Antiochus IV, ruler of the Seleucid Empire

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Greek, Ancient: Αντίοχος
Also Known As: "Antiochus IV Epiphanes", "Αντίοχος Δ' ο Επιφανής Σελευκιδός της Συρίας", "ANTIOKOSSEN", "Antiokos", "Epimanes ("The Mad One")"
Birthplace: Syria
Death: -163 (47-57)
Immediate Family:

Son of Antiochus III Megas, king of the Seleucid Empire and Laodice III, queen of the Seleucid Empire
Husband of Laodice IV, Queen of the Seleucid Empire and NN ., Concubine
Father of Nysa, Queen of Pontus; Antiochus Eupator ., V, King of Seleucid Syria IX; Laodice VI, queen of Pontus; Alexander I Balas, ruler of the Seleucid kingdom and Antiochis
Brother of Antiochis; Laodice IV, Queen of the Seleucid Empire; Seleucus IV, ruler of the Seleucid Empire; Cleopatra I Syra, Queen of Egypt; Ardys Seleucid and 1 other

Occupation: King Of Syria
Managed by: Private User
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About Antiochus IV, ruler of the Seleucid Empire

Antiochus IV Epiphanes (play /ænˈtaɪ.əkəs ɛˈpɪfəniːz/; Greek: Ἀντίοχος Ἐπιφανής, 'God Manifest'; c. 215 BC – 164 BC) ruled the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his death in 164 BC. He was a son of King Antiochus III the Great. His original name was Mithridates; he assumed the name Antiochus after he ascended the throne.

Notable events during the reign of Antiochus IV include his near-conquest of Egypt, which led to a confrontation that became an origin of the metaphorical phrase, "line in the sand" (see below), and the rebellion of the Jewish Maccabees.

Antiochus was the first Seleucid king to use divine epithets on coins, perhaps inspired by Bactrian Hellenistic kings who had earlier done so, or else building on the ruler cult that his father Antiochus the Great had codified within the Seleucid Empire. These epithets included Θεὸς Ἐπιφανής 'manifest god', and, after his defeat of Egypt, Νικηφόρος 'bringer of victory'. However, Antiochus also tried to interact with common people, by appearing in the public bath houses and applying for municipal offices, and his often eccentric behavior and capricious actions led some of his contemporaries to call him Epimanes ("The Mad One"), a word play on his title Epiphanes.



Antiochus (221-193 BC) was a Seleucid prince, first-born child to the Seleucid monarchs Antiochus III the Great and Laodice III, and his father's first heir.

Antiochus was of Greek Macedonian and Persian descent. In 210 BC, his father made him joint king, when Antiochus III went off to the East on his great expedition. He was partly in command of the Seleucid army at the victory at Panion in 200 BC. He is not recorded to have had any real independent authority, but he was appointed viceroy of the eastern Seleucid satrapies. Antiochus is named in several decrees and letters with his father. In 200 BC, Antiochus was present at the battle of Panium and received the command over the right wing of the cavalry; it was he who routed the Egyptian cavalry and attacked the Ptolemaic center from the rear with his victorious cavalry. In 196 BC, Antiochus was appointed as the heir to the Seleucid throne. In that year, his father arranged for him to marry his younger sister Laodice IV. The marriage between Laodice IV and Antiochus was the first sibling marriage to occur in the Seleucid dynasty. From their sibling union, Laodice IV bore Antiochus a daughter called Nysa.

In 193 BC, Antiochus III appointed his daughter, the sister-wife of his son, Antiochus, as the chief priestess of the state cult dedicated to their late mother Laodice III in Media. Later that year, Antiochus died. His family were in complete grief of his death, in particular Antiochus III. Antiochus was succeeded by his younger brother Seleucus IV Philopator.

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