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Russian: Мономахиня
Also Known As: "Анастасия", "Мария", "Ирина", "Феодора или Анна", "Анастасия Мария Мономах"
Birthplace: Constantinople, Turkey
Death: between November 1067 and 1070 (31-44)
Kiev, Kiev, Ukraine
Immediate Family:

Wife of Vsevolod Yaroslavich, Grand Prince of Kiev
Mother of Anna Vsevolodovna of Kiev and Vladimir II Monomakh

Occupation: Prinsesse, родена Анастасия, умира като монахиня Ана, полабската княгиня, Prinsesse av Bysants, Prinsessa
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Monomakhina


From Russian Wikipedia google translation, retrieved January 2021

Monomakhina (c. 1030/35 [3] -1067 [4] ) - a representative of the Byzantine imperial dynasty of Monomakhs, unknown personal name , married in 1046 [before 1053] to Prince Vsevolod Yaroslavich of Kiev (1030-1093), mother of Vladimir Monomakh .

Personal name options: Anastasia, Maria, Irina, Theodora or Anna . The synodicists of the Vydubitsky monastery in Kiev call Vsevolod's wife Anastasia [5] . The version about "Mary" is based on the preserved seals. Perhaps one of the names is a dying monastic. The name Monomakhini may indicate the St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev , erected in the middle of the 11th century.

It is not known exactly who her parents were. It is indicated that Emperor Constantine IX Monomakh was her relative, possibly her father, since his family was generally extremely small. Constantine was the only representative of the Monomakh family on the Byzantine throne, and received the throne thanks to his third marriage - in 1042 with the already elderly Empress Zoya , whose marriage remained childless. Before that, he was married twice - the name of his first wife is unknown (also childless), the second was Elena Sklirena, the granddaughter of General Barda Sklira, niece of Emperor Roman III Argir (the previous husband of Princess Zoe).

After the death of Helena Sklirena, the emperor Constantine took her cousin Maria Sklirena (d. 1044) as his mistress and settled her in the imperial palace in parallel [8] with his marriage to Zoe. Also known is his mistress "Alan" princess - perhaps Irina, daughter of the Bagratid prince Dmitry (d. 1042, son of George I ).

It is believed that the Russian bride was either a legal daughter from Elena Sklirena's wife, or illegitimate from Maria Monamachos; however, there is no mention of the birth of children by Constantine IX Monomachos, byzantine emperor. The origin of Theophano , her contemporary and the wife of the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire is also mysterious - before it was believed that she was the daughter of the emperor, but now it is assumed that she also belonged to the Sclera family.


To Vsevolod Yaroslavich, Grand Prince of Kiev between 1046 and 1053.


[In August 1042, the emperor relieved General George Maniakes from his command in Italy, and Maniakes rebelled, declaring himself emperor in September.[11] He transferred his troops into the Balkans and was about to defeat Constantine's army in battle, when he was wounded and died on the field, ending the crisis in 1043.[12] Immediately after the victory, Constantine was attacked by a fleet from Kievan Rus';[12] it is "incontrovertible that a Rus' detachment took part in the Maniakes rebellion".[13] They too were defeated, with the help of Greek fire.[14]

In 1043, the last campaign of Kievan Rus (the only one after baptism) to Constantinople took place - the Russian-Byzantine war of 1043... It was commanded by the son ofYaroslav the Wise - Vladimir Yaroslavich... There is debate about the reasons for the campaign. During the battle, the Russian fleet, damaged by Greek fire and destroyed by the storm, was defeated and forced to retreat. Constantine IX received an indemnity. Probably, as a sign of the conclusion of peace with Russia, Constantine gave the "princess" in marriage to another son of Yaroslav, Vsevolod, the son of Princess Ingegerda of Sweden... The father of Yaroslav the Wise -Vladimir Saint - half a century earlier (c. 988) married Anna, the sister of the Byzantine emperor, and the above-mentioned Empress Zoya was her niece.

A researcher of Russian-Byzantine relations writes: “The position of Byzantium is also poorly explained. If we admit that “in 1043 Byzantium was victorious and in the year of the conclusion of the peace nothing threatened it from anywhere”, then what forced Konstantin Monomakh to marry his daughter to Vsevolod? ....”

At the same time, any princess from the imperial house was at that moment an extremely important person in the line of succession to the throne of Byzantium, because Constantine IX Monomakh, his wife Empress Zoya and her sister Empress Theodora were childless, and on them the Macedonian dynasty eventually ended, Michael VI Stratioticascended the throne . The fact that Constantine had a legitimate daughter would have allowed her to marry a suitable candidate and continue the dynasty, but since this did not happen, this confirms the assumptions either about the illegitimacy of Monomakhini, or about her very distant relationship with Constantine.

Information about this marriage is extremely scarce. "TheTeaching of Vladimir Monomakh "reads: “I am thin, my grandfather Yaroslav, blessed, glorious, named in baptism Vasily, the Rus name Volodymyr, my beloved father and my mother Mnomakhi [12] ..." - [13]

Actually, historians know about this marriage only from a brief entry under 6567/1053 in the " Tale of Bygone Years"that " oh Vsevolod, son Volodymyr was born from the buckwheat tesarina " (Ip., 149) [14] .

The young age of Monomakhini at the time of marriage is evidenced by the fact that their firstborn with Vsevolod was born only 7 years after the marriage. From the appearance of her alleged father Constantine, one can conclude about her beauty: she, like him, could be white-skinned, with thick red hair, bright blue eyes, and graceful physique [15][ unauthorized source? ] .


To back up an armistice signed with the Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos in 1046, his father married Vsevolod to a Byzantine princess, who according to tradition was named Anastasia or Maria. That the couple's son Vladimir Monomakh bore the family name of the Byzantine emperor, suggests she was a member of his close family, but no contemporary evidence attests to a specific relationship and accounts of the Emperor give him no such daughter.[4]

In 1067, Vsevolod's Greek wife died and he soon married a Kypchak princess, Anna Polovetskaya. She bore him another son, who drowned after the Battle of the Stugna River, and daughters, one becoming a nun and another, Eupraxia of Kiev, marrying Emperor Henry IV.


  1. Vladimir Monomakh (1053-1125) - inherited the dynastic nickname on the maternal side. Married Gytha of Wessex, Eufemia of Constantinople.
  2. Yanka Vsevolodovna Ianka or Anna Vsevolodovna (d. 3 November 1112) who was engaged to Constantine Dukas in 1074, but she never married[20] She became a nun and started a school for girls.[21]

After her death, Vsevolod married a second time to an unknown (possibly Polovtsian princess).

Origins and family

Possible relative of Emperor Konstantinos IX, the precise relationship (if any) is not known:

1. [MARIA] [Irena] ([1030/35])-1067). The Primary Chronicle refers to the wife of Vsevolod as "the Greek princess" but does not name her or give her origin[1694]. The primary source which states her name has not so far been identified. Apparently she and her marriage are not referred to in Greek sources. No doubt her belonging to the Monomachos family has been assumed, firstly because her son is generally known as "Vladimir Monomakh", and secondly because Emperor Konstantinos IX Monomachos ruled in Byzantium at the date of her marriage, but no information has been found to corroborate this. It is unlikely that she was the daughter of the Emperor Konstantinos himself as he is not recorded in Greek sources as having had children by any of his wives or mistresses, although her birth date range (estimated from the birth of her son in 1053) would be consistent with her having been the daughter of his second marriage. In particular, Psellos mentions no children in his detailed review of the events of his reign. The primary source which corroborates the date of her marriage has not so far been identified.

m (1046) as his first wife, VSEVOLOD Iaroslavich of Kiev, son of IAROSLAV I Vladimirovich "Mudriy/the Wise" Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife Ingigerd Olafsdottir of Sweden (1030-13 Apr 1093, bur Kiev St Sofia). In accordance with the terms of his father's testament, he succeeded in 1054 as Prince of Pereiaslavl. He was appointed to succeed his brother Sviatoslav as Prince of Chernigov 1073. He succeeded his brother in 1076 as VSEVOLOD I Grand Prince of Kiev, but was deposed in 1077 by his older brother Iziaslav, restored in 1078 after Prince Iziaslav's death.


Maria, also known as Irene, was born about 1030, daughter of Constantine IX Monomachus, emperor of Byzantium, and NN Skleraina. In 1046 she married Vsevolod I, grand duke of Kiev, and they had two children, of whom their son Vladimir would have progeny. Maria died in 1067 and her name, as Anastasia, is attested in the ancient synodic of the Caves Monastery in Kiev where she was buried.

Daughter of Constantinos Monomachos and Helena Skleraina

Annals of Vsevolod wife was called "the queen of the Greek," "monomahinya", "grekinya" [3] , but her name and origin not certain. Her parents are unknown but she has been identified with many names : Anastasia, Mary, Irene, Theodora , or Anna[1]

Мономахиня (ок. 1030/35[1]—1067) — неизвестная по личному имени представительница византийской императорской династии Мономахов, в 1046 году выданная замуж за киевского князя Всеволода Ярославича (1030—1093), мать Владимира Мономаха.


Варианты личного имени: Анастасия, Мария, Ирина, Феодора или Анна. Синодики Выдубицкого монастыря в Киеве называют супругу Всеволода Анастасией. Версия о «Марии» опирается на сохранившиеся печати. Возможно, одно из имён является предсмертным монашеским.


Константин IX и Зоя, венчаемые Христом. Мозаика.
Летопись называет жену Всеволода «греческая царица», «мономахиня», «грекиня»[3], но не называет её имени и происхождения. О ней и её браке не упоминается в византийских источниках. Бесспорно, к роду Мономахов она принадлежала, так как это прозвание унаследовал её сын, а также поскольку именно представитель этого рода правил империей в год её брака[4].

Точно неизвестно, кто был её родителями. Указывается, что император Константин IX Мономах был её родственником, возможно, отцом, т.к. его семья была вообще крайне малочисленна. Константин являлся единственным представителем рода Мономахов на византийском престоле, и получил трон благодаря своему третьему браку — в 1042 году с немолодой уже императрицей Зоей, брак с которой оставался бездетным. До этого он был женат дважды — имя первой его супруги неизвестно (также бездетна), второй же была Елена Склирена, внучка генерала Варды Склира, племянница императора Романа III Аргира (предыдущего мужа принцессы Зои).

После смерти Елены Склирены император Константин взял в любовницы её кузину Марию Склирену (ум. 1044) и поселил её в императорском дворце параллельно[5] со своим супружеством с Зоей. Также известна его любовница «аланская» принцесса — возможно, Ирина, дочь багратидского князя Дмитрия (ум. 1042, сын Георгия I). Предполагают, что русская невеста была либо законной дочерью от жены Елены Склирены, либо внебрачной от Марии Склирены; однако никаких упоминаний о рождении у Константина детей нет. Происхождение Феофано, её современницы и супруги императора Священной римской империи тоже загадочно — прежде считалось, что она дочь императора, теперь же предполагают, что она также принадлежала к роду Склиров. Ancestor Chart

Prinsesse Theodora Monomachus av Bysants giftet seg omkring 1046 med Storfyrste av Kiev Vsevolod I av Novgorod. De fikk sønnen:

1. Storfyrste Vladimir II Monomakh av Novgorod. Født 1053. Død 19.05.1125.

Theodora (Maria) var prinsesse av Bysants. 1)

1). N. de Baumgarten: Généalogie et Mariage occidenteaux des Rurikides Russes du Xe au XIII Siècle. Mogens Bugge: Våre forfedre, nr. 554. Bent og Vidar Billing Hansen: Rosensverdslektens forfedre, side 90.

Vladimir II Monomakh From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

He was the son of Vsevolod I (married in 1046) and princess Anastasia of Byzantium (d. 1067), daughter of Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos, from whom he takes his nickname of Monomakh (Greek: "One who fights alone").

Theodora (Maria) var prinsesse av Bysants.

Tekst: Tore Nygaard

Kilder: N. de Baumgarten: Généalogie et Mariage occidenteaux des Rurikides Russes du Xe au XIII Siècle. Mogens Bugge: Våre forfedre, nr. 554. Bent og Vidar Billing Hansen: Rosensverdslektens forfedre, side 90.


  • Michael Psellus (1018-after 1078): Chronologia. Book 6. Link No child of Constantine is mentioned.
  • ”The Russian Primary Chronicle.“ Laurentian Text. Translated and edited by Samuel Hazzard Cross and Olgerd P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor. PDF page 265.
  • Ancestor Chart
  • Reference: Ancestry Genealogy - SmartCopy: Aug 23 2017, 12:52:07 UTC
  • lReimagining Europe” By Christian Raffensperger. Page 108. GoogleBooks
  • Byzantine Empresses: Women and Power in Byzantium AD 527-1204. By Lynda Garland. Page 151. GoogleBooks
  • The Grand Strategy of the Byzantine Empire. By Edward N. Luttwak. Page 219. GoogleBooks
  • family of Anastasia of Byzantium
  • The most common ascription is that she was the daughter of Constantine IX Monomachus, the third husband of Empress Zoe. [6] Like so much else in regard to these marriages, this is conjectural, as Byzantine sources do not record her marriage or many details of Constantine IX’s family.144
  • Cites:
  • A. Kazhdan, 'Rus'-Byzantine Princely Marriages in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries,' Harvard Ukrainian Studies 12-13 (1988/89), 414--29, esp. 416-17. PDF “... Thus we do not know who Vsevolod’s spouse was. Only in sixteenth and seventeenth century Russian texts does she appear as Constantine lX’s daughter. It would be more prudent to assume that Vsevolod was married to a lady from the house of the house of the Monomachoi, a relative of Constantine lX.” Critiques
  • N. de Baumgarten: Généalogie et Mariage occidenteaux des Rurikides Russes du Xe au XIII Siècle. Mogens Bugge: Våre forfedre, nr. 554. Bent og Vidar Billing Hansen: Rosensverdslektens forfedre, side 90.
  • A. Poppé, 'La dernière expédition russe contre Constantinople,' Byzantinoslavica 32.2 (1971) 267 n. 181, who believe her to be Scleraina's daughter. Page 265-266 Archive.Org, page 267-268 Archive.Org
  • Mommaerts-Browne, Stanford (2006). "Monomachos, Tornikes and an Uncharted Caucasian Ancestry". Foundations. Foundation for Medieval Genealogy. 2 (2): 158–62. eISSN 1479-5086. ISSN 1479-5078. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 2, 2020, citing Psellos. PDF
  • “Constantine IX Monomachos, Zoe Porphyrogennete and Maria Skleraina: An Imperial Ménage à Trois.“ October 31st, 2011 (For an assessment of all the evidence, see Rupert Willoughby, ‘The Golden Line’, Genealogists’ Magazine, XXIII (March and June 1991), pp.321-7, 369-72.) It is stated in the Russian Primary Chronicle that Vsevelod I, Grand Prince of Kiev, was married by 1053 to ‘a Greek princess’. Their eldest child, born in that year, was the future Vladimir I, surnamed ‘Monomakh’, who is assumed, therefore, to have been a relative, if not the grandson, of Constantine IX. A further suggestion is that the mother of the unfortunate ‘princess’ was Maria Skleraina. The evidence in the matter is inconclusive, but the bride sent to Russia appears also to have been called Maria (for the seal has been discovered there of the ‘all-high-born Maria Monomacha’), and Byzantine children were never named after their parents. In any case, Psellos would surely have mentioned it if there had been a child.
  • The Tale of Bygone Years (Old East Slavic: Повѣсть времѧньныхъ лѣтъ, Pověstĭ vremęnĭnyxŭ lětŭ), known in English-language historiography as the Primary Chronicle or Russian Primary letopis (RPC) or, after the author it has traditionally been ascribed to, Nestor's letopis or The letopis of Nestor, is a history of the Kievan Rus' from about 850 to 1110, originally compiled in Kiev about 1113.[1]
  • Laurentian Codex or Laurentian Chronicle (Russian: Лаврентьевский список, Лаврентьевская летопись) is a collection of chronicles that includes the oldest extant version of the Primary Chronicle and its continuations, mostly relating the events in Northern Russia (Vladimir-Suzdal). ... The codex is a unique source for the autobiographical chronicle called “Instruction of Vladimir Monomakh”.
  • Picková, Dana. (2017). Roman and Byzantine Motifs in Сказаниe о князьях владимирских (The Tale of the Princes of Vladimir). AUC PHILOLOGICA. 2017. 253-267. 10.14712/24646830.2017.23. page 258. link (28) In 1046 Yaroslav the Wise married a relative, possibly a daughter, of Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX Monomakhos, whose name according to the Byzantine sources was Maria or Anastasia. The couple had a son Vladimir who was born in 1053.
  • Byzantine Constantinople: Monuments, Topography and Everyday Life. edited by Nevra Necipoğlu. Page 179. GoogleBooks, GoogleBooks
  • Soloviev, A. (1963). MARIE FILLE DE CONSTANTIN IX MONOMAQUE. Byzantion, 33(1), 241-248. Retrieved January 15, 2021, from
  • “ Was Maria ἡ εὐγενεστάτη ἀρχόντισσα a type of seal from the searched Monomachaina Rus' from or from Maria Dobronega?“ Byzantinoslavica - Revue internationale des Etudes Byzantines. Issue Year: LXXV/2017 Issue No: 1-2 Page Range: 116-122. link to abstract “ The „cěsarica gr’kyna”, who married Vsevolod Jaroslavič and became mother of Volodimer/ Volodymyr „Monomach“ in 1053, was not a daughter but a relative of the Byzantine emperor Constantine IX Monomachos; her Christian name remains unknown. The often erroneously published seals type of a Maria εὐγενεστάτη ἀρχόντισσα, found on diff erent places of the Rusʼ, does not mention the name Monomachaina but simply μοναχή, “nun” as a new unpublished exemplar in the collection O. Sheremtiev clearly proves; it is impossible to attribute it to Monomachaina. It probably belonged to Maria Dobronega, a daughter of Volodimer Svjatoslavič, who became the wife of Duke Casimir of Poland. Casimir passed away in 1058, but his widow Dobronega lived until 1087, returned to Rusʼ, used the mentioned seal and apparently played an important role in the society.”
  • “ Re: Maria or Anastasia, daughter/relative of Konstantinos Monomachos and moth...” debate on her origins from medieval genealogists at the mail group, (2011).Link
  • “Re: provable descents from Byzantine emperors - who earliest?“ (2009) Link 2) the filiation of 'Anastasia' Monomakhine to emperor Konstantinos IX and his Skleraina wife is possible, but not too likely. Any respectable genealogy should rather present 'Anastasia' as Konstantinos IX's kinswoman (such as, niece or something similar) - and lay out what are alternatives and likelihoods of filiation.
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Monomakhina's Timeline

Constantinople, Turkey
May 26, 1053
Киев, Киевское Княжество, Киевская Русь
Kiev, Ukraine
November 1067
Age 37
Kiev, Kiev, Ukraine