Ashurnasirpal II, king of Assyria

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Birthplace: Assyria
Death: -859 (1 day)
859 BCE, Assyria
Immediate Family:

Son of Tukulti-Ninurta II, king of Assyria
Husband of Mulisu
Father of Shalmaneser III, king of Assyria

Occupation: King of Assyria from 884 BC-859 BC, koning van Assyrië
Managed by: Private User
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About Ashurnasirpal II, king of Assyria

Ashurnasirpal II, with Akkadian cuneiform inscription Reign 883 - 859 BC Predecessor Tukulti-Ninurta II Successor Shalmaneser III Father Tukulti-Ninurta II

Ashur-nasir-pal II (centre) meets a high official after a successful battle.Ashur-nasir-pal II (transliteration: Aššur-nāṣir-apli, meaning "Ashur is guardian of the heir"[1]) was king of Assyria from 883 to 859 BC.

Ashurnasirpal II succeeded his father, Tukulti-Ninurta II, in 883 BC. During his reign he embarked on a vast program of expansion, first conquering the peoples to the north in Asia Minor as far as Nairi and exacting tribute from Phrygia, then invading Aram (modern Syria) conquering the Aramaeans and neo Hittites between the Khabur and the Euphrates Rivers. His harshness prompted a revolt that he crushed decisively in a pitched, two-day battle. According to his monument inscription while recalling this massacre he says "their men young and old I took prisoners. Of some I cut off their feet and hands; of others I cut off the ears noses and lips; of the young men's ears I made a heap; of the old men's heads I made a marinet. I exposed their heads as a trophy in front of their city. The male children and the female children I burned in flames; the city I destroyed, and consumed with fire." Following this victory, he advanced without opposition as far as the Mediterranean and exacted tribute from Phoenicia. On his return back home he moved his capital to the city of Kalhu (Nimrud).

Ashurnasirpal II's father was Tukulti-Ninurta II. His son and successor was Shalmaneser III.

Reign The palaces, temples and other buildings raised by him bear witness to a considerable development of wealth and art. He was renowned for his brutality, using enslaved captives to build a new Assyrian capital at Kalhu (Nimrud) in Mesopotamia where he built many impressive monuments. He was also a shrewd administrator who realised that he could gain greater control over his empire by installing Assyrian governors rather than depending on local client rulers paying tribute.

Campaigns See also: Ashurnasirpal II's campaigns in Lebanon Ashurnasirpal II's brutal treatment of rebels ensured that even when his army was not present, there would not be further revolts. Leading his army, which was typically composed of infantry (including auxiliaries and foreigners), heavy & light cavalry and chariots, Ashurnasirpal conquered the Hittites and Aramaean states of northern Syria.[2]

Ashurnasirpal II did not destroy the Phoenician/Canaanite cities he conquered. Instead they became sources of the raw materials his armies and his building programs. Iron was needed for weapons, Lebanese cedar for construction and gold and silver for the payment of troops.

Pair of Lamassu's, Nimrud, (Metropolitan Museum) Palace of KalhuAshurnasirpal II's palace was built and completed in 879 BC in Kalhu, which is in modern-day Iraq slightly north of Baghdad. The palace walls were lined with reliefs carved in alabaster. These reliefs bore elaborate carvings, many portraying the king surrounded by winged protective spirits, or engaged in hunting or on campaign. Each also had text inscribed in it. This text was the same or very similar on each relief and is therefore called the Standard Inscription. The Standard Inscription begins by tracing Ashur-nasir-pal II's lineage back three generations and recounts his military victories, defines the boundaries of his empire, tells how he founded Kalhu, and built the palace. Ashurnasirpal II also built a massive gateway at Nimrud.

The British archaeologist A.H. Layard excavated Kalhu in the 1840s, uncovering the North-West Palace of Ashurnasirpal II. Today, many of the reliefs from the excavations in Nimrud, are displayed in the galleries of the British Museum, London, with other reliefs on display in museums in Europe (e.g. Munich), Japan and the USA.

Current location of Nimrud reliefs British Museum, London, United Kingdom National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, United Kingdom Staatliche Sammlung für Ägyptische Kunst, Munich, Germany Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, USA Hood Museum of Art, Hanover, USA Mead Art Museum, Amherst, MA, USA Williams College Museum of Art, Williamstown, USA Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, USA Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco, USA University of Chicago Oriental Institute, Chicago, USA Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, NY Bowdoin College Museum of Art, Brunswick, USA Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon, Portugal

References Stela of Ashurnasirpal II in the British Museum1.^ Roux, Georges (1992). Ancient Iraq (Third ed.). New York: Penguin Books. p. 288. ISBN 0-14-012523-X. 2.^ Healy, Mark (1991). The Ancient Assyrians. New York: Osprey. pp. 10. [edit] Further readingBrinkman, J.A. (1968). A Political History of Post-Kassite Bobylonia, 1158-722 BC. Rome: Pontilicium Institutum Biblicum. Grayson, A. K. (1972). From Tiglath-pileser I to Ashur-nasir-apli II. Assyrian Royal Inscriptions. 2. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. Mallowan, M.E. L. (1966). Nimrud and Its Remains. London: Collins. Reade, J.E. (1979/1980). "Assyrian Architectural Decoration". Baghdader Mitteilungen 10/11: 71–87. Stearns, J. B. (1961). Reliefs from the Palace of Ashurnasirpal II. Graz: Ernst F. Weidner. [edit] External linksAshurnasirpal II - Human-headed winged lion (lamassu) Entry at Questia Online Library

Preceded by Tukulti-Ninurta II King of Assyria 884–859 BC Succeeded by Shalmaneser III [show]v ·t ·eAssyrian kings

Early Bronze Age "Kings who lived in tents" ca. 2500 – 2000 BC Tudiya ·Adamu ·Yangi ·Suhlamu ·Harharu ·Mandaru ·Imsu ·Harsu ·Didanu ·Hana ·Zuabu ·Nuabu ·Abazu ·Belu ·Azarah ·Ushpia ·Apiashal

"Kings who were forefathers" ca. 2000 BC Apiashal ·Hale ·Samani ·Hayani ·Ilu-Mer ·Yakmesi ·Yakmeni ·Yazkur-el ·Ila-kabkaba ·Aminu

"Kings whose eponyms are destroyed" ca. 2000 – 1900 BC Sulili ·Kikkia ·Akiya ·Puzur-Ashur I ·Shallim-ahhe ·Ilushuma

Middle Bronze Age Old Assyrian period ca. 1906 – 1380 BC Erishum I ·Ikunum ·Sargon I ·Puzur-Ashur II ·Naram-Suen ·Erishum II ·Shamshi-Adad I ·Ishme-Dagan I ·Mut-Ashkur ·Rimush ·Asinum ·(Seven usurpers: Ashur-dugul ·Ashur-apla-idi ·Nasir-Sin ·Sin-namir ·Ipqi-Ishtar ·Adad-salulu ·Adasi) ·Bel-bani ·Libaya ·Sharma-Adad I ·Iptar-Sin ·Bazaya ·Lullaya ·Shu-Ninua ·Sharma-Adad II ·Erishum III ·Shamshi-Adad II ·Ishme-Dagan II ·Shamshi-Adad III ·Ashur-nirari I ·Puzur-Ashur III ·Enlil-nasir I ·Nur-ili ·Ashur-shaduni ·Ashur-rabi I ·Ashur-nadin-ahhe I ·Enlil-nasir II ·Ashur-nirari II ·Ashur-bel-nisheshu ·Ashur-rim-nisheshu ·Ashur-nadin-ahhe II

Late Bronze Age Middle Assyrian period ca. 1353 – 1180 BC Eriba-Adad I ·Ashur-uballit I ·Enlil-nirari ·Arik-den-ili ·Adad-nirari I ·Shalmaneser I ·Tukulti-Ninurta I ·Ashur-nadin-apli ·Ashur-nirari III ·Enlil-kudurri-usur ·Ninurta-apal-Ekur

Iron Age Middle Assyrian period ca. 1179 – 912 BC Ashur-Dan I ·Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur ·Mutakkil-nusku ·Ashur-resh-ishi I ·Tiglath-Pileser I ·Asharid-apal-Ekur ·Ashur-bel-kala ·Eriba-Adad II ·Shamshi-Adad IV ·Ashur-nasir-pal I ·Shalmaneser II ·Ashur-nirari IV ·Ashur-rabi II ·Ashur-resh-ishi II ·Tiglath-Pileser II ·Ashur-Dan II

Neo-Assyrian Empire ca. 912 – 609 BC Adad-nirari II ·Tukulti-Ninurta II ·Ashur-nasir-pal II ·Shalmaneser III ·Shamshi-Adad V ·Shammu-ramat (regent) ·Adad-nirari III ·Shalmaneser IV ·Ashur-Dan III ·Ashur-nirari V ·Tiglath-Pileser III ·Shalmaneser V ·Sargon II ·Sennacherib ·Esarhaddon ·Ashurbanipal ·Ashur-etil-ilani ·Sin-shumu-lishir ·Sin-shar-ishkun ·Ashur-uballit II

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