Amal "The Fortunate"

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Amal (Amal Dynasty)

Also Known As: "Amala", "Amali", "Felicitas", "Father of the Amals", "Hammal", "Father of the Amali", "Amal (Amal Dynasty"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: (Present Poland)
Death: circa 195 (63-80)
(Present Poland)
Immediate Family:

Son of Augis, Progenitor of the Amals and (Generation 3)
Husband of (Generation 4)
Father of Hisarnis "Man of Iron" of the Amal Clan

Occupation: King of the Goths (100 CE), koning der Goten
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Amal "The Fortunate"

From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Hungary Kings:

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#_Toc146273201

B. DYNASTY of the AMAL GOTHS

Iordanes sets out the ancestors of Athal, in order, as follows "Gapt…Hulmul…Augis…Amal a quo et origo Amalorum decurrit…Hisarnis…Ostrogotha…Hunuil…Athal"[31].

Reference:

[31] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77.

----------------------------

From Jordanes' Getica:

http://people.ucalgary.ca/~vandersp/Courses/texts/jordgeti.html#visi

XIV

(79) Now the first of these heroes, as they themselves relate in their legends, was Gapt, who begat Hulmul. And Hulmul begat Augis; and Augis begat him who was called Amal, from whom the name of the Amali comes. This Amal begat Hisarnis. Hisarnis moreover begat Ostrogotha, and Ostrogotha begat Hunuil, and Hunuil likewise begat Athal.


This information is according to the Wikipedia page on Ukrainian Rulers:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Ukrainian_rulers

Greuthungi

The Amali dynasty, Amals, Amaler, or Amalings of the Greuthungi ("steppe dwellers" or "people of the pebbly coasts"), called later the Ostrogothi.

Amal (Amala), the Fortunate, born fl. 110 or ca. 123


Events in the 2nd century that might have had an effect on the Goths during Amal's lifetime:

2nd century: The Alans, having arrived from Asia to the Azov Sea and Don River basin the previous century, have integrated with the Yancai of the region, forming a new kingdom of mostly nomadic herdsmen in the region. The group would soon ally with the nearby Sarmatians and form a confederation that would act as a momentary (5-year duration) defense to the Chernyagov Culture (to their west) during the Hun invasion.

160s - 180s: As the Goths move inland from the Baltic Sea (vacating their Wielbark culture homes), they apparently displace a number of German tribes. The tribes abutting the Roman frontier are driven, as a result, into the Marcomannic Wars; the Vandals (part of the Przeworsk culture) are themselves driven south into war with the Romans. They appear not to have disrupted the cultures to the east, as the "Galindai" and "Sudinoi" remained in place around present Vilnius from Ptolemy's time (2nd century) to Peter von Dusburg's time (13th century).


Ben M. Angel summary: If the Ukrainian Rulers from Wikipedia is correct and Amal was born in the 120s, he would likely have been the last Amal head of family to have not taken part in the migration to "Oium" or the Scythian plains (present Ukraine).

Amal is of course the name that the clan would take as it passed through the Scythian plains and through the dark days of Hun subjugation into the days of the collapse of the Roman Empire. It's unknown why Cassiodorus gave him the epithet of "The Fortunate".

Likely, Amal's world consisted of an expanding Gothic territory extending up the Vistula (Wisla) valley. Toward the end of his life, the Przeworsk culture, consisting of Vandals and allied tribes, were probably displaced by the expanding Goth kingdom in present Poland. Eventually, the decision would be made to colonize "Oium" in what would be termed the Goth migration of the third century.


From the English Wikipedia page on the Przeworsk Culture (displaced by the expanding Goth kingdom):

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Przeworsk_culture

The Przeworsk[1] culture is part of an Iron Age archaeological complex that dates from the 2nd century BC to the 5th century AD. It was located in what is now central and southern Poland, later spreading to parts of eastern Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia ranging between the Oder and the middle and upper Vistula Rivers into the headwaters of the Dniester and Tisza Rivers. It takes its name from the village near the town Przeworsk where the first artefacts were found.

Influences

Scholars view the Przeworsk culture as an amalgam of a series of localized cultures. Continuity with the preceding Pomeranian culture is observed, albeit modified by significant influences from the La Tene and Jastorf cultures.

To the east, in what is now northern Ukraine and southern Belarus, was the Zarubintsy culture, to which it is linked as a larger archaeological complex. Much of this area was subsequently absorbed by the Wielbark culture[2].

Ethnic affiliation

Ptolemy's Geography, written c. 150 AD, describes the Vistula as the eastern boundary of Germania, so the tribes he places between the Vistula and the Oder were evidently considered Germani at that time. They include the Rugiclei and the Burguntae.[3] Pliny the Elder described the Vandili as a grouping of Germanic people, which included the "Burgodiones, Varinnae, Charini and Gutones".[4] This is understood to mean that the Burgundians and Vandals were settled in portions of the area, prior to their outmigration, toward the end of this cultural period.

Early twentieth century scholars often engaged in heated debates as to the bearers of the Przeworsk culture. A substantial effort has been expended in the past to characterize the latter as an early Slavic-speaking community, whilst German scholars attributed it to Vandals and Burgundians.

]Features

The main feature of the Przeworsk culture are burials. These are mostly cremations, with occasional inhumation. Warrior burials are notable, which often include horsegear and spurs. Some burials are exceptionally rich, overshadowing the graves of Germanic groups further west, especially after 400 AD.[5] Pottery and metalwork are often rich and show a great variety [6]

Decline

The culture's decline in the late fourth century coincides with arrival of Huns and subsequent westward movement of Germanic groups[7]. Others, on the other hand, argue that there was considerable population continuity. They instead emphasize the role of the social crisis which occurred as a result of the collapse of the Roman world and the trade contacts it maintained with peoples beyond its borders.[8] In the late 5th century, the Prague-Korchak culture appears in the Vistula basin.

Notes

1. ^ Polish pronunciation: [ˈpʂɛvɔrsk]

2. ^ Heather (1998, p. 38)

3. ^ Claudius Ptolemy, The Geography, book 10: Greater Germania.

4. ^ Pliny, Natural History, book 4, chap. 28

5. ^ Vandals, Romans and Berbers. New Perspectives on Late Antique North Africa. A H Merrills. 2004, Ashgate. Page 35

6. ^ Todd. Pg 26

7. ^ Cunliffe (2003, p. 452)

8. ^ The Archaeology of early medieval Poland. A Buzko. Brill 2008. Page 62

Resources

Mallory, James P.; Adams, Douglas Q. (1997), Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 1-884964-98-2

Todd, Malcolm, The Early Germans, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 0-631-19904-7

Heather, Peter (2006), The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-515954-3

Cunliffe, Barry; Todd, Malcolm (2001), The Oxford Illustrated History of Prehistoric Europe, Oxford, ISBN 0-19-285441-0


Amal (Amal DynasFrom the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Hungary Kings:

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#_Toc146273201

B. DYNASTY of the AMAL GOTHS

Iordanes sets out the ancestors of Athal, in order, as follows "Gapt…Hulmul…Augis…Amal a quo et origo Amalorum decurrit…Hisarnis…Ostrogotha…Hunuil…Athal"[31].

Reference:

[31] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77.

----------------------------

From Jordanes' Getica:

http://people.ucalgary.ca/~vandersp/Courses/texts/jordgeti.html#visi

XIV

(79) Now the first of these heroes, as they themselves relate in their legends, was Gapt, who begat Hulmul. And Hulmul begat Augis; and Augis begat him who was called Amal, from whom the name of the Amali comes. This Amal begat Hisarnis. Hisarnis moreover begat Ostrogotha, and Ostrogotha begat Hunuil, and Hunuil likewise begat Athal.


This information is according to the Wikipedia page on Ukrainian Rulers:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Ukrainian_rulers

Greuthungi

The Amali dynasty, Amals, Amaler, or Amalings of the Greuthungi ("steppe dwellers" or "people of the pebbly coasts"), called later the Ostrogothi.

Amal (Amala), the Fortunate, born fl. 110 or ca. 123


Events in the 2nd century that might have had an effect on the Goths during Amal's lifetime:

2nd century: The Alans, having arrived from Asia to the Azov Sea and Don River basin the previous century, have integrated with the Yancai of the region, forming a new kingdom of mostly nomadic herdsmen in the region. The group would soon ally with the nearby Sarmatians and form a confederation that would act as a momentary (5-year duration) defense to the Chernyagov Culture (to their west) during the Hun invasion.

160s - 180s: As the Goths move inland from the Baltic Sea (vacating their Wielbark culture homes), they apparently displace a number of German tribes. The tribes abutting the Roman frontier are driven, as a result, into the Marcomannic Wars; the Vandals (part of the Przeworsk culture) are themselves driven south into war with the Romans. They appear not to have disrupted the cultures to the east, as the "Galindai" and "Sudinoi" remained in place around present Vilnius from Ptolemy's time (2nd century) to Peter von Dusburg's time (13th century).


Ben M. Angel summary: If the Ukrainian Rulers from Wikipedia is correct and Amal was born in the 120s, he would likely have been the last Amal head of family to have not taken part in the migration to "Oium" or the Scythian plains (present Ukraine).

Amal is of course the name that the clan would take as it passed through the Scythian plains and through the dark days of Hun subjugation into the days of the collapse of the Roman Empire. It's unknown why Cassiodorus gave him the epithet of "The Fortunate".

Likely, Amal's world consisted of an expanding Gothic territory extending up the Vistula (Wisla) valley. Toward the end of his life, the Przeworsk culture, consisting of Vandals and allied tribes, were probably displaced by the expanding Goth kingdom in present Poland. Eventually, the decision would be made to colonize "Oium" in what would be termed the Goth migration of the third century.


From the English Wikipedia page on the Przeworsk Culture (displaced by the expanding Goth kingdom):

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Przeworsk_culture

The Przeworsk[1] culture is part of an Iron Age archaeological complex that dates from the 2nd century BC to the 5th century AD. It was located in what is now central and southern Poland, later spreading to parts of eastern Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia ranging between the Oder and the middle and upper Vistula Rivers into the headwaters of the Dniester and Tisza Rivers. It takes its name from the village near the town Przeworsk where the first artefacts were found.

Influences

Scholars view the Przeworsk culture as an amalgam of a series of localized cultures. Continuity with the preceding Pomeranian culture is observed, albeit modified by significant influences from the La Tene and Jastorf cultures.

To the east, in what is now northern Ukraine and southern Belarus, was the Zarubintsy culture, to which it is linked as a larger archaeological complex. Much of this area was subsequently absorbed by the Wielbark culture[2].

Ethnic affiliation

Ptolemy's Geography, written c. 150 AD, describes the Vistula as the eastern boundary of Germania, so the tribes he places between the Vistula and the Oder were evidently considered Germani at that time. They include the Rugiclei and the Burguntae.[3] Pliny the Elder described the Vandili as a grouping of Germanic people, which included the "Burgodiones, Varinnae, Charini and Gutones".[4] This is understood to mean that the Burgundians and Vandals were settled in portions of the area, prior to their outmigration, toward the end of this cultural period.

Early twentieth century scholars often engaged in heated debates as to the bearers of the Przeworsk culture. A substantial effort has been expended in the past to characterize the latter as an early Slavic-speaking community, whilst German scholars attributed it to Vandals and Burgundians.

]Features

The main feature of the Przeworsk culture are burials. These are mostly cremations, with occasional inhumation. Warrior burials are notable, which often include horsegear and spurs. Some burials are exceptionally rich, overshadowing the graves of Germanic groups further west, especially after 400 AD.[5] Pottery and metalwork are often rich and show a great variety [6]

Decline

The culture's decline in the late fourth century coincides with arrival of Huns and subsequent westward movement of Germanic groups[7]. Others, on the other hand, argue that there was considerable population continuity. They instead emphasize the role of the social crisis which occurred as a result of the collapse of the Roman world and the trade contacts it maintained with peoples beyond its borders.[8] In the late 5th century, the Prague-Korchak culture appears in the Vistula basin.

Notes

1. ^ Polish pronunciation: [ˈpʂɛvɔrsk]

2. ^ Heather (1998, p. 38)

3. ^ Claudius Ptolemy, The Geography, book 10: Greater Germania.

4. ^ Pliny, Natural History, book 4, chap. 28

5. ^ Vandals, Romans and Berbers. New Perspectives on Late Antique North Africa. A H Merrills. 2004, Ashgate. Page 35

6. ^ Todd. Pg 26

7. ^ Cunliffe (2003, p. 452)

8. ^ The Archaeology of early medieval Poland. A Buzko. Brill 2008. Page 62

Resources

Mallory, James P.; Adams, Douglas Q. (1997), Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 1-884964-98-2

Todd, Malcolm, The Early Germans, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 0-631-19904-7

Heather, Peter (2006), The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-515954-3

Cunliffe, Barry; Todd, Malcolm (2001), The Oxford Illustrated History of Prehistoric Europe, Oxford, ISBN 0-19-285441-0

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Om Amal "The Fortunate" (Norsk)

Amal, konge i Amal goternes dynasti. Det har navnet sitt etter han

Jordanus fastsetter antatte forfedrene til Athal, i rekkefølge, slik 1. Gapt fikk 2. Humul fikk 3..Augis fikk 4 Amal (Amaldynastiet er oppkalt etter han) fikk 4, Hisarnis fikk 5. Ostrogotha. fikk 6. Hunuil fikk 7. Athal.. Det er ikke kjent noe mer enn disse sparsomme opplysningene Som Jordanus har nedtegnet.

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#_ftnref33

<http://fabpedigree.com/s004/f090519.htm>

view all

Amal "The Fortunate"'s Timeline

123
123
Age 1
(Present Poland)
150
150
Age 26
(Present Poland)
195
195
Age 71
(Present Poland)