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Bardas Skleros

Greek, Ancient: Βάρδας Σκληρός
Birthdate:
Death: March 06, 991
Immediate Family:

Son of Photeinos (Munir) Skleros and Gregoria
Husband of N. N.
Father of Romanos Skleros
Brother of Konstantinos Skleros; Anna Skleraina and Maria Skleraina

Occupation: Grand Domestique
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Bardas Skleros

alternate parent line (as per wikipedia) [Niketas Skleros] Bardas Skleros (or Sclerus) was a Byzantine general who led a wide-scale Asian rebellion against Emperor Basil II in 976–979. Bardas belonged to the great Skleros family, which owned enormous estates at the eastern outskirts of Asia Minor. His mother Gregoria descended from Basil I's brother Bardas. The greatest coup of his early career was a brilliant defense of Constantinople against the army of Svyatoslav I of Kiev in 970. During the Battle of Arcadiopolis, he reportedly managed to inflict as many as 20,000 casualties on the barbarians, while the campaign claimed the lives of merely 25 Greek soldiers.

After he had shown himself equal to dealing with the fiercest enemies of Byzantium, Bardas became a trusted advisor to John I Tzimiskes, who was likewise of Armenian stock and his brother-in-law. Upon John's death, Skleros aspired to replace him as an acting emperor. The eunuch Basil Lekapenos, who actually led the imperial government, entertained other plans, however, deposing Bardas from his key post of general in the East (Domestic of the Schools) in 975.

According to Michael Psellos, Skleros was "a man who was not only a competent planner, but extremely clever in carrying out his schemes, possessed of vast wealth (no mean asset in one who aimed at a throne), with the prestige of royal blood and of success in great wars, with all the military caste at his side to help on his enterprise". Upon hearing the news of his deposition, Skleros came to an agreement with local Armenian, Georgian and even Muslim rulers who all vowed to support his claims to the imperial crown. He successfully stirred up rebellion among his relatives and adherents in the Asian provinces, rapidly making himself master of Caesaria, Antioch, and most of Asia Minor.

After several navy commanders defected to Skleros's side, he dashed to Constantinople, threatening to blockade the Dardanelles. The rebels made their first mistake when they dispatched their navy to follow Basil's fleet to Greece, where their ships were scattered without difficulty.

Having lost supremacy at sea, Skleros at once laid siege to the town of Nicaea, which was considered a key to the capital. The town was fortified by a certain Manuel Erotikos, father of the future emperor Isaac Komnenos and progenitor of the Komnenoi dynasty.

Meanwhile, Basil recalled from exile Bardas Phokas the Younger, a general who had revolted in the previous reign and been interned in a monastery for seven years. Phokas proceeded to Sebastea in the East, where his family demesnes were situated. He came to an understanding with David III Kuropalates of Tao/Taik, who pledged 12,000 Georgian horsemen under the command of Tornikios to Phokas' aid.

Skleros instantly left Nicaea for the East and defeated Phokas in two battles, but the latter was victorious in a third. On March 24, 979 two leaders clashed in a single combat, with Sklerus cutting the right ear of Phocas' horse with his lance before sustaining a grave wound in the head. The rumour of his death put his army to flight, but Skleros himself found shelter with his Muslim allies. Thereupon the rebellion was subdued without difficulty. [edit] Later years

After the Asian potentates refused to support his further operations against Constantinople, Skleros and his family retreated to Baghdad in 980. They resided in honourable captivity at the caliph's court for six years, dreaming about the invasion of Byzantium.

In 987 Skleros was finally recalled to his homeland by Phokas, who took advantage of the Bulgarian wars to aim at the crown. Skleros promptly mustered an army to support Phokas's cause, but his plans of profiting from the attendant disorders were frustrated when Phokas had him committed to prison.

Upon Phokas' death at Abydos (989), Skleros succeeded him as the leader of the rebellion: "The truth was, the men who had enrolled in Skleros's army were no longer divided in their loyalties: every one of them was a declared rebel. Their leader inspired them with his own resolute determination and bound them into one coherent body. By favours he won their loyalty, by his kindliness he earned their devotion. He reconciled their differences, ate at the same table as his men, drank from the same cup, called them by name, and by his flattery bound them to his allegiance" (Michael Psellos).

The date of his surrender to the authorities is disputed, as are the circumstances. In 991 Skleros, a blinded and broken man, then residing in semi-captivity in Thrace, was visited by Emperor Basil II on his way to Bulgaria. The famous rebel accepted the title of curopalates and died several days later, presumably on April 2.

His bloodline continued, however. A grandson, Basil Skleros, was married to a sister of Emperor Romanos III. One of Basil's daughters married Constantine Monomachos, who would become Emperor, while Basil's granddaughter became mistress of Constantine. One of these women was the grandmother of Vladimir Monomakh. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bardas_Skleros


-http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BYZANTIUM.htm#RomanosSklerossonofBa...

a) BARDAS Skleros (-6 Mar 991). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. General of his brother-in-law Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes. Zonaras records that "Skleros" crushed the rebellion of "Bardas Phocas Leonis filius" at the beginning of the reign of Emperor Ioannes[1437]. He was promised the throne in 976 by his brother-in-law on his deathbed[1438]. Psellos records that "the notorious…Skleros" rebelled twice early in the reign of Emperor Basileios II, stating that he was "a competent planner…extremely clever…possessed of vast wealth…with the prestige of royal blood"[1439], the last point presumably being explained by his mother being a relative of Emperor Basileios I. He was defeated by Bardas Fokas 24 May 979 in the plain of Pankaleia near Amorium and fled to King Chosroes at Baghdad[1440]. Joining the rebellion of Bardas Fokas against Emperor Basileios II, Skleros and Fokas agreed to partition the empire between them, the agreement providing that Fokas would keep Constantinople and the European provinces while Skleros would take Asia Minor[1441]. Skleros rebelled against Fokas and proclaimed himself emperor at the same time, although he was captured by Fokas at Tyropaeum 14 Sep 987. After Fokas's death at the battle of Abydos 13 Apr 989, Bardas Skleros was released by Fokas's widow[1442]. Bardas Skleros rebelled again in 989, after which he was blinded, accepted the title curopalates, and died in retirement[1443].

m ---. The name of the wife of Bardas Skleros is not known. Bardas Skleros & his wife had one child:


Bardas Skleros (Greek: Βάρδας Σκληρός) or Sclerus was a Byzantine general who led a wide-scale Asian rebellion against Emperor Basil II in 976–979.

Bardas belonged to the great family of the Skleroi, which owned enormous estates at the eastern outskirts of Asia Minor. His mother Gregoria descended from Basil I's brother Bardas. The greatest coup of his early career was a brilliant defense of Constantinople against the army of Svyatoslav I of Kiev in 970. During the Battle of Arcadiopolis, he reportedly managed to inflict as many as 20,000 casualties on the Rus, while the campaign claimed the lives of merely 25 Greek soldiers.

After he had shown himself equal to dealing with the fiercest enemies of Byzantium, Bardas became a trusted advisor to John I Tzimiskes, who was likewise of Armenian stock and his brother-in-law. Upon John's death, Skleros aspired to replace him as an acting emperor. The eunuch Basil Lekapenos, who actually led the imperial government, entertained other plans, however, deposing Bardas from his key post of general in the East in 976.

According to Michael Psellos, Skleros was "a man who was not only a competent planner, but extremely clever in carrying out his schemes, possessed of vast wealth (no mean asset in one who aimed at a throne), with the prestige of royal blood and of success in great wars, with all the military caste at his side to help on his enterprise."

Upon hearing the news of his deposition, Skleros came to an agreement with local Armenian, Georgian and even Muslim rulers who all vowed to support his claims to the imperial crown. He successfully stirred up rebellion among his relatives and adherents in the Asian provinces, rapidly making himself master of Caesaria, Antioch, and most of Asia Minor.

After several navy commanders defected to Skleros's side, he dashed to Constantinople, threatening to blockade the Dardanelles. The rebel navy under Michael Kourtikios raided the Aegean and attempted to blockade the Dardanelles, but were defeated by the Imperial Fleet.

Having lost supremacy at sea, Skleros at once laid siege to the town of Nicaea, which was considered a key to the capital. The town was fortified by a certain Manuel Erotikos, father of the future emperor Isaac Komnenos and progenitor of the Komnenoi dynasty.

Meanwhile, Basil recalled from exile Bardas Phokas the Younger, a general who had revolted in the previous reign and been interned in a monastery for seven years. Phokas proceeded to Sebastea in the East, where his family demesnes were situated. He came to an understanding with David III Kuropalates of Tao, who pledged 12,000 Georgian horsemen under the command of Tornikios to Phokas' aid.

Skleros instantly left Nicaea for the East and defeated Phokas in two battles, but the latter was victorious in a third. On March 24, 979 two leaders clashed in single combat, with Skleros cutting the right ear of Phocas' horse with his lance before sustaining a grave wound to the head. The rumour of his death put his army to flight, but Skleros himself found shelter with his Muslim allies. Thereupon the rebellion was subdued without difficulty.

After the Asian potentates refused to support his further operations against Constantinople, Skleros and his family retreated to Baghdad in 980. They resided in honourable captivity at the Abbasid Caliph's court for six years, dreaming about the invasion of Byzantium.

In 987 Skleros was finally recalled to his homeland by Phokas, who took advantage of the Bulgarian wars to aim at the crown. Skleros promptly mustered an army to support Phokas's cause, but his plans of profiting from the attendant disorders were frustrated when Phokas had him committed to prison.

Upon Phokas' death at the Battle of Abydos (989), Skleros succeeded him as the leader of the rebellion: "The truth was, the men who had enrolled in Skleros's army were no longer divided in their loyalties: every one of them was a declared rebel. Their leader inspired them with his own resolute determination and bound them into one coherent body. By favours he won their loyalty, by his kindliness he earned their devotion. He reconciled their differences, ate at the same table as his men, drank from the same cup, called them by name, and by his flattery bound them to his allegiance" (Michael Psellos).

The date of his surrender to the authorities is disputed, as are the circumstances. In 991 Skleros, a blinded and broken man, then residing in semi-captivity in Thrace, was visited by Emperor Basil II on his way to Bulgaria. The famous rebel accepted the title of curopalates and died several days later, presumably on April 2.

The bloodline of Bardas Skleros continued, however. A grandson, Basil Skleros, was married to a sister of Emperor Romanos III. One of Basil's daughters married Constantine Monomachos, who would become Emperor, while Basil's granddaughter became mistress of Constantine. One of these women was the grandmother of Vladimir Monomakh.

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Барда Склір (Βάρδας Σκληρός, 919 —991) — візантійський військовий та політичний діяч, декілька разів намагався захопити трон Візантійської імперії.

Походив зі знатного та заможного роду Склірів, що вели свій родовід з Малої Азії. Син Пантерія Скліра, а за материнською лінією був родичем імператорів з Македонської династії. Мати Варла Скліра — Георгія — походила від Барда, брата імператора Василя I. Його сестра Марія була дружиною імператора Іоанна Цимісхія. Після сходження останнього на трон у 969 році призначається доместіком схол (командуючим схоларіями).

У 970 році відбив наступ на Константинополь великого князя Київського Святослава Ігоровича: за візантійською версією — завдав нищівної поразки у битві при Адріанополі; за руською — Скліра було розбито й візантійці відкупилися від київського князя. Найпевніше, у результаті битві жодна зі сторін не отримала переваги. З огляду на те, що Склір мав в тилу потужні мури Адріанополя, куди міг сховатися, та той факт, що на допомогу йшли війська на чолі з імператором, Святослав змушений був відступити до Болгарії, зберігши основні свої сили.

Слідом за цим брав участь у болгарському поході візантійців та подальшій боротьбі проти русів. Після цього у 970–971 роках придушив повстання Барди Фоки у Малій Азії. На деякий час залишився у Малій Азії, де відбив спробу арабських загонів захопити землі, скориставшись заколотом Фоки. В результаті цього успіху досяг значного впливу за володарювання імператора Іоанна I, вважався найкращим військовиком після Цимісхія.

У 975 році внаслідок інтриг паракимомена Василя під час хвороби імператора Скліра призначають доместіком схол та відправляють до Малої Азії. Василь намагався забезпечити владу малолітнім сином померлого імператора Романа II, щоб від їх імені володарювати.

У 976 році Барда Склір, спираючись на родинні зв'язки з правлячою династією та підтримку серед знаті й військових, висунув свої претензії на трон Візантії. Приводом стало зміщення з посади. Склір для впевненості уклав союзи з вірменськими та мусульманськими володарями, які визнали того імператором. Поступово Барда Склір захопив значну частину Малої Азії, перемігши Петра Фоку та інших військовиків. Але перша спроба захопити Константинополь не вдалася внаслідок поразки флоту Скліра та невдалої облоги міста Нікеї. Після тривалої боротьби проти військовика Барди Фоки у 979 році зазнав нищівної поразки у битві при Панкалії, після чого втік до держави Хамданідів. Але її володарі відмовилися надати скліру, той у 980 році перебрався до Багдаду, де також планував отримати підтримку від халіфа Абд аль-Карім ат-Таї. Втім той тримав Барда Скліра у почесному полоні до 987 року.

У 987 році, змовившись з Бардою Фокою, знову підняв повстання, але був ошуканий останнім і запроторений до в'язниці. У 989 році, після загибелі Фоки, знову підняв повстання і проголосив себе імператором, але в тому ж році був змушений здатися на милість імператора Василя II. Імператор надав Скліру титул куропалата і змушений був піти на низку поступок. Помер Барда Склір у березні 991 року.

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