecida en 783.

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Familj med Bertrada av Leon (720 - 783)

Barn:

Karl (Charlemagne) 'den store' av Frankerna (742 - 814)

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Noteringar

Pippin den lille blev major domus i rikets västra del år 741 och i hela riket år 747. Han störtade den siste merovingerkungen, Kilderik III och blev själv kung år 751. Han ordnade de kaotiska förhållanden som rått under yngre merovingertid, krigade framgångsrikt mot langobarderna och bidrog till grundandet av Kyrkostaten. Hans verk fortsattes av sonen Karl den store.

Källa: Bra Böcker

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Källor

1)  Directory of Royal Genealogical Data, Hull, England 
 
 


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Pepin or Pippin (714 – 24 September 768), called the Short, and often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III,[1] was the Mayor of the Palace and Duke of the Franks from 741 and King of the Franks from 751 to 768. He was the father of Charlemagne.

He was the son of Charles Martel, mayor of the palace and duke of the Franks, and of Rotrude of Trier (690–724).

Pimpin's father, Charles Martel, died in 741. He divided the rule of the Frankish kingdom between Pepin and his elder brother, Carloman, his surviving sons by his first wife: Carloman became Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, Pepin became Mayor of the Palace of Neustria. Grifo, Charles's son by his second wife, Swanahild (also known as Swanhilde), demanded a share in the inheritance, but he was imprisoned in a monastery by his two half-brothers.

As in the Frankish realm the unity of the kingdom was essentially connected with the person of the king, Carloman, to secure this unity raised the Merovingian Childeric to the throne (743). In 747 he resolved to enter a monastery. This left Francia in the hands of Pepin as sole mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum, a title originated by his grandfather and namesake Pepin of Heristal.

At the time of Carloman's retirement, Grifo escaped his imprisonment and fled to Duke Odilo of Bavaria, who was married to Hiltrude, Pepin's sister. Pepin put down the renewed revolt led by his half-brother and succeeded in completely restoring the boundaries of the kingdom.

Under the reorganization of Francia by Charles Martel the dux et princeps Francorum were the commanders of the armies of the kingdom, in addition to their administrative duties as mayor of the palace, and specifically commander of the standing guard which Charles Martel had begun maintaining year-round since Toulouse in 721.

Pepin was subject to the decisions of Childric who had only the title of King but no power. Childric was considered a joke by the people. Since Pepin had control over the magnates and actually had the power of the king, he now addressed to Pope Zachary the suggestive question: In regard to the kings of the Franks who no longer possess the royal power, is this state of things proper? Hard pressed by the Lombards, Pope Zacharias welcomed this advance of the Franks which aimed at ending an intolerable condition of things, and at laying the constitutional foundations for the exercise of the royal power. The pope replied that such a state of things was not proper. The de facto power is more important than the de jure power.

After this decision the throne was declared vacant. The crown was given him not by the pope but by the Franks. According to the ancient custom Pepin was then elected King of the Franks by an assembly of Frankish leading-men, with a large portion of his army on hand (in the event that the nobility inclined not to honor the Papal bull), and anointed at Soissons, by Boniface, Archbishop of Mainz, who, along with his niece, Saint Leoba, was a court advisor. Meanwhile, Grifo continued his rebellion, but was eventually killed in the battle of Saint-Jean de Maurienne in 753. Childeric III was deposed, his hair shaved off and he was confined to a monastery. He was the last of the Merovingians.

Pepin added to his power after Pope Stephen II traveled all the way to Paris to anoint him in a lavish ceremony at Saint Denis Basilica, bestowing upon him the additional title of patricius Romanorum (Patrician of the Romans). As life expectancies were short in those days, and Pepin wanted family continuity, the Pope also anointed Pepin's sons, Charles (eventually known as Charlemagne) and Carloman.

Pepin the Short's first major act was to go to war against the Lombard king Aistulf, who had a policy of expansion into the ducatus Romanum, as a partial repayment for papal support in his quest for the crown. Victorious, he forced the Lombard king to return property seized from the Church and confirmed the papacy in possession of Ravenna and the Pentapolis, the so-called Donation of Pepin whereby the Papal States was founded.[2] In 759, he drove the Saracens out of Gaul with the capture of Narbonne and then consolidated his power further by integrating Aquitaine into the kingdom.

Pepin died during a campaign and was brought to Saint Denis to be buried near the saint in 768 and is interred there in the basilica with his wife Bertrada. Pepin was buried "outside that entrance [of Saint Denis Basilica] according to his wishes, face down, for the sins of his father Charles Martel".[3]

The Frankish realm was fractioned according to salic law between his two sons: Charlemagne and Carloman I.

Historical opinion often seems to regard him as the lesser son and lesser father of two greater men, though a great man in his own right. He continued to build up the heavy cavalry which his father had begun. He maintained the standing army that his father had found necessary to protect the realm and form the core of its full army in wartime. He not only maintained his father's policy of containing the Moors, he drove them over and across the Pyrenees with the capture of Narbonne. He continued his father's expansion of the Frankish church (missionary work in Germany and Scandinavia) and the infrastructure (feudalism) that would prove the backbone of medieval Europe.

His rule, while not as great as either his father's or son's, was historically important and of great benefit to the Franks as a people. It can certainly be argued that Pepin's assumption of the crown, and the title of Patrician of Rome, were harbingers of his son's imperial coronation which is usually seen as the founding of the Holy Roman Empire. He certainly made the Carolingians de jure what his father had made them de facto—the ruling dynasty of the Franks and the foremost power of Europe. While not known as a great general, he was undefeated during his lifetime.

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepin_the_Short

--------------------

Pepin or Pippin (714 – 24 September 768), called the Short, and often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III, was the Mayor of the Palace and Duke of the Franks from 741 and King of the Franks from 751 to 768. He was the father of Charlemagne.

He was the son of Charles Martel, mayor of the palace and duke of the Franks, and of Rotrude of Trier (690–724).

Assumption of power

Pepin's father, Charles Martel, died in 741. He divided the rule of the Frankish kingdom between Pepin and his elder brother, Carloman, his surviving sons by his first wife: Carloman became Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, Pepin became Mayor of the Palace of Neustria. Grifo, Charles's son by his second wife, Swanahild (also known as Swanhilde), demanded a share in the inheritance, but he was imprisoned in a monastery by his two half-brothers.

As in the Frankish realm the unity of the kingdom was essentially connected with the person of the king, Carloman, to secure this unity raised the Merovingian Childeric to the throne (743). In 747 he resolved to enter a monastery. This left Francia in the hands of Pepin as sole mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum, a title originated by his grandfather and namesake Pepin of Heristal.

At the time of Carloman's retirement, Grifo escaped his imprisonment and fled to Duke Odilo of Bavaria, who was married to Hiltrude, Pepin's sister. Pepin put down the renewed revolt led by his half-brother and succeeded in completely restoring the boundaries of the kingdom.

Under the reorganization of Francia by Charles Martel the dux et princeps Francorum were the commanders of the armies of the kingdom, in addition to their administrative duties as mayor of the palace, and specifically commander of the standing guard which Charles Martel had begun maintaining year-round since Toulouse in 721.


First Carolingian king

Pepin was subject to the decisions of Childric who had only the title of King but no power. Childric was considered a joke by the people. Since Pepin had control over the magnates and actually had the power of the king, he now addressed to Pope Zachary the suggestive question: In regard to the kings of the Franks who no longer possess the royal power, is this state of things proper? Hard pressed by the Lombards, Pope Zacharias welcomed this advance of the Franks which aimed at ending an intolerable condition of things, and at laying the constitutional foundations for the exercise of the royal power. The pope replied that such a state of things was not proper. The de facto power is more important than the de jure power.

After this decision the throne was declared vacant. The crown was given him not by the pope but by the Franks. According to the ancient custom Pepin was then elected King of the Franks by an assembly of Frankish leading-men, with a large portion of his army on hand (in the event that the nobility inclined not to honor the Papal bull), and anointed at Soissons, by Boniface, Archbishop of Mainz, who, along with his niece, Saint Leoba, was a court advisor. Meanwhile, Grifo continued his rebellion, but was eventually killed in the battle of Saint-Jean de Maurienne in 753. Childeric III was deposed, his hair shaved off and he was confined to a monastery. He was the last of the Merovingians.

Expansion of the Frankish realm

Pepin added to his power after Pope Stephen II traveled all the way to Paris to anoint him in a lavish ceremony at Saint Denis Basilica, bestowing upon him the additional title of patricius Romanorum (Patrician of the Romans). As life expectancies were short in those days, and Pepin wanted family continuity, the Pope also anointed Pepin's sons, Charles (eventually known as Charlemagne) and Carloman.

Pepin the Short's first major act was to go to war against the Lombard king Aistulf, who had a policy of expansion into the ducatus Romanum, as a partial repayment for papal support in his quest for the crown. Victorious, he forced the Lombard king to return property seized from the Church and confirmed the papacy in possession of Ravenna and the Pentapolis, the so-called Donation of Pepin whereby the Papal States was founded. In 759, he drove the Saracens out of Gaul with the capture of Narbonne and then consolidated his power further by integrating Aquitaine into the kingdom. In taking Narbonne, and formally annexing Aquitaine (whose status was always dependent on the strength of her suzerains), he completed the work of his father save for one last task: fully subduing the Saxons. He was preparing for war against them when his health began to fail, and thus, this final task was left for his son, the great Charlemagne.

Legacy

Pepin died during a campaign and was brought to Saint Denis to be buried near the saint in 768 and is interred there in the basilica with his wife Bertrada. Pepin was buried "outside that entrance [of Saint Denis Basilica] according to his wishes, face down, for the sins of his father Charles Martel".

The Frankish realm was fractioned according to salic law between his two sons: Charlemagne and Carloman I.

Historical opinion often seems to regard him as the lesser son and lesser father of two greater men, though a great man in his own right. He continued to build up the heavy cavalry which his father had begun. He maintained the standing army that his father had found necessary to protect the realm and form the core of its full army in wartime. He not only maintained his father's policy of containing the Moors, he drove them over and across the Pyrenees with the capture of Narbonne. He continued his father's expansion of the Frankish church (missionary work in Germany and Scandinavia) and the infrastructure (feudalism) that would prove the backbone of medieval Europe.

His rule, while not as great as either his father's or son's, was historically important and of great benefit to the Franks as a people. It can certainly be argued that Pepin's assumption of the crown, and the title of Patrician of Rome, were harbingers of his son's imperial coronation which is usually seen as the founding of the Holy Roman Empire. He certainly made the Carolingians de jure what his father had made them de facto—the ruling dynasty of the Franks and the foremost power of Europe. While not known as a great general, he was undefeated during his lifetime.

Family

In 741, Pepin married Bertrada of Laon, Her father, Charibert, was the son of Pepin II's brother, Martin of Laon. They are known to have had eight children, at least three of whom survived to adulthood:

Charles (2 April 742 – 28 January 814), (Charles the Great)

Carloman (751 – 4 December 771)

Gisela (757–810)

Pepin, died in infancy.

Chrothais, died young, buried Metz.

Adelais, died young, buried Metz.

Two unnamed daughters

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pippin_the_Short

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Pepin (714 – 24 September 768), called le Bref ("the Short"), also known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III,[1] was the Mayor of the Palace and dux et princeps Francorum (Duke of the Franks, a title originated by his grandfather and namesake Pepin of Heristal) from 741, and King of the Franks from 752 to 768.[2][3] He was the father of Charlemagne.

He was the son of Charles Martel, mayor of the palace and duke of the Franks, and of Rotrude of Trier (690–724).

Contents [hide]

1 Assumption of power

2 First Carolingian king

3 Expansion of the Frankish realm

4 Legacy

5 Family

6 Notes

[edit]Assumption of power

Coronation in 752 of Pépin the Short by Pope Zachary.

Pepin's father Charles Martel died in 741. He divided the rule of the Frankish kingdom between Pepin and his elder brother, Carloman, his surviving sons by his first wife: Carloman became Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, Pepin became Mayor of the Palace of Neustria. Grifo, Charles's son by his second wife, Swanahild (also known as Swanhilde), demanded a share in the inheritance, but he was imprisoned in a monastery by his two half-brothers.

In the Frankish realm the unity of the kingdom was essentially connected with the person of the king. So Carloman, to secure this unity, raised the Merovingian Childeric to the throne (743). Then in 747 Carloman resolved to enter a monastery. This left Francia in the hands of Pepin as sole mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum.

At the time of Carloman's retirement, Grifo escaped his imprisonment and fled to Duke Odilo of Bavaria, who was married to Hiltrude, Pepin's sister. Pepin put down the renewed revolt led by his half-brother and succeeded in completely restoring the boundaries of the kingdom.

Under the reorganization of Francia by Charles Martel, the dux et princeps Francorum was the commander of the armies of the kingdom, in addition to his administrative duties as mayor of the palace, and specifically commander of the standing guard which Charles Martel had begun maintaining year-round since Toulouse in 721.

Denier of Pepin, Troyes. The "R" is for rex (king) and the "P" is for Pepin.

[edit]First Carolingian king

Pepin was subject to the decisions of Childeric III who had only the title of King but no power. Childeric was considered a joke by the people. Since Pepin had control over the magnates and actually had the power of the king, he now addressed to Pope Zachary a suggestive question.

In regard to the kings of the Franks who no longer possess the royal power: is this state of things proper?

Hard pressed by the Lombards, Pope Zachary welcomed this move by the Franks to end an intolerable condition and lay the constitutional foundations for the exercise of the royal power. The Pope replied that such a state of things is not proper: the de facto power is more important than the de jure power.

After this decision the throne was declared vacant. Childeric III was deposed and confined to a monastery. He was the last of the Merovingians.

According to ancient custom, Pepin was then elected King of the Franks by an assembly of Frankish nobles, with a large portion of his army on hand (in case the nobility inclined not to honor the Papal bull). He was anointed at Soissons by Boniface, Archbishop of Mainz, who was a court advisor, along with his niece, Saint Leoba. Meanwhile, Grifo continued his rebellion, but was eventually killed in the battle of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne in 753.

[edit]Expansion of the Frankish realm

Pepin added to his power after Pope Stephen II traveled all the way to Paris to anoint him in a lavish ceremony at the Basilica of St Denis, bestowing upon him the additional title of patricius Romanorum (Patrician of the Romans) and is the first recorded crowning of a civil ruler by a Pope. As life expectancies were short in those days, and Pepin wanted family continuity, the Pope also anointed Pepin's sons, Charles (eventually known as Charlemagne) and Carloman.

Pepin's first major act as King was to go to war against the Lombard king Aistulf, who had expanded into the ducatus Romanum. Victorious, he forced the Lombard king to return property seized from the Church. He confirmed the Papacy in possession of Ravenna and the Pentapolis, the so-called Donation of Pepin whereby the Papal States was founded and the temporal reign of the Papacy began.[4] In 759, he captured Narbonne from Iberian Muslim invaders and drove them out of France. He then consolidated his power further by integrating Aquitaine into the kingdom. In taking Narbonne, and formally annexing Aquitaine (whose status was always dependent on the strength of her suzerains), he completed the work of his father save for one last task: fully subduing the Saxons. He was preparing for war against them when his health began to fail, and thus, this final task was left for his son, the great Charlemagne.

[edit]Legacy

Pepin died during a campaign, in 768. He was interred at the Basilica of Saint Denis, to be near the saint. Pepin was buried "outside that entrance according to his wishes, face down, for the sins of his father Charles Martel". [5] His wife Bertrada was also interred there in 783.

The Frankish realm was divided according to the Salic law between his two sons: Charlemagne and Carloman I.

Historical opinion often seems to regard him as the lesser son and lesser father of two greater men, though a great man in his own right. He continued to build up the heavy cavalry which his father had begun. He maintained the standing army that his father had found necessary to protect the realm and form the core of its full army in wartime. He not only contained the Iberian Muslims as his father had, he drove them out of the country. He continued his father's expansion of the Frankish church (missionary work in Germany and Scandinavia) and the infrastructure (feudalism) that would prove the backbone of medieval Europe.

His rule, while not as great as either his father's or son's, was historically important and of great benefit to the Franks as a people. It can certainly be argued that Pepin's assumption of the crown, and the title of Patrician of Rome, were harbingers of his son's imperial coronation which is usually seen as the founding of the Holy Roman Empire. He certainly made the Carolingians de jure what his father had made them de facto—the ruling dynasty of the Franks and the foremost power of Europe. While not known as a great general, he was undefeated during his lifetime.

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b. c. 714

d. Sept. 24, 768, Saint-Denis, Neustria [now in France]

by name PEPIN THE SHORT, French PÉPIN LE BREF, German PIPPIN DER KURZE,the first king of the Frankish Carolingian dynasty and the father of Charlemagne. A son of Charles Martel, Pepin became sole de facto ruler ofthe Franks in 747 and then, on the deposition of Childeric III in 751, king of the Franks. He was the first Frankish king to be anointed--first by St. Boniface and later (754) by Pope Stephen II.

Background and kingship.

For years the Merovingian kings had been unable to prevent power from slipping from their hands into those of the counts and other magnates.The kings were gradually eclipsed by the mayors of the palace, whose status developed from that of officer of the household to regent or viceroy. Among the mayors, a rich family descended from Pepin of Landen(Pepin I) held a position of especial importance. When Charles Martel,the scion of that family, died in 741, he left two sons: the elder,Carloman, mayor of Austrasia, Alemannia, and Thuringia, and Pepin III, mayor of Neustria, Burgundy, and Provence. No king had ruled over all the Franks since 737, but to maintain the fiction of Merovingian sovereignty,the two mayors gave the crown to Childeric III in 743.

Charles had had a third son, however--Grifo, who had been born to him by a Bavarian woman of high rank, probably his mistress. In 741, when his two brothers were declared mayors of the Franks, Grifo rebelled. He led a number of revolts in subsequent years and was several times imprisoned.In 753 he was killed amid the Alpine pa

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Pépin III "le Bref", King of the Franks's Timeline

693
December 17, 693
France

Feast September 6 and December 17

714
714
Jupille-sur-Meuse (Liège), Wallonia, Belgium

Jupille, close to the city of Liege, in what is today Belgium.

740
740
Age 26
France
740
Age 26
741
741
- 747
Age 27
Austrasie
742
April 2, 742
Age 28
Herstal, Walloon Region, Belgium

Charlemagne is believed to have been born in 742; however, several factors have led to a reconsideration of this date. First, the year 742 was calculated from his age given at death, rather than from attestation in primary sources. Another date is given in the Annales Petarienses, April 1, 747. In that year, April 1 was at Easter. The birth of an emperor at eastertime is a coincidence likely to provoke comment, but there was no such comment documented in 747, leading some to suspect that the Easter birthday was a pious fiction concocted as a way of honoring the Emperor. Other commentators weighing the primary records have suggested that his birth was one year later, in 748. At present, it is impossible to be certain of the date of the birth of Charlemagne. The best guesses include April 1, 747, after April 15, 747, or April 1, 748, in Herstal (where his father was born, a city close to Liège in modern day Belgium), the region from where both the Merovingian and Carolingian families originate. He went to live in his father's villa in Jupille when he was around seven, which caused Jupille to be listed as a possible place of birth in almost every history book. Other cities have been suggested, including, Prüm, Düren, Gauting and Aachen.

Charlemagne's birth-name, "Charles" was derived from his grandfather, Charles Martel. The name derives from "karl", a Germanic stem meaning "man" or "free man",[4] related to the English "churl". The earliest extant forms of Charlemagne's name are in the Latinate form, "Carolus" or "Karolus".

In many Slavic languages, the very word for "king" derives from Charles' Slavicised name.

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Aix-la-Chapelle was a palace. Aachen is located at what is now the German border, just where the boundaries of Belgium & the Netherlands meet.

743
743
Age 29
746
746
Age 32
LIEGE, HERISTAL, Belgium
747
747
- 754
Age 33
748
748
Age 34
Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia (Germany)