Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria

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Archduke Franz Ferdinand Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Crown Prince of Austria

German: Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria von Österreich Este (Habsburg), Kronprinz zu Österreich-Ungarn, Russian: Франц Фердинанд Габсбург, Crown Prince of Austria
Also Known As: "Erzherzog von Österreich-Este"
Birthdate: (50)
Birthplace: Graz, Österreich-Ungarn
Death: June 28, 1914 (50)
Sarajevo, Bosnien, Österreich-Ungarn (Assassinated)
Place of Burial: Artstetten-Pöbring, Niederösterreich, Österreich-Ungarn
Immediate Family:

Son of Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria; Maria Annunziata von Neapel-Sizilien, Erzherzogin von Österreich and Prince Maria Annunciata Isabella Bourbon-Two Sicilies
Husband of Duchess Sophie Hohenburg and Sophie Chotek von Chotkowa, Herzogin von Hohenberg
Father of Robert Ferdinand Walters; Sophie von Hohenberg d'Este von Habsburg-Lothringen; Maximilian von Hohenberg, Herzog; Ernst, Fürst von Hohenberg and Un garçon mort-né au château de Konopischt (Bohême)
Brother of Otto von Habsburg-Lothringen, Erzherzog von Österreich; Ferdinand Karl, Erzherzog von Österreich and Margarete Sophie Habsburg-Lothringen, Duchess Albrecht of Württemberg
Half brother of Archduchess Maria Annunciata of Austria and Archduchess Elisabeth Amalie of Austria

Occupation: Archduke of Austria, Héritier du Trône 1889, crown prince
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria

Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Este, Prince Imperial of Austria, Royal Prince of Hungary, King of Bohemia

============

On his way to Sarajevo, Ferdinand stayed overnight in Metković, where also his body was returned before being returned to Austria. Metković used to an important port in those times.

WWl - Assassination of Franz Ferdinand


Casamento: ou 28 de junho de 1900. Sepultado: no Castelo de Artstetten.


Franz Ferdinand von Österreich-Este

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Franz Ferdinand von Österreich-Este

Unterschrift Franz Ferdinands

Franz Ferdinand von Österreich-Este (* 18. Dezember 1863 in Graz; † 28. Juni 1914 in Sarajevo) war österreichischer Erzherzog und seit 1896 Thronfolger von Österreich-Ungarn. Das Attentat von Sarajevo, bei dem er und seine Frau ums Leben kamen, gilt als Auslöser des Ersten Weltkriegs. Franz Ferdinand ist der Stammvater des Geschlechts der Herzöge und Fürsten von Hohenberg.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

[Anzeigen]

   * 1 Leben
         o 1.1 Kindheit und Jugend
         o 1.2 Die Erbschaft d’Este
         o 1.3 Ausbildung
         o 1.4 Vor der Thronfolge
         o 1.5 Heirat mit Sophie Chotek
   * 2 Politik
   * 3 Attentat von Sarajevo
         o 3.1 Begräbnis
         o 3.2 Die politischen Folgen des Attentats
   * 4 Literatur
   * 5 Einzelnachweise
   * 6 Weblinks

Leben [Bearbeiten]

Kindheit und Jugend [Bearbeiten]

Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand

Franz Ferdinand war Sohn von Karl Ludwig von Österreich und Prinzessin Maria Annunziata von Neapel-Sizilien und der Neffe des regierenden Kaisers Franz Joseph I. Mit bereits acht Jahren Halbwaise geworden, hatte Franz Ferdinand nie eine innige Beziehung zu seiner Mutter. Diese schränkte zudem aufgrund ihrer Lungenkrankheit den Kontakt mit anderen Menschen stark ein. Die Sommer verbrachte er bei Reichenau an der Rax in der Villa Wartholz. Neben landläufigen Kinderspielen machte ihm vor allem die Jagd große Freude. Er erlegte bereits mit neun Jahren sein erstes Wild. Die Jagd wurde später Franz Ferdinands große Leidenschaft.[1] Wie aus den vollständig erhaltenen Schusslisten hervorgeht, erlegte Franz Ferdinand im Laufe seines Lebens 272.511 Stück Wild.[2] Mit seinem Cousin, Rudolf, dem Thronerben des regierenden Kaisers, war er eng befreundet.

Die Erbschaft d’Este [Bearbeiten]

Franz V., Herzog von Modena, Massa, Carrara und Guastalla († 20. November 1875) bot dem Vater von Franz Ferdinand an, einen seiner Söhne als Erben einzusetzen – unter der Bedingung, dass dieser den Namen Este annehmen und innerhalb von 12 Monaten leidlich Italienisch lernen solle. Karl Ludwig informierte seine beiden älteren Söhne davon (Erzherzog Ferdinand Karl war noch zu jung), wobei Erzherzog Otto das Ansinnen, die italienische Sprache zu erlernen, strikt ablehnte. Franz Ferdinand hingegen verpflichtete sich dazu. Nachdem der Kaiser seine Erlaubnis erteilt hatte, wurde Este seinem habsburgischen Namen angefügt, und er erhielt Italienischunterricht. Das Erlernen des Italienischen fiel ihm allerdings sehr schwer, da er im Gegensatz zu den meisten anderen Mitgliedern der Familie nicht besonders sprachbegabt war. Er übertrug seine Abneigung gegen die Sprache auch auf die Italiener und besichtigte in der Folge niemals seine ausgedehnten Besitzungen in Oberitalien. Qua Testament durfte er das Erbe nicht veräußern. Sein Vater erzog ihn zu eiserner Sparsamkeit, um mit den ererbten Gütern und Unternehmen Gewinn zu erzielen.[3]

Ausbildung [Bearbeiten]

Unterrichtet wurde er gemeinsam mit seinem jüngeren Bruder Otto Franz Joseph privat unter der Leitung von Oberst Ferdinand Graf Degenfeld.

Seine Stiefmutter Marie Therese von Portugal suchte dann neue Lehrer und gewann den Historiker Onno Klopp (1876–1882) und den Propst Godfried Marschall. Beide gewannen großen Einfluss auf den jungen Erzherzog und prägten seine Lebenseinstellung entscheidend. Klopp beeinflusste den jungen Mann, indem er ihm ein übersteigertes habsburgisches Sendungsbewusstsein vermittelte, hielt ihm Vorträge hinsichtlich seiner hohen Berufung und des Gottesgnadentums. Seinem neuen Religionslehrer Marschall gelang es, die Zuneigung Franz Ferdinands zu erringen. Marschall, der 1880 Propst der Wiener Votivkirche und 1901 Weihbischof in Wien wurde, war viele Jahre engster Freund und Berater Franz Ferdinands, mit großem Einfluss auf diesen. Das Vertrauensverhältnis zerbrach später aufgrund der morganatischen Ehe des Thronfolgers.[4]

Vor der Thronfolge [Bearbeiten]

Ab 1878 erfuhr Franz Ferdinand eine militärische Ausbildung bei der böhmischen Infanterie, den ungarischen Husaren und den oberösterreichischen Dragonern. 1899 wurde er zum General der Kavallerie befördert. Während seiner Militärzeit erkrankte er mehrmals an Lungentuberkulose, an der schon seine Mutter gestorben war, und musste im Herbst 1895 sogar vorübergehend aus dem aktiven Dienst scheiden.

Von 1892 bis 1893 unternahm er auf ärztlichen Rat mit einer großen Gefolgschaft eine Weltreise auf dem Torpedorammkreuzer SMS Kaiserin Elisabeth. Offiziell wurde die Reise als wissenschaftliche Expedition deklariert, damit sie unverdächtig hinsichtlich seiner Gesundheit wirkte und die Gerüchte über die angegriffene Gesundheit des Erzherzogs zum Verstummen brachte.[5] Die Reise führte ihn von Triest nach Indien, Indonesien, Australien, Japan, Kanada und Nordamerika. Seine so entstandenen Eindrücke und Erfahrungen beschrieb er im Buch Tagebuch meiner Reise um die Erde (Wien, Alfred Hölder, 1895). 14.000 ethnologische Objekte dieser Reise befinden sich heute im Wiener Völkerkundemuseum. In den Wintern 1895 und 1896 unternahm er weitere ausgedehnte Kuraufenthalte, unter anderem in Ägypten, und erholte sich entgegen vielen Erwartungen von seiner Krankheit.

Nach dem Selbstmord seines Cousins Kronprinz Rudolf auf Schloss Mayerling am 30. Januar 1889 und dem Tod seines Vaters Karl Ludwig am 19. Mai 1896 wurde Franz Ferdinand österreichischer Thronfolger. Mehrere Versuche, ihn standesgemäß zu verheiraten, unter anderem mit der verwitweten Kronprinzessin Stephanie oder der sächsischen Prinzessin Mathilde, schlugen fehl.

Franz Ferdinand

Heirat mit Sophie Chotek [Bearbeiten]

Am 1. Juli 1900 heiratete Franz Ferdinand Sophie Gräfin Chotek, Hofdame (von Erzherzog Friedrich und dessen Gattin Isabella von Croy-Dülmen) und Tochter eines böhmischen Grafen, die anlässlich der Hochzeit zur „Fürstin von Hohenberg“ und erst 1909 zur Herzogin von Hohenberg erhoben wurde. Trotz ihrer Herkunft aus dem böhmischen Uradel (siehe Chotek von Chotkow) galt sie als den Habsburgern nicht ebenbürtig; außerdem wurde sie von ihr übel gesinnten Höflingen als schlicht, herb, selten lächelnd, dienstwillig, hausfraulich, bescheiden und buchstabengetreu gottesfürchtig wahrgenommen. Da sich Kaiser Franz Joseph I. nicht dazu überwinden konnte, ihre Familie in die Liste der ebenbürtigen Geschlechter aufzunehmen, erlaubte er nach langem Widerstreben nur eine morganatische Heirat unter der Bedingung, dass Sophie nicht „die künftige Kaiserin-Gemahlin“, sondern nur „Gemahlin des künftigen Kaisers“ werde und die späteren Nachkommen des Paares, die den Familiennamen von Hohenberg trugen, keinen Anspruch auf den Thron haben. Franz Ferdinand unterzeichnete in einem offiziellen Akt diesen Thronverzicht für seine Nachkommen aus der geplanten morganatischen Ehe mit Sophie am 28. Juni 1900.

Diese strengen erbrechtlichen Vorschriften galten nur für Österreich. In Böhmen und Ungarn hingegen hätte Sophie durchaus Königin und ihre Kinder Thronerben werden können. Franz Ferdinand verzichtete auf diese Ansprüche allerdings im Hinblick auf die Einheit des Reiches.[6]

Sophie Gräfin Chotek

Die Hochzeit mit Sophie brachte Franz Ferdinand in einen großen Konflikt mit seinen Verwandten. Franz Ferdinands jüngere Brüder Otto und Ferdinand Karl erschienen nicht zur Hochzeit, ebenso wenig die Schwester Margarete Sophie. Nur seine Stiefmutter Maria Theresa kam mit ihren beiden Töchtern Maria Annunziata und Elisabeth Amalie.

Der Ehe von Franz Ferdinand mit Sophie von Hohenberg entsprossen vier Kinder:

   * Sophie, Fürstin von Hohenberg (1901–1990) ∞ 1920 Friedrich Graf von Nostitz-Rieneck (1893–1973)
   * Maximilian, Herzog von Hohenberg (1902–1962) ∞ 1926 Elisabeth Gräfin von Waldburg zu Wolfegg und Waldsee
   * Ernst, Fürst von Hohenberg (1904–1954) ∞ 1936 Maria Therese Wood
   * Totgeborener Sohn (*/† 1908)

Die Familie hatte ihren Sitz auf Schloss Belvedere in Wien, ihre Sommerresidenz war Schloss Konopiště in Böhmen.

Politik [Bearbeiten]

Franz Ferdinand (rechts) bei einem Kaisermanöver 1909

Trotz seiner Reformpläne und seiner morganatischen Ehe ist er nie zu einer populären Figur geworden, was wohl auch an seinem als schroff und wenig gewinnend beschriebenem Wesen liegen dürfte. Karl Kraus, der mit ihm zeitweise sympathisierte, formulierte es in seinem Nachruf so: Er war kein Grüßer (…) Auf jene unerforschte Gegend, die der Wiener sein Herz nennt, hatte er es nicht abgesehen. [7]Sein bis ins Reaktionäre gehendes Unverständnis gegenüber allen neuen kulturellen Entwicklungen trug zusätzlich zu einem schlechten Nachruhm bei.

Obwohl er offiziell nie an der Führung der Doppelmonarchie Österreich-Ungarn beteiligt war, wirkte Franz Ferdinand aktiv in der kaiserlichen Politik mit. Dazu residierte er mit einem Beraterstab – der sogenannten „Militärkanzlei“, deren wichtigste Mitarbeiter Oberst Carl von Bardolff und Alexander von Brosch-Aarenau waren – im Schloss Belvedere. Nach seiner Thronbesteigung hätte er den Namen Franz II. gewählt. Er forcierte den militärischen Aufbau der Streitkräfte (Armee und Kriegsmarine) und plante die Stärkung der Zentralmacht und Schwächung des Dualismus.

Die Reformen hätten den Zusammenschluss von Kroatien, Bosnien und Dalmatien zu einem eigenen Reichsteil (Südslawien) zur Folge gehabt, was mit dem Interesse Serbiens konkurriert hätte, ein südslawisches Königreich unter serbischer Führung zu gründen. Diese Pläne und die angeheizte öffentliche Diskussion schürten den Hass der Serben gegen Franz Ferdinand und die Habsburger.

Der „Trialismus“ (Österreich-Ungarn-Südslawien) war als ein Schritt in Richtung der von Aurel Popovici lancierten Vereinigten Staaten von Groß-Österreich gedacht. Auf jeden Fall hätten diese Pläne die staatsrechtliche Auflösung der Union von Ungarn und Kroatien zur Folge gehabt, was Franz Ferdinand die Feindschaft der Ungarn zugezogen hätte.

Franz Ferdinand entwickelte sich dadurch zu einem gefährlichen Gegner aller Kreise bei Hofe, die durch seinen Herrschaftsantritt aus ihrer Beschaulichkeit gerissen worden wären, der ihm verhassten Ungarn und vor allem der serbischen Nationalisten.

Franz Ferdinand sorgte dafür, dass der 1911 wegen der Verfolgung von Präventivkriegsplänen gegen Serbien von seinem Onkel entlassene Generalstabschef Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf 1912 in sein Amt zurückkehren konnte. Allerdings war Franz Ferdinand ein Gegner des unüberlegten militärischen Dreinschlagens und wollte einen Krieg mit Russland vermeiden, damit der Zar und der Kaiser von Österreich sich nicht gegenseitig vom Thron stürzen und der Revolution den Weg freimachen. Dabei trat er immer wieder in Gegensatz zu Conrad von Hötzendorf, der ein Vertreter von Präventivkriegen war. Auch ein Krieg gegen Serbien wurde von Franz Ferdinand schon 1913 in einem Brief an Leopold Graf Berchtold abgelehnt: Führen wir einen Spezialkrieg mit Serbien, so werden wir es in kürzester Zeit über den Haufen rennen, aber was dann? Und was haben wir davon? Erstens fällt dann ganz Europa über uns her (…) und Gott behüte uns, wenn wir Serbien annektieren; ein total verschuldetes Land mit Königsmördern, Spitzbuben etc. Und wo wir noch nicht einmal mit Bosnien fertig werden (…) Und jetzt gibt es meiner Meinung nach nur die Politik, zuzuschauen, wie sich die anderen die Schädel einhauen, sie soviel als möglich aufeinanderhetzen und für die Monarchie den Frieden zu erhalten.[8]

Franz Ferdinand als Kaiser von Österreich, Portrait von Wilhelm Vita (HGM).

Im so genannten „Sarajevo-Saal“ des Wiener Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums befindet sich ein besonders kurioses Ölgemälde von Wilhelm Vita. Das Porträt zeigt den Erzherzog im weißen Galawaffenrock im Rang eines Feldmarschalls sowie mit den vier Großkreuzen des Maria-Theresia-Ordens, des k.u. Sankt Stephans-Ordens und Leopold-Ordens sowie des Ordens der Eisernen Krone. Es sind dies, mit Ausnahme des Stephans-Ordens, durchwegs Attribute, die Franz Ferdinand als Erzherzog und Thronfolger nicht zugestanden sind, die er aber im Fall einer Thronbesteigung angelegt hätte.[9] Das Bild wurde wohl bei dem in Hofkreisen als Maler offizieller Porträts sehr geschätzten Wilhelm Vita als Teil von vorbereitenden Maßnahmen getroffen. Es stellt demnach Franz Ferdinand als Kaiser dar und mag für den Fall der Thronbesteigung als Vorlage für offizielle Kaiserbilder in Schulen oder auf Briefmarken und dergleichen vorgesehen gewesen sein. Nach der Ermordung des Thronfolgers wurde das zur Utopie gewordene Porträt soweit übermalt, dass es mit der realen Vergangenheit übereinstimmte. In diesem Zustand wurde das Gemälde vom Heeresgeschichtlichen Museum 1959 aus Privatbesitz erworben und nach Entfernung der Übermalungen der ursprüngliche Zustand wiederhergestellt. Heute zeigt es in eindringlicher Weise den Unterschied zwischen der Wunschvorstellung des Erzherzogs und der Wirklichkeit.[10]

Attentat von Sarajevo [Bearbeiten]

Hauptartikel: Attentat von Sarajevo

Das Auto in dem Franz Ferdinand erschossen wurde (Heeresgeschichtliches Museum Wien)

Im Rahmen von Manöver-Besuchen hielten sich Franz Ferdinand und seine Frau im Juni 1914 in Bosnien-Herzegowina auf. Am 28. Juni 1914 statteten sie dessen Hauptstadt Sarajevo einen offiziellen Besuch ab. Die Untergrundorganisation „Mlada Bosna“ plante mit Hilfe von Mitgliedern der serbischen Geheimorganisation „Schwarze Hand“ zu diesem Anlass ein Attentat. Nach einem zunächst fehlschlagenden Attentat mit einer Handgranate, tötete der 19-jährige Schüler Gavrilo Princip kurz darauf den Erzherzog und seine Frau mit zwei Pistolenschüssen, wobei der Thronfolger an der Halsvene und der Luftröhre getroffen worden war, kurz darauf das Bewusstsein verlor und verblutete.[10] Das Automobil, in welchem Franz Ferdinand und seine Frau erschossen wurden, kann im Heeresgeschichtlichen Museum in Wien besichtigt werden, wobei das Durchschussloch jenes Geschoßes, das Sophie tödlich traf, deutlich zu sehen ist. Ebenso kann die blutüberströmte Uniform des Thronfolgers in selbigem Museum besichtigt werden.[9]

Begräbnis [Bearbeiten]

Die blutbefleckte Generalsuniform Franz Ferdinands im Heeresgeschichtlichen Museum

Die Begräbnisfeierlichkeiten wurden auf Befehl des Kaisers vom Ersten Obersthofmeister Alfred Fürst Montenuovo ausgearbeitet. Franz Ferdinand und Sophie Chotek wurden nach einem vom Hofe wegen der nicht standesgemäßen Heirat bewusst bescheiden gehaltenen „Begräbnis III. Klasse“ in der Familiengruft des Schlosses Artstetten in Niederösterreich beigesetzt. Der Kaiser konnte dem Thronfolger seine morganatische Ehe gegen den Willen des Kaisers nicht verzeihen und daher kam eine Bestattung in der Kapuzinergruft nicht in Frage. Da Franz Ferdinand dies gewusst hatte, aber unter allen Umständen an der Seite seiner Gattin begraben werden wollte, hatte er bereits zu Lebzeiten vorgesorgt und in seinem Schloss Artstetten eine Gruft errichten lassen.[11] Aus dem Nachlass Franz Ferdinands wurde von seinen Nachfahren im Schloss ein Museum errichtet, das ihn nicht nur als Amtsperson und Würdenträger, sondern auch als Privatmenschen zeigt.

Die politischen Folgen des Attentats [Bearbeiten]

Grab von Franz Ferdinand

Wie aus Protokollen von Sitzungen des k. u. k. Ministerrates für gemeinsame Angelegenheiten hervorgeht, wollte Österreich-Ungarn Serbien daraufhin mit einem Krieg für immer unschädlich machen, und stellte der serbischen Regierung am 23. Juli 1914 ein äußerst hartes, auf 48 Stunden befristetes Ultimatum, in dem es u. a. die Unterdrückung jeglicher Aktionen und Propaganda gegen die territoriale Integrität der österreich-ungarischen Monarchie verlangte und eine gerichtliche Untersuchung des Attentats unter Mitwirkung österreich-ungarischer Beamter forderte. Das Ultimatum war bewusst so verfasst, dass ein souveräner Staat es nicht akzeptieren konnte. Das Ultimatum drohte allerdings nur mit dem Abbruch der diplomatischen Beziehungen und (noch) nicht mit Krieg, eine Feinheit, auf deren Betonung der k. u. k. Außenminister Leopold Graf Berchtold großen Wert legte. Serbien antwortete auf das Ultimatum innerhalb der vorgegebenen Frist, akzeptierte es jedoch nicht bedingungslos. Schließlich erklärte Österreich-Ungarn mit deutscher Rückendeckung Serbien am 28. Juli 1914 den Krieg. Durch die Bündnisverpflichtungen der damaligen Großmächte wurde so der Erste Weltkrieg ausgelöst.

Literatur [Bearbeiten]

   * Erika Bestenreiner: Franz Ferdinand und Sophie von Hohenberg. Verbotene Liebe am Kaiserhof. Piper, München 2004, ISBN 3-492-04514-6.
   * Gordon Brook-Shepherd: Die Opfer von Sarajevo. Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand und Sophie von Chotek. Engelhorn-Verlag, Stuttgart 1988, ISBN 3-87203-037-X.
   * Theodor Brückler: Thronfolger Franz Ferdinand als Denkmalpfleger. Die "Kunstakten" der Militärkanzlei im Österreichischen Staatsarchiv (Kriegsarchiv). Böhlau Verlag, Wien 2009. ISBN 978-3-205-78306-0.
   * Beate Hammond: Habsburgs größte Liebesgeschichte. Franz Ferdinand und Sophie. Ueberreuter, Wien 2001, ISBN 3-8000-3794-7.
   * Robert Hoffmann: Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand und der Fortschritt. Altstadterhaltung und bürgerlicher Modernisierungswille in Salzburg. Böhlau, Wien, Köln, Weimar 1994.
   * Hertha Pauli: Das Geheimnis von Sarajevo. Paul Zsolnay, Wien/Hamburg 1966.
   * Friedrich Weissensteiner: Franz Ferdinand, der verhinderte Herrscher. Piper, München 1999, ISBN 3-492-21532-7.
   * Lucian O. Meysels: Die verhinderte Dynastie. Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand und das Haus Hohenberg. Molden-Verlag, Wien 2000, ISBN 978-3-85485-051-9.
   * Justin Stagl (Hg.): Ein Erzherzog reist. Beiträge zu Franz Ferdinands Weltreise. Salzburg 2001.

Einzelnachweise [Bearbeiten]

  1. ↑ Friedrich Weissensteiner: Franz Ferdinand – Der verhinderte Herrscher. Öst. Bundesverlag, Copyr. 1983, S. 52–59
  2. ↑ Friedrich Weissensteiner: Ein Aussteiger aus dem Kaiserhaus. Johann Orth: Das eskapadenreiche Leben des Erzherzogs Johann Salvator. Eine Biographie. Österreichischer Bundesverlag, Wien 1985, ISBN 3-215-05342-X, S. 84.
  3. ↑ Sigrid-Maria Größing: Mord im Hause Habsburg
  4. ↑ Friedrich Weissensteiner: Franz Ferdinand – Der verhinderte Herrscher. Österr. Bundesverlag, Wien 1983, S. 65–68
  5. ↑ Friedrich Weissensteiner, Franz Ferdinand – Der verhinderte Herrscher, Öst. Bundesverlag, Copyr. 1983, S. 85–88
  6. ↑ Friedrich Weissensteiner, Franz Ferdinand – Der verhinderte Herrscher, Öst. Bundesverlag, Copyr. 1983, S. 114–138
  7. ↑ Die Fackel vom 10. Juli 1914
  8. ↑ zit. nach Friedrich Weissensteiner, Franz Ferdinand – Der verhinderte Herrscher. Österr. Bundesverlag, Wien 1983, S. 214
  9. ↑ a b Manfried Rauchensteiner, Manfred Litscher (Hg.): Das Heeresgeschichtliche Museum in Wien. Graz, Wien 2000 S. 56 f.
 10. ↑ a b Johann Christoph Allmayer-Beck: Das Heeresgeschichtliche Museum Wien. Das Museum und seine Repräsentationsräume, Salzburg 1981, S. 52.
 11. ↑ Friedrich Weissensteiner, Franz Ferdinand – Der verhinderte Herrscher, Öst.Bundesverlag, 1983, S. 39

Weblinks [Bearbeiten]

Commons Commons: Franz Ferdinand von Österreich-Este – Sammlung von Bildern, Videos und Audiodateien

   * Literatur von und über Franz Ferdinand von Österreich-Este im Katalog der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek (Datensatz zu Franz Ferdinand von Österreich-Este • PICA-Datensatz • Apper-Personensuche)
   * Leben und Geschichte Franz Ferdinands (engl.)
   * Miklós Horthys Erinnerungen an Franz Ferdinand (engl.)
   * Attentat auf Franz Ferdinand in der österreichischen Presse (Österreichische Nationalbibliothek)

Einklappen

Österreich-Ungarn

Linie Österreich-Este

Maria Beatrice d’Este | Ferdinand Karl von Österreich-Este (1754–1806) | Ferdinand Karl von Österreich-Este (1781–1850) | Franz Ferdinand von Österreich-Este | Karl Ambrosius von Österreich-Este | Maria Leopoldine von Österreich-Este | Marie Therese von Österreich-Este | Maximilian Joseph von Österreich-Este

Siehe auch: Haus Este und Haus Habsburg-Lothringen

Normdaten: PND: 118535005 – weitere Informationen | LCCN: n79079601 | VIAF: 50016762

Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 17. Juni 2010 um 07:18 Uhr geändert.


16th cousin 4 times removed of PVD thru Pedro the Cruel King of Castile, PVD's 19th great grandfather, Franz's 15th great grandfather.

Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Franz Ferdinand (December 18, 1863 – June 28, 1914) was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Prince Imperial of Austria and Royal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia, and from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne[1]. His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated the Austrian declaration of war. This caused countries allied with Austria-Hungary (the Central Powers) and countries allied with Serbia (the Triple Entente Powers) to declare war on each other, starting World War I.[2][3][4]

He was born in Graz, Austria, the eldest son of Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria (younger brother of Emperor Franz Joseph and Maximilian I of Mexico) and of his second wife, Princess Maria Annunciata of the Two Sicilies. When he was only twelve years old, his cousin Duke Francis V of Modena died, naming Franz Ferdinand his heir on condition that he add the name Este to his own. Franz Ferdinand thus became one of the wealthiest men in Austria.

When he was born, there was no reason to think that Franz Ferdinand would ever be heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne. He was given the normal strict education of an archduke with an emphasis on history and moral character. From 1876 to 1885 his tutor was the historian Onno Klopp. In 1883 Franz Ferdinand entered the army with the rank of third lieutenant.

As a young man, Franz Ferdinand developed three great passions: hunting, travel, and jousting. It is estimated that he shot more than 5,000 deer in his lifetime. In 1883, he visited Italy for the first time in order to see the properties left to him by Duke Francis V of Modena. In 1885, he visited Egypt, Palestine, Syria, and Turkey. In 1889, he visited Germany. At age thirteen, he broke two of his ribs after falling off his horse while jousting.

In 1889, Franz Ferdinand's life changed dramatically. His cousin Crown Prince Rudolf committed suicide at his hunting lodge in Mayerling,[5] leaving Franz Ferdinand's father, Archduke Karl Ludwig, as first in line to the throne. However his father renounced his succession rights a few days after the Crown Prince's death.[6] Henceforth, Franz Ferdinand was groomed to succeed. Despite this burden, he did manage to find time for travel and personal pursuits -- for example, the time he spent hunting kangaroos and emus in Australia in 1893, and the return trip to Austria in sailing across the Pacific on the RMS Empress of Canada from Yokohama to Vancouver.[7]

Marriage and family

In 1895 Franz Ferdinand met Countess Sophie Chotek at a ball in Prague. To be an eligible marriage partner for a member of the House of Habsburg, one had to be a member of one of the reigning or formerly reigning dynasties of Europe. The Choteks were not one of these families, although they did include among their ancestors, in the female line, princess of Baden, Hohenzollern-Hechingen, and Liechtenstein. Sophie was a lady-in-waiting to Archduchess Isabella, wife of Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen. Franz Ferdinand began to visit Archduke Friedrich's villa in Pressburg (now Bratislava). Sophie wrote to Franz Ferdinand during his convalescence from tuberculosis when he went to the island of Lošinj in the Adriatic. They kept their relationship a secret for more than two years.

Archduchess Isabella assumed that Franz Ferdinand was enamored of one of her daughters. In 1898, however, he left his watch lying on a tennis court at her home. She opened the watch, expecting to find there a photograph of one of her daughters; instead, she found a photograph of Sophie. Sophie was immediately dismissed from her position.

Deeply in love, Franz Ferdinand refused to consider marrying anyone else. Pope Leo XIII, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, and the German Emperor Wilhelm II all made representations on Franz Ferdinand's behalf to the Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria, arguing that the disagreement between Franz Joseph and Franz Ferdinand was undermining the stability of the monarchy.

Finally, in 1899, the Emperor Franz Joseph agreed to permit Franz Ferdinand to marry Sophie, on condition that the marriage would be morganatic and that their descendants would not have succession rights to the throne.[5] Sophie would not share her husband's rank, title, precedence, or privileges; as such, she would not normally appear in public beside him. She would not be allowed to ride in the royal carriage, or sit in the royal box.

The wedding took place on July 1, 1900, at Reichstadt (now Zákupy) in Bohemia; Franz Joseph did not attend the affair, nor did any archduke including Franz Ferdinand's brothers.[5] The only members of the imperial family who were present were Franz Ferdinand's stepmother, Maria Theresia, and her two daughters. Upon the marriage, Sophie was given the title Princess of Hohenberg (Fürstin von Hohenberg) with the style Her Serene Highness (Ihre Durchlaucht). In 1909, she was given the more senior title Duchess of Hohenberg (Herzogin von Hohenberg) with the style Her Highness (Ihre Hoheit). This raised her status considerably, but she still yielded precedence at court to all the archduchesses. Whenever a function required the couple to gather with the other members of royalty, Sophie was forced to stand far down the line of importance, separated from her husband.

Franz Ferdinand's children were:

Princess Sophie von Hohenberg (1901-1990), married Count Friedrich von Nostitz-Rieneck (1891-1973)

Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg (1902-1962), married Countess Elisabeth von Waldburg zu Wolfegg und Waldsee (1904-1993)

Prince Ernst von Hohenberg (1904-1954), married Marie-Therese Wood (1910-1985)

Assassination

On June 28, 1914, at approximately 11:15 am, Franz Ferdinand and his wife were killed in Sarajevo, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian province of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo Princip, a member of Young Bosnia and one of a group of assassins organized by The Black Hand (Црна рука/Crna Ruka).[4] The event, known as the Assassination in Sarajevo, led to a chain of events that eventually triggered World War I. Ferdinand and Sophie had previously been attacked when a grenade was thrown at their car. It hit the hood of the car and detonated far behind them. The royal couple insisted on seeing all those injured at the hospital. While traveling there, Franz Ferdinand's car took a wrong turn onto a side street where Princip spotted them. As their car was backing up, Princip approached and shot both Sophie, striking her in the abdomen, and Franz, who was struck in the jugular and was still alive when witnesses arrived to render aid.[4] Princip had used the Browning .380 ACP cartridge, a relatively low power round, and a pocket-sized FN model 1910 pistol.[8] The archduke's aides attempted to undo his coat when they realized they needed scissors to cut the coat open, but it was too late; he died within minutes. Sophie also died while en route to the hospital. [9] The assassinations, along with the arms race, nationalism, imperialism, militarism, and the alliance system all contributed to the beginning of World War I, which began less than two months after Franz Ferdinand's death, with Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia.[10]

Franz Ferdinand is interred with his wife Sophie in Artstetten Castle, Austria.

A detailed account of the shooting can be found in Sarajevo by Joachim Remak [11]

...one bullet pierced Franz Ferdinand's neck while the other pierced Sophie's abdomen.... As the car was reversing (to go back to the Governor's residence because the entourage thought the Imperial couple were unhurt) a thin streak of blood shot from the Archduke's mouth onto Count Harrach's right cheek (he was standing on the car's running board). Harrach drew out a handkerchief to still the gushing blood. The Duchess, seeing this, called: "For Heaven's sake! What happened to you?" and sank from her seat, her face falling between her husband's knees.

Harrach and Potoriek... thought she had fainted... only her husband seemed to have an instinct for what was happening. Turning to his wife despite the bullet in his neck, Franz Ferdinand pleaded: "Sopherl! Sopherl! Sterbe nicht! Bleibe am Leben fur unsere Kinder! - Sophie dear! Don't die! Stay alive for our children!". Having said this, he seemed to sag down himself. His plumed hat... fell off; many of its green feathers were found all over the car floor. Count Harrach seized the Archduke by the uniform collar to hold him up. He asked "Leiden Eure Kaiserliche Hoheit sehr? - Is Your Imperial Highness suffering very badly?" "Es ist nichts - It is nothing" said the Archduke in a weak but audible voice. He seemed to be losing consciousness, but, his voice growing steadily weaker, he repeated the phrase perhaps six or seven times more. He was losing consciousness during his last few minutes.

A rattle began to issue from his throat, which subsided as the car drew in front of the Konak bersibin (Town Hall). (Despite several doctors' efforts, the Archduke died shortly after being carried into the building while his beloved wife was almost certainly dead from internal bleeding before the motorcade reached the Konak.) - Les Gillard.

The Start of World War I

Ironically, Franz Ferdinand was Serbia's strongest advocate in Vienna. He had announced plans to grant unprecedented autonomy to all ethnic groups in the Empire, and to address their grievances. [12] He repeatedly locked horns with Franz Conrad, Vienna's hard-line Chief of the General Staff, over Vienna's treatment of Serbia, warning that harsh treatment of Serbia would bring Austria-Hungary into open conflict with Russia, to the ruin of both Empires.

Vienna's initial reaction to the assassination was muted. [13] Franz Ferdinand was not popular either at court or among the populace, and his death posed no threat to the continuation of the Habsburg dynasty. After all, two other monarchs had already been assassinated by members of the Black Hand: King Alexander in Belgrade in 1903, and King George I of Greece 1913, just the year before. [14]

Russia and the other Great Powers agreed that Vienna would have to deal with this affront in some way, but Conrad chose to declare war on Serbia. A strong ultimatum, intended to be unacceptable, was delivered to Belgrade on July 23. Serbia acceded to all demands but one: that Austro-Hungarian police be allowed to operate on Serbian territory to apprehend and interrogate conspirators. Vienna was not interested in compromise, and declared war on July 28, just one month after the assassination.

This started the chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. The Kaiser and the Tsar initially made strenuous efforts to contain the crisis, but once it became clear mobilization could not be stopped, the Kaiser's position hardened significantly. France and Germany mobilized simultaneously. Within a week all major powers had declared war. Fighting began on August 4 when German troops crossed the Belgian frontier.

From today's perspective it would appear that in 1914 all European nations were developing into modern, progressive nations whose social and political problems could be resolved through compromise and legislation. Many, such as Karl Kraus, a Viennese political commentator, warned about the massive social upheavals the war would create. [15]. Others, such as the Kaiser and Emperor Franz Joseph, saw them as inevitable; and still others, such as Hitler, Lenin, Trotsky, and Stalin, saw them as desirable.

In Thunder At Twilight (Scriber's, 1989), Frederick Morton argues the assassination was the trigger for a sociological phenomenon that had been brewing for decades, perhaps since the French Revolution. Beneath Europe's' apparent prosperity lay a population seething with discontent. With rising productivity many European workers felt the fruits of their labors were unfairly going to new capitalists and old aristocracy. People whose families had lived off the land for generations felt their agrarian way of life being threatened by industrialization. Many seemed to share Hitler's view that war would remove barriers between men and make them brothers in arms. According to Morton, once it became clear that war was imminent, many socialists and even pacifists abandoned their antiwar stance and joined the conflict with enthusiasm. It may be that the Great War was an event whose time had come whether Franz Ferdinand was assassinated or not.

References

^ Brook-Shepherd, Gordon(1987), "Royal Sunset", p.139

^ Marshall, S.L.A. (2001). World War I. Mariner Books, p.1. ISBN 0618056866.

^ Keegan, John (2000). First World War. Vintage, p.48. ISBN 0375700455.

^ a b c Lonnie Johnson (1989). Introducing Austria: A short history. Ariadne Press, 270 Goins Court, Riverside, CA 92507, pp.52-54. ISBN 0-929497-03-1.

^ a b c Brook-Shepherd, Gordon (1997). The Austrians: A thousand-year odyssey. Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc.; 19 West 21st Street; New York, NY 10010, pp.107,125-126. ISBN 0-7867-0520-5.

^ "The Crown Prince’s Successor", New York Times, 1889-02-02.

^ Katalog Land in Sicht!("Land Ahoy: Austria on the Seven Seas"), p. 8. Exhibition of the Austrian Mint, August 17, 2005 - February 3, 2006. Münze Österreich (Austrian Mint).

^ Belfield, Richard. The Assassination Business: A History of State-Sponsored Murder, Carroll & Graf Publishers: New York. ISBN: 0786713437

^ THE LAST KAISER, p 351, by Giles MacDonogh

^ Lonnie Johnson 56

^ Remak, Joachim. "Sarajevo" (Wiedenfeld & Nicolson, 1959) (pp137 - 142)

^ Thunder At Twilight' by Frederick Morton, (1989, Scribner), p 191.

^ p. 183

^ ibid, p. 191

^ ibid, p136


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archduke_Franz_Ferdinand_of_Austria

Franz Ferdinand (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia, and from 1889 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne. His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia. This caused Germany and Austria-Hungary, and countries allied with Serbia (the Triple Entente Powers) to declare war on each other, starting World War I.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archduke_Franz_Ferdinand_of_Austria

http://www.almanachdegotha.org/id112.html


Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia and, from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.

His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia. This caused the Central Powers (including Germany and Austria-Hungary) and Serbia's allies to declare war on each other, starting World War I.

Franz Ferdinand was born in Graz, Austria, the eldest son of Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria (younger brother of Franz Joseph and Maximilian) and of his second wife, Princess Maria Annunciata of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. In 1875, when he was only eleven years old, his cousin Duke Francis V of Modena died, naming Franz Ferdinand his heir on condition that he add the name Este to his own. Franz Ferdinand thus became one of the wealthiest men in Austria.[citation needed]

In 1889, Franz Ferdinand's life changed dramatically. His cousin Crown Prince Rudolf committed suicide at his hunting lodge in Mayerling. This left Franz Ferdinand's father, Karl Ludwig, as first in line to the throne. Karl Ludwig died of typhoid fever in 1896. Henceforth, Franz Ferdinand was groomed to succeed to the throne.

Despite this burden, he did manage to find time for travel and personal pursuits, such as the trip round the world he embarked on in 1892. After visiting India he spent time hunting kangaroos and emus in Australia in 1893, then travelled on to Nouméa, New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, New Guinea, Sarawak, Hong Kong and Japan. After sailing across the Pacific on the RMS Empress of China from Yokohama to Vancouver he crossed the United States and returned to Europe.

The Archduke and his wife visited England in the autumn of 1913, spending a week with George V and Queen Mary at Windsor Castle before going to stay for another week with the Duke of Portland at Welbeck Abbey, Nottinghamshire, where they arrived on 22 November. He attended a service at the local Catholic church in Worksop and the Duke and Archduke went game shooting on the Welbeck estate when, according to the Duke's memoirs, Men, Women and Things:

"One of the loaders fell down. This caused both barrels of the gun he was carrying to be discharged, the shot passing within a few feet of the archduke and myself. I have often wondered whether the Great War might not have been averted, or at least postponed, had the archduke met his death there and not in Sarajevo the following year."

Franz Ferdinand had a fondness for trophy hunting that was excessive even by the standards of European nobility of this time. In his diaries he kept track of an estimated 300,000 game kills, 5,000 of which were deer. About 100,000 trophies were on exhibit at his Bohemian castle at Konopiště which he also stuffed with various antiquities, his other great passion.

Franz Ferdinand, like most males in the ruling Habsburg line, entered the Austro-Hungarian Army at a young age. He was frequently and rapidly promoted, given the rank of lieutenant at age fourteen, captain at twenty-two, colonel at twenty-seven, and major general at thirty-one. While never receiving formal staff training, he was considered eligible for command and at one point briefly led the primarily Hungarian 9th Hussar Regiment. In 1898 he was given a commission "at the special disposition of His Majesty" to make inquiries into all aspects of the military services and military agencies were commanded to share their papers with him.

He exerted influence on the armed forces even when he did not hold a specific command through a military chancery that produced and received documents and papers on military affairs. This was headed by Alexander Brosch von Aarenau and eventually employed a staff of sixteen. His authority was reinforced in 1907 when he secured the retirement of the Emperor's confidant Friedrich von Beck-Rzikowsky as Chief of the General Staff. Beck's successor, Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, was personally selected by Franz Ferdinard.

Franz in 1913, as heir-presumptive to the elderly emperor, had been appointed inspector general of all the armed forces of Austria-Hungary (Generalinspektor der gesamten bewaffneten Macht), a position superior to that previously held by Archduke Albrecht and including presumed command in wartime.

In 1894 Franz Ferdinand met Countess Sophie Chotek at a ball in Prague. To be eligible to marry a member of the Imperial House of Habsburg, one had to be a member of one of the reigning or formerly reigning dynasties of Europe. The Choteks were not one of these families, although they did include among their ancestors, in the female line, princes of Baden, Hohenzollern-Hechingen, and Liechtenstein. One of Sophie's direct ancestors was Albert IV, Count of Habsburg; she was descended from Elisabeth of Habsburg, a sister of King Rudolf I of Germany. Franz Ferdinand was a descendant of King Rudolf I. Sophie was a lady-in-waiting to Archduchess Isabella, wife of Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen. Franz Ferdinand began to visit Archduke Friedrich's villa in Pressburg (now Bratislava). Sophie wrote to Franz Ferdinand during his convalescence from tuberculosis on the island of Lošinj in the Adriatic. They kept their relationship a secret.

Deeply in love, Franz Ferdinand refused to consider marrying anyone else. Finally, in 1899, Emperor Franz Joseph agreed to permit Franz Ferdinand to marry Sophie, on condition that the marriage would be morganatic and that their descendants would not have succession rights to the throne. Sophie would not share her husband's rank, title, precedence, or privileges; as such, she would not normally appear in public beside him. She would not be allowed to ride in the royal carriage or sit in the royal box in theaters.

The wedding took place on 1 July 1900, at Reichstadt (now Zákupy) in Bohemia; Franz Joseph did not attend the affair, nor did any archduke including Franz Ferdinand's brothers. The only members of the imperial family who were present were Franz Ferdinand's stepmother, Princess Maria Theresa of Braganza, and her two daughters. Upon the marriage, Sophie was given the title "Princess of Hohenberg" (Fürstin von Hohenberg) with the style "Her Serene Highness" (Ihre Durchlaucht). In 1909, she was given the more senior title "Duchess of Hohenberg" (Herzogin von Hohenberg) with the style "Her Highness" (Ihre Hoheit). This raised her status considerably, but she still yielded precedence at court to all the archduchesses. Whenever a function required the couple to assemble with the other members of the imperial family, Sophie was forced to stand far down the line, separated from her husband.

Franz Ferdinand's children were: Princess Sophie of Hohenberg (1901–1990), married Count Friedrich von Nostitz-Rieneck (1891–1973) Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg (1902–1962), married Countess Elisabeth von Waldburg zu Wolfegg und Waldsee (1904–1993) Prince Ernst of Hohenberg (1904–1954), married Marie-Therese Wood (1910–1985) Stillborn son (1908), buried in Artstetten Castle, near his parents

The German historian Michael Freund described Franz Ferdinand as "a man of uninspired energy, dark in appearance and emotion, who radiated an aura of strangeness and cast a shadow of violence and recklessness ... a true personality amidst the amiable inanity that characterized Austrian society at this time." As his sometime admirer Karl Kraus put it, "he was not one who would greet you ... he felt no compulsion to reach out for the unexplored region which the Viennese call their heart." His relations with Emperor Franz Joseph were tense; the emperor's personal servant recalled in his memoirs that "thunder and lightning always raged when they had their discussions." The commentaries and orders which the heir to the throne wrote as margin notes to the documents of the Imperial central commission for architectural conservation (where he was Protector) reveal what can be described as "choleric conservativism." The Italian historian Leo Valiani provided the following description.

Francis Ferdinand was a prince of absolutist inclinations, but he had certain intellectual gifts and undoubted moral earnestness. One of his projects--though because of his impatient, suspicious, almost hysterical temperament, his commitment to it, and the methods by which he proposed to bring it about, often changed--was to consolidate the structure of the state and the authority and popularity of the Crown, on which he saw clearly that the fate of the dynasty depended, by abolishing, if not the dominance of the German Austrians, which he wished to maintain for military reasons, though he wanted to diminish it in the civil administration, certainly the far more burdensome sway of the Magyars over the Slav and Romanian nationalities which in 1848–49 had saved the dynasty in armed combat with the Hungarian revolution. Baron Margutti, Francis Joseph's aide-de-camp, was told by Francis Ferdinand in 1895 and--with a remarkable consistency in view of the changes that took place in the intervening years--again in 1913, that the introduction of the dual system in 1867 had been disastrous and that, when he ascended the throne, he intended to re-establish strong central government: this objective, he believed, could be attained only by the simultaneous granting of far-reaching administrative autonomy to all the nationalities of the monarchy. In a letter of February 1, 1913, to Berchtold, the Foreign Minister, in which he gave his reasons for not wanting war with Serbia, the Archduke said that "irredentism in our country ... will cease immediately if our Slavs are given a comfortable, fair and good life" instead of being trampled on (as they were being trampled on by the Hungarians). It must have been this which caused Berchtold, in a character sketch of Francis Ferdinand written ten years after his death, to say that, if he had succeeded to the throne, he would have tried to replace the dual system by a supranational federation.

Historians have disagreed on how to characterize the political philosophies of Franz Ferdinand, some attributing generally liberal views on the empire's nationalities while others have emphasized his dynastic centralism, Catholic conservatism, and tendency to clash with other leaders. He advocated granting greater autonomy to ethnic groups within the Empire and addressing their grievances, especially the Czechs in Bohemia and the south Slavic peoples in Croatia and Bosnia, who had been left out of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. Yet his feelings towards the Hungarians were less generous, often described as antipathy. For example, in 1904 he wrote that "The Hungarians are all rabble, regardless of whether they are minister or duke, cardinal or burgher, peasant, hussar, domestic servant, or revolutionary" and he regarded even István Tisza as a revolutionary and "patented traitor". He regarded Hungarian nationalism as a revolutionary threat to the Habsburg dynasty and reportedly became angry when officers of the 9th Hussars Regiment (which he commanded) spoke Hungarian in his presence — despite the fact that it was the official regimental language. He further regarded the Hungarian branch of the Dual Monarchy's army, the Honvédség, as an unreliable and potentially threatening force within the empire, complaining at the Hungarians' failure to provide funds for the joint army and opposing the formation of artillery units within the Hungarian forces.

He also advocated a careful approach towards Serbia – repeatedly locking horns with Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, Vienna's hard-line Chief of the General Staff, warning that harsh treatment of Serbia would bring Austria-Hungary into open conflict with Russia, to the ruin of both Empires.

He was disappointed when Austria-Hungary failed to act as a Great Power, such as during the Boxer Rebellion, in 1900. Other nations, including, in his description, "dwarf states like Belgium and Portugal",[18] had soldiers stationed in China, but Austria-Hungary did not. However, Austria-Hungary did participate in the Eight-Nation Alliance to suppress the Boxers, and sent soldiers as part of the "international relief force".

Franz Ferdinand was a prominent and influential supporter of the Austro-Hungarian Navy in a time when sea power was not a priority in Austrian foreign policy and the Navy was relatively little known and supported by the public. After his assassination in 1914, the Navy honoured Franz Ferdinand and his wife with a lying in state aboard SMS Viribus Unitis.

On Sunday, 28 June 1914, at about 10:45 am, Franz Ferdinand and his wife were killed in Sarajevo, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian province of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo Princip, 19 at the time, a member of Young Bosnia and one of a group of assassins organized and armed by the Black Hand. The event led to a chain of events that eventually triggered World War I.

Earlier in the day, the couple had been attacked by Nedeljko Čabrinović, who had thrown a grenade at their car. However, the bomb detonated behind them, hurting the occupants in the following car. On arriving at the Governor's residence, Franz angrily shouted, "So this is how you welcome your guests — with bombs!"

After a short rest at the Governor's residence, the royal couple insisted on seeing all those who had been injured by the bomb at the local hospital. However, no one told the drivers that the itinerary had been changed. When the error was discovered, the drivers had to turn around. As the cars backed down the street and onto a side street, the line of cars stalled. At this same time, Princip was sitting at a cafe across the street. He instantly seized his opportunity and walked across the street and shot the royal couple. He first shot Sophie in the abdomen and then shot Franz Ferdinand in the neck. Franz leaned over his crying wife. He was still alive when witnesses arrived to render aid.[4] His dying words to Sophie were, 'Don't die darling, live for our children.' Princip's weapon was the pocket-sized FN Model 1910 pistol chambered for the .380 ACP cartridge provided him by Serbian Army Colonel and Black Hand member Dragutin Dimitrijević. The archduke's aides attempted to undo his coat but realized they needed scissors to cut it open: the outer lapel had been sewn to the inner front of the jacket for a smoother fit to improve the Archduke's appearance to the public. Whether or not as a result of this obstacle, the Archduke's wound could not be attended to in time to save him, and he died within minutes. Sophie also died en route to the hospital.

A detailed account of the shooting can be found in Sarajevo by Joachim Remak: One bullet pierced Franz Ferdinand's neck while the other pierced Sophie's abdomen. ... As the car was reversing (to go back to the Governor's residence because the entourage thought the Imperial couple were unhurt) a thin streak of blood shot from the Archduke's mouth onto Count Harrach's right cheek (he was standing on the car's running board). Harrach drew out a handkerchief to still the gushing blood. The Duchess, seeing this, called: "For Heaven's sake! What happened to you?" and sank from her seat, her face falling between her husband's knees.

Harrach and Potoriek ... thought she had fainted ... only her husband seemed to have an instinct for what was happening. Turning to his wife despite the bullet in his neck, Franz Ferdinand pleaded: "Sopherl! Sopherl! Sterbe nicht! Bleibe am Leben für unsere Kinder! – Sophie dear! Don't die! Stay alive for our children!" Having said this, he seemed to sag down himself. His plumed hat ... fell off; many of its green feathers were found all over the car floor. Count Harrach seized the Archduke by the uniform collar to hold him up. He asked "Leiden Eure Kaiserliche Hoheit sehr? – Is Your Imperial Highness suffering very badly?" "Es ist nichts. – It is nothing." said the Archduke in a weak but audible voice. He seemed to be losing consciousness during his last few minutes, but, his voice growing steadily weaker, he repeated the phrase perhaps six or seven times more.

A rattle began to issue from his throat, which subsided as the car drew in front of the Konak bersibin (Town Hall). Despite several doctors' efforts, the Archduke died shortly after being carried into the building while his beloved wife was almost certainly dead from internal bleeding before the motorcade reached the Konak.

The assassinations, along with the arms race, nationalism, imperialism, militarism, and the alliance system all contributed to the origins of World War I, which began a month after Franz Ferdinand's death, with Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia. The assassination of Ferdinand is considered the most immediate cause of World War I.

Franz Ferdinand is interred with his wife Sophie in Artstetten Castle, Austria.

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Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria's Timeline

1863
December 18, 1863
Graz, Österreich-Ungarn
1898
September 21, 1898
Age 34
Hungary, Austria
1901
July 24, 1901
Age 37
Konopiště, Central Bohemia, Czech Republic
1902
September 29, 1902
Age 38
Wien, Österreich-Ungarn
1904
May 17, 1904
Age 40
Konopiště, Středočeský, Česká republika
1908
November 7, 1908
Age 44
1914
June 28, 1914
Age 50
Sarajevo, Bosnien, Österreich-Ungarn
July 4, 1914
Age 50
Artstetten-Pöbring, Niederösterreich, Österreich-Ungarn