Geographers and Cartographers
...are scholars whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society. Geographers study how the natural environment contributes to the human society and how the human society affects the natural environment
- Sir John Barrow was a fellow of the Royal Society, was also a member of the Raleigh Club, a forerunner of the Royal Geographical Society.
- Edward William Brayley b 1801
- Erich van Drygalski b 1865
- Arnaldo Faustini is the man for whom the Faustini moon crater is named. He was a geographer, writer, and cartographer born in 1872 that lived until 1944 He specialized in the poles, and wrote nineteen different books on subjects having to do with the poles alone, as well as countless other articles on them. He knew several polar explorers of the time, helped them translate accounts of their journeys into other languages, and drew maps of the areas they explored. Faustini's fascination with the poles formed the foundation for several polar explorations, and his work is still on display in the Polar Museum in Fermo, Italy.
- Richard Halykut, b 1552. "Spiritual father of the Jamestown Colony."
- Gottfried Heinsius b 1709
- Heinrich Harrer b 1912
- Edmund Hillary
- Alexander von Humboldt - an explorer and naturalist during the 18th-19th centuries
- Al Idrisi, or Dreses (Abu Abd Allah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani al-Sabti), who created the map of Eurasia and north Africa found in the Tabula Rogeriana, and wrote an extremely detailed account of all of the geographical features, ethnic groups, socioeconomic factors and other features of every area he drew.
- Immanuel Kant - known more for being an 18th century philosopher than a geographer; his work is a large part of the reason why geography is treated as a legitimate science today. He believed that geography classified things according to place, while history classified things according to time. As a result, according to Kant, geography had an important place in virtually every facet of knowledge. By establishing the academic importance of geography, he lent more legitimacy to geography as an intellectual discipline.
- Dr. David Livingstone
- Fyodor Petrovich Litke b 1797
- Ferdinand van Richtofen b 1833
- Carl Ritter Working during the 19th century, Ritter treated the various geographical features of the world like organs in the human body- he believed that each one interacted with the others to create a cohesive whole, and that, just like a person's organs determined their health, the geographic features of a place affected the history of its inhabitants. He wrote the 19-volume Geography in Relation to Nature and the History of Mankind (Die Erdkunde im Verhältniss zur Natur und zur Geschichte des Menschen), and, along with Kant, was instrumental in establishing geography as a field of study.
- Laurence Dudley Stamp b 1898
- Alfred Russel Wallace b 1823
- Gerardus Mercator (1512-1594) born in Rupelmonde, County of Flanders (modern Belgium). A geographer and cartographer who was known for the Mercator projection which is the standard map projection for nautical purposes.
The Geographical Society of London was founded in 1830 as an institution to promote the advancement of geographical science.
Under the patronage of King William IV, it later became known as The Royal Geographical Society and was granted its Royal Charter under Queen Victoria in 1859. In 1912 the Society purchased, and in 1913 Society moved to, its current location, Lowther Lodge.
The Society’s purpose remains the same today as when it was first founded, namely the ‘advancement of geographical science’. However, the manner in which that is done has expanded greatly over the years, while still continuing to include publishing, the support of field research and expeditions, lectures and conferences, and its collections.
The history of the Society was closely allied for many of its earlier years with ‘colonial’ exploration in Africa, the Indian subcontinent, the polar regions, and central Asia especially.
It enshrines such famous names as Livingstone, Stanley, Shackleton, Hunt and Hillary.
(Includes Land Surveyors)
... are those who make and study maps
- Battista Agnese produced at least 71 manuscript atlases of sea charts.
- Captain James Cook 1728-1729
- François Du Creux 1664
- Matthew Flinders 1774-1814
- Nicolas de Fer 1698
- Louis Hennepin 1697
- Herman Moll published early map of North America 1715
- Diego Ribero was the author of the first known planisphere with a graduated Equator (1527)
- Martin Waldseemüller produced a globular world map and a large 12-panel world wall map (Universalis Cosmographia) bearing the first use of the name "America".
- Johannes Werner - refined and promoted the Werner map projection