Artaxerxes I, King of Persia

Is your surname Persia?

Research the Persia family

Artaxerxes I, King of Persia's Geni Profile

Records for Artaxerxes Persia

946,977 Records

Share your family tree and photos with the people you know and love

  • Build your family tree online
  • Share photos and videos
  • Smart Matching™ technology
  • Free!

Share

Artaxerxes 1. Persia, King of Persia

Greek, Ancient: Ἀρταξέρξης Persia, King of Persia
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Persia
Death: Died in Persia
Place of Burial: Iran
Immediate Family:

Son of Xerxes I 'the Great', king of Persia and Amestris .
Husband of Amytis; Damaspia; Andia of Babylon; Alogyne; Cosmartidene and 1 other
Father of Xerxes II, King of Persia; Damaspia; Alogine; Shabaz Khan; Parysatis and 5 others
Brother of King of Persia Darius, Persia
Half brother of Amytis; Cosmartidene; Prince Arsites of Persia; Artarius of Babel - Gubernur Babylon; Arsames / Arsamenes / Arxanes / Sarsamas - Gubernur Egypt and 4 others

Occupation: Shah of Persia, Storkung (Shah) av Persien 465-423 f.K, LV9P-W44, koning van Perzië
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Artaxerxes I, King of Persia

Artaxerxes I Longimanus, King of Persia, died circa 425 BC.


ID: I62230

Name: Artaxerxes I of Persia

Prefix: King

Given Name: Artaxerxes I

Surname: of Persia

Sex: M

_UID: 3F85406312F87048AE8B289E76B2CDBAD72F

Change Date: 18 Jun 2004

Note:

Artaxerxes I (?-425 bc), Persian king of the Achaemenid dynasty who reigned from 465 to 425 bc.

© 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Death: 425 BC

Father: XERXES @ OF PERSIA b: ABT 519

Mother: Esther

Marriage 1 Kosmartydene

Married:

Children

Darius II of Persia

Forrás / Source:

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jdp-fam&id=I62230


Birth: 504 B.C.

Death: 424 B.C.

Artaxerxes of Persia

Artaxerxes I of Persia was the fifth king of the Achaemenid Dynasty. His father was the former King Xerxes and he ruled the Persian Empire from 465 B.C. to 425 B.C. which is where he appears on the Biblical Timeline Chart. King Xerxes was murdered shortly before King Artaxerxes ascended the throne. The assassin who killed the former king claimed that King Artaxerxes oldest brother Darius told him to eliminate the king. King Artaxerxes then killed his brother and took over the throne. Most of King Artaxerxes rule was problem free and he didn’t make any major changes to the empire. The current system that was established by the former King Darius proved to be effective for governing the land. The people enjoyed prosperity and peace during his reign because he was able to keep control of the lands of Persia. Since he kept the system of government in place that was started by King Darius I, he was able to keep a vast network of trade and tribute flowing throughout the empire. He used the Phoenicians to control overseas trade routes to foreign lands, all of the provinces inside of the Persian Empire had to pay him an annual tribute and he established vast markets that covered the empire. The religion of Zoroastrianism was popular in Persia and it still remained a viable worship system during the reign of King Artaxerxes. Other Persian gods were worshipped as well. One thing that all Persian kings did when they conquered a kingdom or empire is allowed the people to continue to worship their gods and King Artaxerxes continued this practice. He was also influenced by the gods of other nations including the god of the Jewish people. King Artaxerxes acknowledged God in the Bible though he might not have fully worshipped him. Artaxerxes I of Persia Artaxerxes I of Persia King Artaxerxes also had another name known as Longimanus because his right hand was longer than his left one. He had a wife named Stateira who was popular among the people. King Artaxerxes was considered an extremely kind and good hearted ruler. He always appeared to be fair and just. The king could also deal effectively with his enemies such as Artabanus who conspired to take his throne. King Artaxerxes defeated this military commander in a personal duel in front of everybody. One way his kindness was shown was through the decree that he made for the people of Jerusalem. He allowed them to go back to their kingdom and assisted them with their journey and the rebuilding of the temple. King Artaxerxes personally knew of Ezra and Nehemiah. He also returned the treasures that taken from the temple under the reign of Nebuchadnezzar. Some historians trace the demise of the Persian Empire beginning with his reign. A few provinces within his empire tried to rebel, but they did not succeed. They state that the uprisings that he experienced during his time in power had planted seeds for future revolts and rebellions and it didn’t matter if he put an end to them. Greece was a kingdom that revolted against Persia during his reign and they would come back to defeat the Persians at a future date. The Greeks also encouraged the Egyptians to revolt as well. On the outer fringes of the Persian Empire, the people were conspiring to rid themselves of Persian domination. Once again King Artaxerxes kept control of the rebellious regions but he didn’t completely or wasn’t able to stop the people from conspiring against Persia. King Artaxerxes died in 425 B.C. Biblical References: Ezra 7 King Artaxerxes gives the decree for the Jewish people to return home and he also informs the rest of his empire to accommodate Jews with their return journey and the rebuilding of the temple. - See more at: http://amazingbibletimeline.com/blog/artaxerxes-of-persia/#sthash.SkTgiuuF.dpuf General Notes

   King of Persia and Egypt Artaxerxes I Longimanus Achaemenid was buried in Naqsh-e Rustam.2 He died 0425 BCE in Susa, Elam [now in Iran].2 He appointed Nehemiah as Governor of Judaea 0445 B.C..1 He sanctioned practice of the Jewish religion in Jerusalem 0458 B.C..1 He put down a rebellion in Bactria, and a more serious one in Egypt 0460-0454 B.C..1 He was the 4th ruler of the 27th Dynasty of Egypt 0465 B.C..3 He was raised to the throne by the commander of the guard, Artabanus, who had murdered Xerxes, and a few months later slew Artabanus in a hand-to-hand fight.2 King of Persia and Egypt, 0465-0425 BCE.2 He associated with Cosmartidene , a concubine of Artaxerxes I 0476 B.C; His 3rd.1 He was the son of King of Persia and Egypt Xerxes I Achaemenid and Amestris of Persia.4,2,5 He was born 0500 B.C..1 He was younger son of Xerxes I and Amestris.2 He was the son of Xerxes.6 He was surnamed the Long-handed, his right hand being longer than his left.6 He was among all the kings of Persia the most remarkable for a gentle and noble spirit.6 He was among all the kings of Persia the most remarkable for a gentle and noble spirit.4 Also called Artakhšaça I Hakhâmanišiya old-Persian.7 Also called Artaxerxes Makrocheir Greek.7 Sources: 1. Stuart, R.W. 'Royalty for Commoners', line 414. ; 2. Bryan, K. 'Davidic Descents to the House of Plantagenet' Augustan, Vol. XXV, 16-23. ; 3. Gershevitch, I. (ed.) 'The Cambridge History of Iran' Vo. 2, pp.334. "Makrocheir" is Greek for "with the long hand." He was surnamed "the Long-handed," because his right hand was longer than his left. (Plutarch).7,4 King of Persia and Egypt Artaxerxes I Longimanus Achaemenid also went by the name of Artaxerxes "the Longhanded."4,6 Also called Artaxshassa.8
   Children of King of Persia and Egypt Artaxerxes I Longimanus Achaemenid:
   Parysatis (?)+ b. 0470 B.C.
   Child of King of Persia and Egypt Artaxerxes I Longimanus Achaemenid and Cosmartidene , a concubine of Artaxerxes I:
   King of Persia and Egypt Darius II Nothus Achaemenid+ b. 0475 B.C., d. 0404 B.C.
   [S204] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners: The Complete Lineage of John of Gaunt, Son of Edward III, Kings of England, and Queen Philippa (.: ., 3rd Ed., 1998), 414-86. Hereinafter cited as RfC.
   [S862] Various Encyclopædia Britannica 2001 Standard Edition CD-ROM (U.S.A.: Britannica.com Inc.
   , 1994-2000), Artaxerxes I (k. of Pers.). Hereinafter cited as EB CD 2001.
   [S281] WWW - Egypt Home Page, online .. Hereinafter cited as e.Egypt.
   [S931] A.H. Clough, editor, Plutarch's Lives (Champaign, IL: Project Gutenberg, October 1996). Hereinafter cited as Plutarch's Lives.
   [S723] Herodotus of Halicarnassus, The History of Herodotus (London and New York: MacMillan and Co., 1890), 6.98. Hereinafter cited as Herodotus' History.
   [S931] A.H. Clough, Plutarch's Lives, ARTAXERXES.
   [S583] Ancient Persia, online . Hereinafter cited as Ancient Persia.
   [S288] Philosophy of History, online .. Hereinafter cited as PoH.

Artaxerxes I (Latin; Greek Ἀρταξέρξης; Persian اردشیر یکم (Ardeshir) corruption of Old Persian ΠμέΧΨρΨ[1] Artaxšacā, "whose reign is through arta (truth)"; the name has nothing to do with Xerxes)[2] was king of the Persian Empire from 465 BC to 424 BC. He was the son of Xerxes I of Persia and Amestris, daughter of Otanes.

He is also surnamed μακρόχειρ "Macrocheir (Latin = Longimanus)", allegedly because his right hand was longer than his left. [3]

After Persia had been defeated at Eurymedon, military action between Greece and Persia was at a standstill. When Artaxerxes I took power, he began a new tradition of weakening the Athenians by funding their enemies in Greece. This indirectly caused the Athenians to move the treasury of the Delian League from the island of Delos to the Athenian acropolis. This funding practice inevitably prompted renewed fighting in 450 BC, where the Greeks attacked at the Battle of Cyprus. After Cimon's failure to attain much in this expedition, the Peace of Callias was agreed between Athens, Argos and Persia in 449 BC.

Artaxerxes I offered asylum to Themistocles, who was the winner of the Battle of Salamis, after Themistocles was ostracized from Athens.

Artaxerxes (Hebrew: אַרְתַּחְשַׁסְתְּא‎, pronounced [artaχʃast]) commissioned Ezra, a Jewish priest-scribe, by means of a letter of decree, to take charge of the ecclesiastical and civil affairs of the Jewish nation. A copy of this decree may be found in Ezra 7:13-28.

Ezra thereby left Babylon in the first month of the seventh year (~ 457 BC) of Artaxerxes' reign, at the head of a company of Jews that included priests and Levites. They arrived in Jerusalem on the first day of the fifth month of the seventh year (Hebrew Calendar).

The rebuilding of the Jewish community in Jerusalem had begun under Cyrus the Great, who had permitted Jews held captive in Babylon, to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the Temple of Solomon. Consequently, a number of Jews returned to Jerusalem in 538 B.C., and the foundation of this "Second Temple" was laid the following year.

In Artaxerxes' 20th year (445 B.C.), Nehemiah, the king's cupbearer, apparently was also a friend of the king as in that year Artaxerxes inquired after Nehemiah's sadness. Nehemiah related to him the plight of the Jewish people and that the city of Jerusalem was undefended. The king sent Nehemiah to Jerusalem with letters of safe passage to the governors in Trans-Euphrates, and to Asaph, keeper of the royal forests, to make beams for the citadel by the Temple and to rebuild the city walls.[4]

Roger Williams, a seventeenth-century Christian minister and founder of Rhode Island, interpreted several passages in the Old and New Testament to support limiting government interference in religious matters. Williams published The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution, describing his analysis of why a civil government should be separate from religion according to the Bible. Williams believed that Israel was a unique covenant kingdom and not an appropriate model for New Testament Christians who believed that the Old Testament covenant had been fulfilled. Therefore, the more informative Old Testament examples of civil government were "good" non-covenant kings such as Artaxerxes, who tolerated the Jews even though he was a pagan and did not insist that they follow his "state" religion.


Källa: This lineage contains several unsubstianted links---submitted by Leo van de Pas)http://worldroots.com/~brigitte/famous/k/khshayarshaline.htm

http://www.genealogics.org/index.php

Artaxerxes I (Greek Ἀρταξέρξης; corrupted from Old Persian Rtaxšaϑrā "whose rule is through truth"[1]) was king of the Persian Empire from 465 BC to 424 BC. He is the son of Xerxes I of Persia.

He is also surnamed μακρόχειρ "Longimanus", allegedly because his right hand was longer than his left. [2] Via the Georgian house of Pahlavuni, the Russian Rurikid family Dolgoruki claimed descent from him.

After Persia had been defeated at Eurymedon, military action between Greece and Persia had come to a standstill. When Artaxerxes I took power, he began a new tradition of drawing off the Athenians by funding their enemies in Greece. This indirectly caused the Athenians to move the treasury of the Delian League from the island of Delos to the Athenian acropolis. This funding practice inevitably prompted renewed fighting in 450 BC, where the Greeks attacked at the Battle of Cyprus. After Cimon's failure to attain much in this expedition, the Peace of Callias was agreed between Athens, Argos and Persia in 449 BC.

Artaxerxes I offered asylum to Themistocles, who was the winner of the Battle of Salamis, after Themistocles was ostracized from Athens.

In the first month of the seventh year (~ 457 BC) of Artaxerxes' reign he left Babylon. He traveled to Jerusalem and arrived there in the first day of the fifth month of the seventh year (Hebrew Calendar). He went there to teach Israel statutes and judgments.

When Artaxerxes was in Jerusalem he gave Ezra, his priest and scribe, a letter of decree. A copy of that latter can be found in Ezra 7:13-28. It entailed sending all the people of Israel, priests, and Levites in the realm of Artaxerxes to Jerusalem. They were to bring all the silver and gold that could be found in all the province of Babylon and freewill-offering of the people and priests with them. This was to go for rebuilding the temple of God in Jerusalem. In addition, gold and silver that the king of Jerusalem and his counsellors had freely offered to God was to go for this as well.

The rebuilding of Jerusalem was begun by Nehemiah, Artaxerxes' cupbearer "in the 20th year of King Artaxerxes" (Nehemiah 2:1) or 445 B.C.


Artaxerxes I of PersiaFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search Artaxerxes I of Persia

"Artaxerxes Longimanus, King of Persia" as portrayed by Guillaume Rouille Reign 465 to 424 BC Born ?? Died 424 BC Buried Naqsh-e Rustam, Persia Predecessor Xerxes I Successor Xerxes II Consort Queen Damaspia Alogyne of Babylon Cosmartidene of Babylon Andia of Babylon Royal House Achaemenid Father Xerxes I Mother Amestris


Prospective tomb of Artaxerxes I of Persia in Naqsh-e RostamArtaxerxes I (Persian: اردشیر یکم‎, Old Persian: ΠμΫΧρςΠ Artaxšaça,[1] "whose rule (xšaça < *xšaϑram) is through arta (truth)";[2])[3] was the fifth king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire of Iran from 465 BCE to 424 BCE. He was the son of Xerxes I of Persia and Amestris, daughter of Otanes.

He may have been the "Artasyrus" mentioned by Herodotus as being a Satrap of the royal satrapy of Bactria.

In Greek sources he is also surnamed μακρόχειρ Macrocheir (Latin: 'Longimanus'), allegedly because his right hand was longer than his left.[4]

After Persia had been defeated at Eurymedon, military action between Greece and Persia was at a standstill. When Artaxerxes I took power, he introduced a new Persian strategy of weakening the Athenians by funding their enemies in Greece. This indirectly caused the Athenians to move the treasury of the Delian League from the island of Delos to the Athenian acropolis. This funding practice inevitably prompted renewed fighting in 450 BCE, where the Greeks attacked at the Battle of Cyprus. After Cimon's failure to attain much in this expedition, the Peace of Callias was agreed between Athens, Argos and Persia in 449 BCE.

Artaxerxes I offered asylum to Themistocles, who was the winner of the Battle of Salamis, after Themistocles was ostracized from Athens and Artaxerxes I gave him Magnesia, Myus and Lampsacus to maintain him in bread, meat and wine, Palaescepsis to provide him with clothes and he gave him Percote with bedding for his house.[5]

Contents [hide] 1 Portrayal in the Book of Ezra and Nehemiah 2 Interpretations of Artaxerxes actions 3 Medical Analysis 4 Offspring 5 See also 6 References 7 External links


[edit] Portrayal in the Book of Ezra and NehemiahArtaxerxes (Hebrew: אַרְתַּחְשַׁסְתְּא‎, pronounced [artaχʃast]) commissioned Ezra, a Jewish priest (kohen) and scribe, by means of a letter of decree (see Cyrus's edict), to take charge of the ecclesiastical and civil affairs of the Jewish nation. A copy of this decree may be found in Ezra 7:13-28.

Ezra thereby left Babylon in the first month of the seventh year (~ 458 BCE)[6] of Artaxerxes' reign, at the head of a company of Jews that included priests and Levites. They arrived in Jerusalem on the first day of the fifth month of the seventh year (Hebrew Calendar).

The rebuilding of the Jewish community in Jerusalem had begun under Cyrus the Great, who had permitted Jews held captive in Babylon to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the Temple of Solomon. Consequently, a number of Jews returned to Jerusalem in 538 B.C., and the foundation of this "Second Temple" was laid the following year.

In Artaxerxes' 20th year (444 BCE),[7] Nehemiah, the king's cupbearer, apparently was also a friend of the king as in that year Artaxerxes inquired after Nehemiah's sadness. Nehemiah related to him the plight of the Jewish people and that the city of Jerusalem was undefended. The king sent Nehemiah to Jerusalem with letters of safe passage to the governors in Trans-Euphrates, and to Asaph, keeper of the royal forests, to make beams for the citadel by the Temple and to rebuild the city walls.[8]

[edit] Interpretations of Artaxerxes actionsRoger Williams, a seventeenth-century Christian minister and founder of Rhode Island, interpreted several passages in the Old and New Testament to support limiting government interference in religious matters. Williams published The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution, describing his analysis of why a civil government should be separate from religion according to the Bible. Williams believed that Israel was a unique covenant kingdom and not an appropriate model for New Testament Christians who believed that the Old Testament covenant had been fulfilled. Therefore, the more informative Old Testament examples of civil government were "good" non-covenant kings such as Artaxerxes, who tolerated the Jews and did not insist that they follow his state religion.[9]

[edit] Medical AnalysisRecently Artaxerxes’ limb length discrepancy (longimanus or machrocheir) has been corroborated via the possibility of an inherited disease (neurofibromatosis).[10]

[edit] OffspringBy queen Damaspia

Xerxes II By Alogyne of Babylon

Sogdianus By Cosmartidene of Babylon

Darius II Arsites By Andia of Babylon

Bogapaeus Parysatis, wife of Darius II Ochus By another(?) unknown wife

An unnamed daughter, wife of Hieramenes, mother of Autoboesaces and Mitraeus[11] By various wives eleven other children

[edit] See alsoArtoxares Ezra-Nehemiah [edit] References1.^ Ghias Abadi, R. M. (2004) (in Persian). Achaemenid Inscriptions (کتیبه‌های هخامنشی)‎ (2nd edition ed.). Tehran: Shiraz Navid Publications. pp. 129. ISBN 964-358-015-6. 2.^ R. Schmitt. of Iran "ARTAXERXES". Encyclopædia Iranica. 15 December 1986. Retrieved 12 March 2012. 3.^ The Greek form of the name is influenced by Xerxes (Encyclopedia Iranica). 4.^ Plutarch, Artaxerxes, l. 1. c. 1. 11:129 - cited by Ussher, Annals, para. 1179 5.^ Themistocles, Part II, by Plutarch 6.^ The Book of Daniel. Montex Publish Company, By Jim McGuiggan 1978, p. 147. 7.^ New International Bible Dictionary. Zondervan, 1987, p. 95. 8.^ Nehemiah 2:1-9 9.^ James P. Byrd, The challenges of Roger Williams: Religious Liberty, Violent Persecution, and the Bible (Mercer University Press, 2002)[1] (accessed on Google Book on July 20, 2009) 10.^ Ashrafian, Hutan. (2011). "Limb gigantism, neurofibromatosis and royal heredity in the Ancient World 2500 years ago: Achaemenids and Parthians". J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 64: 557. doi:10.1016/j.bjps.2010.08.025. http://www.jprasurg.com/article/S1748-6815(10)00521-8/pdf. 11.^ Xenophon, Hellenica, Book II, Chapter 1 [edit] External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Artaxerxes I

Encyclopedia Iranica ARTAXERXES Artaxerxes I of Persia Achaemenid dynasty Born: ?? Died: 424 BCE Preceded by Xerxes I Great King (Shah) of Persia 465 BCE – 424 BCE Succeeded by Xerxes II Pharaoh of Egypt 465 BCE – 424 BCE [show]v ·t ·eMedian and Achaemenid kings


Achaemenid family tree


Median Empire (728 – 550 BC) Deioces ·Phraortes ·Madius ·Cyaxares the Great ·Astyages


Achaemenid Empire (550 – 330 BC) Achaemenes† ·Ariaramnes† ·Arsames† ·Teispes ·Cyrus I ·Cambyses I ·Cyrus II, the Great ·Cambyses II ·Smerdis ·Gaumata ·Darius I, the Great ·Xerxes I ·Artaxerxes I Longimanus ·Xerxes II ·Sogdianus ·Darius II Nothus ·Artaxerxes II Mnemon ·Artaxerxes III Ochus ·Artaxerxes IV Arses ·Darius III Codomannus


† not directly attested, possibly legendary


: Artaxerxes I (?-425 bc), Persian king of the Achaemenid dynasty who reigned from 465 to 425 bc.

© 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

•Death: 425 BC


•ID: I62230 •Name: Artaxerxes I of Persia •Prefix: King •Given Name: Artaxerxes I •Surname: of Persia •Sex: M •_UID: 3F85406312F87048AE8B289E76B2CDBAD72F •Change Date: 18 Jun 2004 •Note: Artaxerxes I (?-425 bc), Persian king of the Achaemenid dynasty who reigned from 465 to 425 bc.

© 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

•Death: 425 BC

Father: XERXES @ OF PERSIA b: ABT 519 Mother: Esther

Marriage 1 Kosmartydene •Married: Children 1. Darius II of Persia

Marriage 2 Andia of Babylon •Married: Children 1. Parysatis of Babylon

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jdp%2Dfam&id=I62230

Artaxerxes I of PersiaFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search Artaxerxes I of Persia

"Artaxerxes Longimanus, King of Persia" as portrayed by Guillaume Rouille Reign 465 to 424 BC Born ?? Died 424 BC Buried Naqsh-e Rustam, Persia Predecessor Xerxes I Successor Xerxes II Consort Queen Damaspia Alogyne of Babylon Cosmartidene of Babylon Andia of Babylon Royal House Achaemenid Father Xerxes I Mother Amestris


Prospective tomb of Artaxerxes I of Persia in Naqsh-e RostamArtaxerxes I (Persian: اردشیر یکم‎, Old Persian: ΠμΫΧρςΠ Artaxšaça,[1] "whose rule (xšaça < *xšaϑram) is through arta (truth)";[2])[3] was the fifth king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire of Iran from 465 BCE to 424 BCE. He was the son of Xerxes I of Persia and Amestris, daughter of Otanes.

He may have been the "Artasyrus" mentioned by Herodotus as being a Satrap of the royal satrapy of Bactria.

In Greek sources he is also surnamed μακρόχειρ Macrocheir (Latin: 'Longimanus'), allegedly because his right hand was longer than his left.[4]

After Persia had been defeated at Eurymedon, military action between Greece and Persia was at a standstill. When Artaxerxes I took power, he introduced a new Persian strategy of weakening the Athenians by funding their enemies in Greece. This indirectly caused the Athenians to move the treasury of the Delian League from the island of Delos to the Athenian acropolis. This funding practice inevitably prompted renewed fighting in 450 BCE, where the Greeks attacked at the Battle of Cyprus. After Cimon's failure to attain much in this expedition, the Peace of Callias was agreed between Athens, Argos and Persia in 449 BCE.

Artaxerxes I offered asylum to Themistocles, who was the winner of the Battle of Salamis, after Themistocles was ostracized from Athens and Artaxerxes I gave him Magnesia, Myus and Lampsacus to maintain him in bread, meat and wine, Palaescepsis to provide him with clothes and he gave him Percote with bedding for his house.[5]

Contents [hide] 1 Portrayal in the Book of Ezra and Nehemiah 2 Interpretations of Artaxerxes actions 3 Medical Analysis 4 Offspring 5 See also 6 References 7 External links


[edit] Portrayal in the Book of Ezra and NehemiahArtaxerxes (Hebrew: אַרְתַּחְשַׁסְתְּא‎, pronounced [artaχʃast]) commissioned Ezra, a Jewish priest (kohen) and scribe, by means of a letter of decree (see Cyrus's edict), to take charge of the ecclesiastical and civil affairs of the Jewish nation. A copy of this decree may be found in Ezra 7:13-28.

Ezra thereby left Babylon in the first month of the seventh year (~ 458 BCE)[6] of Artaxerxes' reign, at the head of a company of Jews that included priests and Levites. They arrived in Jerusalem on the first day of the fifth month of the seventh year (Hebrew Calendar).

The rebuilding of the Jewish community in Jerusalem had begun under Cyrus the Great, who had permitted Jews held captive in Babylon to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the Temple of Solomon. Consequently, a number of Jews returned to Jerusalem in 538 B.C., and the foundation of this "Second Temple" was laid the following year.

In Artaxerxes' 20th year (444 BCE),[7] Nehemiah, the king's cupbearer, apparently was also a friend of the king as in that year Artaxerxes inquired after Nehemiah's sadness. Nehemiah related to him the plight of the Jewish people and that the city of Jerusalem was undefended. The king sent Nehemiah to Jerusalem with letters of safe passage to the governors in Trans-Euphrates, and to Asaph, keeper of the royal forests, to make beams for the citadel by the Temple and to rebuild the city walls.[8]

[edit] Interpretations of Artaxerxes actionsRoger Williams, a seventeenth-century Christian minister and founder of Rhode Island, interpreted several passages in the Old and New Testament to support limiting government interference in religious matters. Williams published The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution, describing his analysis of why a civil government should be separate from religion according to the Bible. Williams believed that Israel was a unique covenant kingdom and not an appropriate model for New Testament Christians who believed that the Old Testament covenant had been fulfilled. Therefore, the more informative Old Testament examples of civil government were "good" non-covenant kings such as Artaxerxes, who tolerated the Jews and did not insist that they follow his state religion.[9]

[edit] Medical AnalysisRecently Artaxerxes’ limb length discrepancy (longimanus or machrocheir) has been corroborated via the possibility of an inherited disease (neurofibromatosis).[10]

[edit] OffspringBy queen Damaspia

Xerxes II By Alogyne of Babylon

Sogdianus By Cosmartidene of Babylon

Darius II Arsites By Andia of Babylon

Bogapaeus Parysatis, wife of Darius II Ochus By another(?) unknown wife

An unnamed daughter, wife of Hieramenes, mother of Autoboesaces and Mitraeus[11] By various wives eleven other children

[edit] See alsoArtoxares Ezra-Nehemiah [edit] References1.^ Ghias Abadi, R. M. (2004) (in Persian). Achaemenid Inscriptions (کتیبه‌های هخامنشی)‎ (2nd edition ed.). Tehran: Shiraz Navid Publications. pp. 129. ISBN 964-358-015-6. 2.^ R. Schmitt. of Iran "ARTAXERXES". Encyclopædia Iranica. 15 December 1986. Retrieved 12 March 2012. 3.^ The Greek form of the name is influenced by Xerxes (Encyclopedia Iranica). 4.^ Plutarch, Artaxerxes, l. 1. c. 1. 11:129 - cited by Ussher, Annals, para. 1179 5.^ Themistocles, Part II, by Plutarch 6.^ The Book of Daniel. Montex Publish Company, By Jim McGuiggan 1978, p. 147. 7.^ New International Bible Dictionary. Zondervan, 1987, p. 95. 8.^ Nehemiah 2:1-9 9.^ James P. Byrd, The challenges of Roger Williams: Religious Liberty, Violent Persecution, and the Bible (Mercer University Press, 2002)[1] (accessed on Google Book on July 20, 2009) 10.^ Ashrafian, Hutan. (2011). "Limb gigantism, neurofibromatosis and royal heredity in the Ancient World 2500 years ago: Achaemenids and Parthians". J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 64: 557. doi:10.1016/j.bjps.2010.08.025. http://www.jprasurg.com/article/S1748-6815(10)00521-8/pdf. 11.^ Xenophon, Hellenica, Book II, Chapter 1 [edit] External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Artaxerxes I

Encyclopedia Iranica ARTAXERXES Artaxerxes I of Persia Achaemenid dynasty Born: ?? Died: 424 BCE Preceded by Xerxes I Great King (Shah) of Persia 465 BCE – 424 BCE Succeeded by Xerxes II Pharaoh of Egypt 465 BCE – 424 BCE [show]v ·t ·eMedian and Achaemenid kings


Achaemenid family tree


Median Empire (728 – 550 BC) Deioces ·Phraortes ·Madius ·Cyaxares the Great ·Astyages


Achaemenid Empire (550 – 330 BC) Achaemenes† ·Ariaramnes† ·Arsames† ·Teispes ·Cyrus I ·Cambyses I ·Cyrus II, the Great ·Cambyses II ·Smerdis ·Gaumata ·Darius I, the Great ·Xerxes I ·Artaxerxes I Longimanus ·Xerxes II ·Sogdianus ·Darius II Nothus ·Artaxerxes II Mnemon ·Artaxerxes III Ochus ·Artaxerxes IV Arses ·Darius III Codomannus


† not directly attested, possibly legendary


[show]­v ·­t ·­ePharaohs (list)


­Dynastic Genealogies: 4th ·­12th ·­18th ·­19th ·­20th ·­21st ·­25th ·­26th ·­27th ·­31st ·­Ptolemaic


Protodynastic Period (prior to 3150 BC) Lower Egypt ­Hsekiu ·­Khayu ·­Tiu ·­Thesh ·­Neheb ·­Wazner ·­Mekh ·­Double Falcon


Upper Egypt ­Scorpion I ·­Iry-Hor ·­Ka ·­Scorpion II ·­Narmer



Early Dynastic Period (3150–2686 BC) Dynasty I ­Menes ·­Hor-Aha ·­Djer ·­Djet ·­Den ·­Anedjib ·­Semerkhet ·­Qa'a ·­Sneferka ·­Horus Bird


Dynasty II ­Hotepsekhemwy ·­Raneb ·­Nynetjer ·­Ba ·­Nubnefer ·­Horus Sa ·­Weneg-Nebty ·­Wadjenes ·­Senedj ·­Seth-Peribsen ·­Sekhemib ·­Neferkara I ·­Neferkasokar ·­Hudjefa I ·­Khasekhemwy



Old Kingdom (2686–2181 BC) Dynasty III ­Nebka ·­Djoser ·­Sekhemkhet ·­Sanakht ·­Khaba ·­Qahedjet ·­Huni


Dynasty IV ­Snefru ·­Khufu ·­Djedefre ·­Khafre ·­Bikheris ·­Menkaure ·­Shepseskaf ·­Thamphthis


Dynasty V ­Userkaf ·­Sahure ·­Neferirkare Kakai ·­Shepseskare ·­Neferefre ·­Niuserre ·­Menkauhor ·­Djedkare ·­Unas


Dynasty VI ­Teti ·­Userkare ·­Pepi I ·­Merenre ·­Pepi II



1st Intermediate Period (2181–2040 BC) Dynasties VII & VIII ­Wadjkare ·­Qakare Iby


Dynasties IX & X ­Wakhare Khety I ·­Meryibre Khety ·­Merykare ·­Kaneferre ·­Nebkaure Akhtoy



Middle Kingdom (2040–1782 BC) Dynasty XI ­Mentuhotep I ·­Intef I ·­Intef II ·­Intef III ·­Mentuhotep II ·­Mentuhotep III ·­Mentuhotep IV


Dynasty XII ­Amenemhet I ·­Senusret I ·­Amenemhet II ·­Senusret II ·­Senusret III ·­Amenemhet III ·­Amenemhet IV ·­Sobeknefru♀



2nd Intermediate Period (1782–1550 BC) Dynasty XIII ­Wegaf ·­Ameny Intef IV ·­Hor ·­Sobekhotep II ·­Khendjer ·­Sobekhotep III ·­Neferhotep I ·­Sobekhotep IV ·­Merneferre Ay ·­Merhotepre Ini


Dynasty XIV ­Nehesy ·­Yaqub-Har


Dynasty XV ­Sakir-Har ·­Khyan ·­Apepi I ·­Khamudi


Dynasty XVI ­Djehuti ·­Sobekhotep VIII ·­Neferhotep III ·­Mentuhotep VI ·­Nebiriau I ·­Nebiriau II ·­Semenre ·­Bebiankh ·­Sekhemre Shedwast


Dynasty XVII ­Rahotep ·­Sobekemsaf I ·­Sobekemsaf II ·­Intef V ·­Intef VII ·­Senakhtenre ·­Tao ·­Kamose



New Kingdom (1550–1070 BC) Dynasty XVIII ­Ahmose I ·­Amenhotep I ·­Tuthmosis I ·­Tuthmosis II ·­Tuthmosis III ·­Hatshepsut♀ ·­Amenhotep II ·­Tuthmosis IV ·­Amenhotep III ·­Akhenaten ·­Smenkhkare ·­Neferneferuaten♀ ·­Tutankhamun ·­Ay ·­Horemheb


Dynasty XIX ­Ramesses I ·­Seti I ·­Ramses II ·­Merneptah ·­Amenmesses ·­Seti II ·­Siptah ·­Twosret♀


Dynasty XX ­Setnakhte ·­Ramesses III ·­Ramesses IV ·­Ramesses V ·­Ramesses VI ·­Ramesses VII ·­Ramesses VIII ·­Ramesses IX ·­Ramesses X ·­Ramesses XI



3rd Intermediate Period (1069–525 BC) Dynasty XXI ­Smendes I ·­Amenemnisu ·­Psusennes I ·­Amenemope ·­Osorkon the Elder ·­Siamun ·­Psusennes II


Dynasty XXII ­Sheshonq I ·­Osorkon I ·­Sheshonq II ·­Takelot I ·­Osorkon II ·­Sheshonq III ·­Pami ·­Sheshonq V ·­Osorkon IV


Dynasty XXIII ­Harsiese A ·­Takelot II ·­Pedibastet ·­Sheshonq IV ·­Osorkon III ·­Takelot III ·­Rudamon


Dynasty XXIV ­Tefnakht ·­Bakenrenef


Dynasty XXV ­Piankhi ·­Shabaka ·­Shebitku ·­Taharqa ·­Tanutamun


Dynasty XXVI ­Psamtik I ·­Nekau ·­Psamtik II ·­Wahibre ·­Ahmose II ·­Psamtik III



Late Period (525–332 BC) Dynasty XXVII ­Cambyses II ·­Darius I ·­Xerxes ·­Artaxerxes I ·­Darius II


Dynasty XXVIII ­Amyrtaeus


Dynasty XXIX ­Nefaarud I ·­Hakor


Dynasty XXX ­Nectanebo I ·­Teos ·­Nectanebo II


Dynasty XXXI ­Artaxerxes III ·­Arses ·­Darius III



Hellenistic Period (332–30 BC) Argead Dynasty (XXXII) ­Alexander the Great ·­Philip III Arrhidaeus ·­Alexander IV


Ptolemaic Dynasty ­Ptolemy I Soter I ·­Ptolemy II Philadelphus ·­Ptolemy III Euergetes I ·­Ptolemy IV Philopator ·­Ptolemy V Epiphanes ·­Ptolemy VI Philometor

·­Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator ·­Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II ·­Ptolemy IX Soter II ·­Ptolemy X Alexander I ·­Ptolemy XI Alexander II ·­Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos ·­Berenice IV♀ ·­Cleopatra♀ ·­Ptolemy XV Caesarion 

­♀ indicates female pharaoh


Persondata Name Artaxerxes I of Persia Alternative names Short description the fifth king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire Date of birth Place of birth Date of death 424 BC Place of death Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Artaxerxes_I_of_Persia&oldid=529729036" View page ratingsRate this page Rate this page Page ratings What's this?Current average ratings. Trustworthy


Objective


Complete


Well-written


Difficult to understandI am highly knowledgeable about this topic (optional) I have a relevant college/university degreeIt is part of my professionIt is a deep personal passionThe source of my knowledge is not listed here I would like to help improve Wikipedia, send me an e-mail (optional) We will send you a confirmation e-mail. We will not share your e-mail address with outside parties as per our feedback privacy statement.Submit ratings


Saved successfullyYour ratings have not been submitted yetYour ratings have expiredPlease reevaluate this page and submit new ratings. An error has occurred. Please try again later. Thanks! Your ratings have been saved.Do you want to create an account?An account will help you track your edits, get involved in discussions, and be a part of the community.Create an accountorLog inMaybe later Thanks! Your ratings have been saved.Did you know that you can edit this page?Edit this pageMaybe later Categories: 424 BC deathsMonarchs of PersiaPharaohs of the Achaemenid dynasty of EgyptAchaemenid kings5th-century BC rulersHistory of PurimHidden categories: Articles containing Persian language textArticles containing non-English language textArticles containing Greek language textArticles containing Latin language textArticles containing Hebrew language textWikiProject Ancient Near East articlesYear of birth unknown

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artaxerxes_I_of_Persia


Birth: 504 B.C.

Death: 424 B.C.

General Notes

   King of Persia and Egypt Artaxerxes I Longimanus Achaemenid was buried in Naqsh-e Rustam.2 He died 0425 BCE in Susa, Elam [now in Iran].2 He appointed Nehemiah as Governor of Judaea 0445 B.C..1 He sanctioned practice of the Jewish religion in Jerusalem 0458 B.C..1 He put down a rebellion in Bactria, and a more serious one in Egypt 0460-0454 B.C..1 He was the 4th ruler of the 27th Dynasty of Egypt 0465 B.C..3 He was raised to the throne by the commander of the guard, Artabanus, who had murdered Xerxes, and a few months later slew Artabanus in a hand-to-hand fight.2 King of Persia and Egypt, 0465-0425 BCE.2 He associated with Cosmartidene , a concubine of Artaxerxes I 0476 B.C; His 3rd.1 He was the son of King of Persia and Egypt Xerxes I Achaemenid and Amestris of Persia.4,2,5 He was born 0500 B.C..1 He was younger son of Xerxes I and Amestris.2 He was the son of Xerxes.6 He was surnamed the Long-handed, his right hand being longer than his left.6 He was among all the kings of Persia the most remarkable for a gentle and noble spirit.6 He was among all the kings of Persia the most remarkable for a gentle and noble spirit.4 Also called Artakhšaça I Hakhâmanišiya old-Persian.7 Also called Artaxerxes Makrocheir Greek.7 Sources: 1. Stuart, R.W. 'Royalty for Commoners', line 414. ; 2. Bryan, K. 'Davidic Descents to the House of Plantagenet' Augustan, Vol. XXV, 16-23. ; 3. Gershevitch, I. (ed.) 'The Cambridge History of Iran' Vo. 2, pp.334. "Makrocheir" is Greek for "with the long hand." He was surnamed "the Long-handed," because his right hand was longer than his left. (Plutarch).7,4 King of Persia and Egypt Artaxerxes I Longimanus Achaemenid also went by the name of Artaxerxes "the Longhanded."4,6 Also called Artaxshassa.8
   Children of King of Persia and Egypt Artaxerxes I Longimanus Achaemenid:
   Parysatis (?)+ b. 0470 B.C.
   Child of King of Persia and Egypt Artaxerxes I Longimanus Achaemenid and Cosmartidene , a concubine of Artaxerxes I:
   King of Persia and Egypt Darius II Nothus Achaemenid+ b. 0475 B.C., d. 0404 B.C.
   [S204] Roderick W. Stuart, Royalty for Commoners: The Complete Lineage of John of Gaunt, Son of Edward III, Kings of England, and Queen Philippa (.: ., 3rd Ed., 1998), 414-86. Hereinafter cited as RfC.
   [S862] Various Encyclopædia Britannica 2001 Standard Edition CD-ROM (U.S.A.: Britannica.com Inc.
   , 1994-2000), Artaxerxes I (k. of Pers.). Hereinafter cited as EB CD 2001.
   [S281] WWW - Egypt Home Page, online .. Hereinafter cited as e.Egypt.
   [S931] A.H. Clough, editor, Plutarch's Lives (Champaign, IL: Project Gutenberg, October 1996). Hereinafter cited as Plutarch's Lives.
   [S723] Herodotus of Halicarnassus, The History of Herodotus (London and New York: MacMillan and Co., 1890), 6.98. Hereinafter cited as Herodotus' History.
   [S931] A.H. Clough, Plutarch's Lives, ARTAXERXES.
   [S583] Ancient Persia, online . Hereinafter cited as Ancient Persia.
   [S288] Philosophy of History, online .. Hereinafter cited as PoH.
view all 20

Artaxerxes I, King of Persia's Timeline

-500
-500
Persia
-475
-475
Age 24
Persia
-455
-455
Age 44
Babylonia
-424
December 25, -424
Age 76
Persia
-423
-423
Age 76
Persia
????
????
Persia
????
????
????
Persia