Berta of Bavaria, Abbess of Schwarzach-am-Main

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Berta of Bavaria, Abbess of Schwarzach-am-Main

Also Known As: "Bertha"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: perhaps Bavaria, currently, Germany
Death: March 26, 877 (40-41)
Cleve or Kleve, present day, Germany
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Louis II, 'The German' and Emma of Altdorf
Wife of Eberhard van Kleve
Mother of Luthard, count of Cleves and Yolande de Cleves
Sister of Hildegard of Bavaria East-Franks, Princess Of Germany; Louis the Younger, king of Saxony; Charles III 'the Fat', King of the Franks; Ermengard des Chiemsee; Emma of East Francia and 2 others
Half sister of S. Riccarda di Svevia

Managed by: Private User
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About Berta of Bavaria, Abbess of Schwarzach-am-Main

Berta of Bavaria

  • Daughter of Louis II, 'The German' and Emma of Altdorf
  • BERTA (died 26 Mar 877). "Ludowicus…rex" confirmed the grant of the abbey of Schwarzach-am-Main to "Berethæ sororis suæ [fili%C3%A6 nostræ Hildigardæ]" in a charter dated 27 Mar 857[60]. She succeeded her sister Hildegard as Abbess of Schwarzach-am-Main in 853. Abbess of Zurich 856. The Annales Alamannicorum record the death in 877 of "Berchta filia regis"[61]. The Annales Weingartenses record the death in 877 of “Berta filia Regis Hludovvici”[62]. The Liber Anniversariorum of Zurich records the death "VII Kal Mar" of "Berchta filia Ludwici regis fundatoris nostri monasterii et abba eiusdem"[63].

Project MedLands, Chapter 1. KINGS of the EAST FRANKS (GERMANY) 843-911, Carolingian Dynasty

LOUIS, son of Emperor LOUIS I "le Pieux" & his first wife Ermengard --- ([806]-Frankfurt-am-Main 28 Aug 876, bur Kloster Lorsch). Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Hlutharius, Pippinus, Hludowicus" as sons of Emperor Louis and his wife Ermengard[14]. Under the Ordinatio Imperii promulgated by Emperor Louis in 817, Louis received "Baioariam et Carentanos, et Beheimos et Avaros, atque Sclavos qui ab orientali parte Baioariæ sunt…et duas villas…in pago Nortgaoe Luttraof et Ingoldesstat", specifying that he was to be named king[15]. He fought with his father and his brothers, joining the rebellions in 831 and 833. In the settlement of 833, he received Alemannia, Alsace and Rhetia (taken from his half-brother Charles II "le Chauve", as well as Thuringia and Saxony. His father obliged him to leave these additional territories in 839, confining his rule once more to Bavaria. Following the accession of his brother Lothaire as sole emperor after their father's death in 840, Ludwig allied himself with his half-brother Charles II "le Chauve". Together they defeated Emperor Lothaire at Fontenoy-en-Puisaye, near Auxerre 25 Jun 841. Under the partition of territories agreed under the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, Louis was installed as LUDWIG II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks. When Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks was faced with widespread rebellion, King Ludwig II invaded his kingdom in Aug 858 but was defeated 15 Jan 859 in the Laonnais and forced to withdraw. In 865, King Ludwig agreed with King Charles "le Chauve" the future division of the territories of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia, but on the latter's death in 869 King Charles invaded Lotharingia before Ludwig could assert his rights. A settlement was reached at Meerssen in Aug 870 under which Ludwig received Alsace and other territory along the Rhine[16], in effect succeeding as LUDWIG I King of Lotharingia [part]. The necrology of Prüm records the death "876 5 Kal Sep" of "Ludvicus imperator frater Ludvici imperatoris"[17]. The Liber Anniversariorum of Zurich records the death "V Kal Aug" of "Ludovicus rex fundator monasterii"[18]. Married (827) EMMA, daughter of [WELF [I] Graf [von Altdorf] & his wife Heilwig ---] (-31 Jan 876, bur Regensburg St Emmeran). Emma is named as the wife of Ludwig II King of Germany in numerous charters and narrative sources. However, her family origin is only indicated by a single source: the Annales Xantenses record the marriage in 827 of "Ludewicus rex" and "sororem Iudith imperatricis" without naming her[19]. This contrasts with the number of primary sources which specify the parentage of the Empress Judith and her two brothers Rudolf and Conrad. The absence of further references to Emma’s family could indicate a distinction between the status of the two sisters within the Welf dynasty. The term “soror” could include sisters who did not share both parents, but the chronology of the lives of the empress’s parents suggests no time for a second marriage on either side. Judith’s father’s death is dated to [824/25], while her mother is recorded as abbess at Chelles in 833. Emma’s marriage date suggests that she was younger than Judith, but the birth of children soon after the marriage places her birth in [812/15] at the latest. As no indication has been found that Judith’s parents separated and that her father remarried, it is assumed that the sparsity of sources detailing Emma’s parentage results merely from the lack of surviving records. "Ludowicus…rex" made a donation to St Felix & Regula in Zurich naming "filia nostra Bertha…[et] coniugis nostræ Hemmæ" by charter dated 29 Oct 863[20]. The Annales Fuldenses record that "Hemma quoque regina" became paralysed in 874, died at Regensburg in 876 and was buried in the church of St Emmeran[21]. The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeran records the death "II Kal Feb" of "Hemma regina hic sepulta"[22]. The necrology of Augia Divis records the death "II Kal Feb" of "Hemma regina"[23]. The necrology of Nonnberg records the death "2 Kal Jan" of "Hemma imperatrix sor na"[24].

King Ludwig II & his wife had seven children:

  • 1. HILDEGARD (828-23 Dec 856, bur [Zurich]). Abbess of Schwarzach-am-Main, near Wurzburg [after 844]-853. Abbess of Zurich 21 Jul 853. "Ludowicus…rex" made a donation to St Felix & Regula, Zurich confirming "filiæ nostræ Hildigardæ" as its abbess by charter dated 21 Jul 853[25]. The necrology of St Gall records the death "X Kal Jan" of "Hildigarda virgo Christi et domni Hludowici regis filia" specifying her burial "in ecclesia S Regulæ et Felicis martyrum Christi in castello Turago"[26].
  • 2. KARLOMAN ([830]-Altötting, Bavaria 12 Mar or 29 Sep 880). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karlomannum Hludovicum et Karolum" as children of "Hludovicus rex…ex Emma regina"[27]. He revolted against his father in 861 and 864. The Annales Bertiniani record that "Carlomannus, Hlodowici regis Germaniæ" joined forces with "Resticio Winidorum regulo", captured a large part of his father's kingdom as far as the River Inn in 861, but was expelled by his father[28]. On the death of his father in 876, he succeeded as KARLOMAN King of the East Franks, receiving Bavaria, Pannonia, Carinthia, Bohemia and Moravia under the partition of territories agreed with his brothers. On the death of Emperor Louis II King of Italy, he was called to Italy by Queen Engelberga and members of the Italian nobility. He was able to expel his rival King Charles II "le Chauve" from Italy and entered Pavia in Oct 877. However, he was struck by paralysis and had to be returned to Germany, where he was deposed in favour of his brother Louis "le Jeune" in 879. He founded the monastery of Altötting in 877[29]. The necrology of Prüm records the death "880 XI Kal Apr" of "Karlomannus frater Ludvici et Karoli"[30]. The Annales Fuldenses record the death "880 XI Kal Apr" of "Carlmannus frater Hludowici et Karoli"[31]. Regino records the death "880 VII Non Apr" of "Carolomannus rex paralysi" and his burial "in Baioaria…Hodingas"[32]. married (before 861) --- [im Nordgau], daughter of ERNST Graf [im Nordgau] & his wife --- (-after 8 Jul 879). Her parentage and marriage are deduced from the Annales Bertiniani which name "socerum Karlomanni…Arnustum" when recording that Ludwig II King of Germany deprived him of his honours in 861 at the time of his son's rebellion[33]. "Karlomannus…rex" confirmed immunities to San Salvatore in Brescia "pro nobis coniuge et prole misericordiam dei iugiter exhorare" by charter dated 8 Jul 879[34], the wording of which suggests that he was at that date married but still childless by this marriage. Jackman suggests that Liutswindis, concubine of King Karloman and mother of Emperor Arnulf, is co-identified with this unnamed daughter of Graf Ernst[35]. He bases this on the assumption that King Karloman's childless wife must have predeceased the king, after which he married Liutswindis by whom he had already had his son Arnulf. However, this appears to ignore the curiously worded 8 Jul 879 charter referred to above. There would have been sufficient time after mid-879 and before Karloman's death the following year, for his first wife to have died and for Karloman to have remarried. However, if this was the case it is surprising that contemporary records do not mention the fact. In any case, it would probably have depended on the extent of the paralysis which afflicted King Karloman from 879. It is of course not impossible that "socerum" in the Annales Bertiniani was used to describe the informal relationship between King Karloman and his concubine's father, and that the Annales do not refer to the king's legitimate wife at all. Mistress (1): LIUTSWINDIS, daughter of --- (-before 9 Mar 891). "Arnolfus…rex" gave property at "Ardienga…in ripa fluvioli…Semita" previously owned by "mater nostra bonæ memoriæ Liutswind" to the church of Salzburg by charter dated 9 Mar 891[36].

King Karloman had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):

  • a) ARNULF ([850]-Regensburg 8 Dec 899, bur Regensburg St Emmeran). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names "Arnulfum regem" son of "Karlomannus rex"[37]. He was invested with the March of Pannonia and Carinthia in [870]. During the illness of his father, he administered Bavaria but was obliged to transfer the territory to his uncle Ludwig III on his father's death, in return receiving the duchy of Carinthia. During the rebellion against Emperor Charles III "le Gros", he was offered the crown and was proclaimed ARNULF King of the East Franks at Frankfurt-am-Main in Nov 887 after the emperor was deposed.
  • 3. ERMENGARDIS (-Frauenwörth 16 Jul 866). "Hludowicus…rex" confirmed an exchange between "filia nostra Irmingart" and abbot Folkwin of Reichenau in a charter dated 28 Apr 857[38]. Abbess of Buchau am Federsee. Abbess of Chiemsee (Frauenwörth) 28 Apr 857. The Annales Formoselenses record the death in 866 of "Karoli regis soror Irmingard"[39]. This is corroborated by the Annales Alamannicorum[40]. The necrology of St Gall records the death "XVII Kal Aug" of "Irmingarda Hludowici regis filia et sanctimonialis"[41].
  • 4. GISELA . Her existence is deduced from the Libri confraternitatum Sancti Galli which lists (in order) "Hemma regina, Hiltigart, Irmingart, Gisla, Perhta…"[42], apparently referring to the wife of King Ludwig II and their four daughters, the existence of three of whom is corroborated by other sources. No other primary source has so far been identified which names Gisela.
  • 5. LUDWIG ([835]-Frankfurt-am-Main 20 Jan or Sep 882, bur Kloster Lorsch). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karlomannum Hludovicum et Karolum" as children of "Hludovicus rex…ex Emma regina"[43]. He occupied Lotharingia with his brother Charles in 876. On the death of his father, he defeated the invading forces of King Charles II "le Chauve" at Andernach 7/8 Oct 876. He succeeded his father as LUDWIG III King of the East Franks, agreeing a division of territories with his brothers in Nov 876, under which Ludwig received Franconia, Thuringia, Saxony and Frisia, as well as those parts of Lotharingia which had been annexed by his father, succeeding as LUDWIG II King of East Lotharingia. He obliged his brother Karloman to abandon the government of Bavaria to him in 879. He gained western Lotharingia under the Treaty of Ribémont in 880, in settlement of the dispute which arose on the death of King Louis II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks, and thereupon succeeded as sole king of Lotharingia[44]. The Annales Fuldenses records the death in "882 XIII Kal Feb" of "Hludowicus"[45]. Regino records the death "882 XIII Kal Sep" at Frankfurt of "Hludowicum rex" and his burial "iuxta patrem in Lorasham cœnobio"[46]. Betrothed (865) to ---, daughter of ADELHARD [I] & his wife ---. The Annales Bertiniani record that the son of Ludwig II King of Germany became betrothed to "filiam Adelardi" against his father's will but did not marry her[47]. This could only refer to Ludwig as his brothers Karloman and Karl are recorded in other sources as already being married at that date. married (before 29 Nov 874) LIUTGARD, daughter of Graf LIUDOLF & his wife Oda (-30 Nov 885, bur Aschaffenburg). "Hludowicus…rex" made a donation of property in "villa…Winenheim" to Kloster Lorsch in the name of "comiti…Werinhario" by charter dated 4 Jan 877, naming "coniuge nostra Liutgarda"[48]. Widukind names "Liudgardam sororem Brunonis ac magni ducis Oddonis" as wife of "orientales Francos imperantium Hluthowicus"[49]. The exact date of death and burial place of "Liudgardis regina" are recorded in the Annalista Saxo[50]. Mistress (1): ---. The name of King Ludwig III's mistress is not known.

King Ludwig III & his wife had two children:

  • a) HILDEGARD ([875/76]-after 899). Her parentage is confirmed by the Annales Fuldenses which record that "Hildigardis filia Hludowici Francorum regis" was accused of treason in 895 and confined to "Baioaria quadam insula palude Chiemiese"[51]. It is assumed that she was adult at the time, which suggests that Hildegard must have been her parents' older child. Hildegard is named in three charters which all state that she was "neptis" of Emperor Arnulf but which do not name her parents. "Arnolfus…rex" granted property "in Franciæ…quas…homines Deotrih…et Gozuuin antea…habuerunt [et] in pago Puohunna…in comitatu filiorum Heimrici comitis in loco Toftaha" to Wigand vassal of "neptis nostræ Hiltigardæ" by charter dated 9 Feb 888[52]. "Arnolfus rex" donated land "in Cruft et in Claechheim et in Hliurithi in comitatu Irmenfredi" to Kloster Gandersheim on the intervention of "coniugis sue Otæ…et Hildigarde…neptis eius" by an undated charter, placed in the compilation among charters dated [891/92][53]. "Arnolfus…rex" returned land in "pago Nortgowe in comitatu Cheldionis", previously taken by "Hildigardis neptis nostra et Engeldichd comes…et Sigo vicarius eius", to "Megingozo vasallo…Erkenboldi episcopi" by charter dated 5 May 895[54]. The close connection with Graf Engildeo, shown by this last charter, is curious. In addition, the Annales Fuldensis record the confiscation of the properties of both Engildeo and Hildegard in the same paragraph, but give no explanation or reason for the punishment. The connection is best explained by a close family relationship, but this has not been identified. A love affair between the two appears less likely, although not impossible, in view of the considerable age difference: Graf Engildeo was presumably already adult in 878, the date of the first of the charters in which he is named. Hildegard's properties were restored to her in 899[55].
  • b) LUDWIG ([877/78]-Frankfurt-am-Main [Nov] 879). Regino names "Hludowicum" as the only son of "Hludowicum rex" and his wife Liutgard when recording his death at the palace of Frankfurt after accidentally falling from a window[56].

King Ludwig III had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):

  • c) HUGO ([855/60]-killed in battle Thun 2 Feb 880, or Scheldt River 880, bur Abbey of Lorsch). The Erchanberti Breviarum records that "Ludovicus rex Franciæ" had one son "Hug…de concubina" who [in 880] fought the Vikings "cum Theoderico et Marcwardo…episcopis et Bardone fratre Liutkardæ reginæ"[57]. The precise date of this battle is determined from Thietmar who records that "Duke Bruno…great uncle" of Bruno Archbishop of Köln, was drowned in a flooded river on 2 Feb while on an expedition against the Danes, although he does not mention Hugo[58]. If this is correct, "Bardone" in the Erchanberti Breviarum was presumably an error for "Brunone". The Annales Fuldenses provide a slightly different version of these events, recording that "Hugo filius regis" was killed in battle in 880 while trying to expel "Nordmannos" from the Scheldt river area which they had occupied "longo tempore"[59]. The Annales Fuldenses separate this event from the battle in Saxony in which Bruno and others were killed.
  • 6. BERTA (-26 Mar 877). "Ludowicus…rex" confirmed the grant of the abbey of Schwarzach-am-Main to "Berethæ sororis suæ [fili%C3%A6 nostræ Hildigardæ]" in a charter dated 27 Mar 857[60]. She succeeded her sister Hildegard as Abbess of Schwarzach-am-Main in 853. Abbess of Zurich 856. The Annales Alamannicorum record the death in 877 of "Berchta filia regis"[61]. The Annales Weingartenses record the death in 877 of “Berta filia Regis Hludovvici”[62]. The Liber Anniversariorum of Zurich records the death "VII Kal Mar" of "Berchta filia Ludwici regis fundatoris nostri monasterii et abba eiusdem"[63].
  • 7. CHARLES (839-Neudingen an der Donau 13 Jan 888[64], bur Kloster Reichenau). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karlomannum Hludovicum et Karolum" as children of "Hludovicus rex…ex Emma regina"[65]. On the death of his father in 876, he succeeded as KARL III King of the East Franks, agreeing a division of territories with his brothers in Nov 876 under which Karl received Alemannia, Alsace and Rhetia. After his brother Karloman was obliged by illness to leave Italy, Pope John VIII called for help from Karl III. He occupied northern Italy in Nov 879. He was crowned Emperor KARL III "der Dicke" in Rome 12 Feb 881 by Pope John VIII. On the death of his older brother King Ludwig III, he inherited Germania, Franconia, Saxony and Bavaria. On the death of Carloman King of the West Franks 12 Dec 884, he was offered the West Frankish throne at Ponthion in Jun 885. In mid-887, he received Ermengard, widow of Boson King [of Provence], and adopted her son Louis as his son and presumably heir[66]. In Nov 887, his nephew Arnulf Duke of Carinthia led a powerful army of Carinthians and Slavs against Emperor Karl who was soon deserted on all sides, and ceased to rule as King of the East Franks [17/27] Nov 887[67]. Reuter highlights the absence of evidence of a formal deposition[68]. He was given estates in Alemannia as a pension, but died a few weeks later[69]. Regino records the death "888 pridie Id Ian" of "Carolus imperator" and his burial "in Augea monasterio"[70]. married ([1 Aug] 862, divorced 887) as her first husband, RICHARDIS, daughter of Graf ERCHANGER & his wife --- (-Abbey of Andlau, Alsace 18 Sep before [906/11]). "Ludowicus…rex" made a grant of property "in Alamannia in pago…Brisahgawe" to "filius noster Karolus" as dowry for his unnamed wife dated 1 Aug [862][71]. The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage in 862 of "Hludowicus…Karolo filio" and "Ercangarii comitis filiam"[72]. Abbess of Andlau in Alsace 887. At the time of their divorce, the couple both declared that the marriage had never been consummated. The Annales Argentinenses record that "Richarda imperatrix, Karoli regis uxor" was accused of adultery with "Liutwardo Vercellensi episcopo", but that she was confirmed to be a virgin at the time of her divorce[73]. The Chronicon of Bernold also records that "Richgarda imperatrix" was accused of adultery with "Liutwardo Vercellensi episcopo" but was later proved to be a virgin[74]. She married secondly Gauzelin ex-Bishop. Regino names "Gozzelino eiusdem urbis [=Paris?] episcopo" in 887, recording that he left the church and married "Richardem sic enim Augusta vocabatur"[75]. Mistress (1): ---. The name of Emperor Karl III's mistress is not known.

Emperor Karl III had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):

  • a) BERNHARD ([876]-murdered 891). The Annales Alamannicorum name "Berenhart filius Karoli" when recording his escape from Rhetia in 890[76]. The Annales Fuldenses record that the emperor wanted to appoint "Bernhartum filiuum suum ex concubina" as his successor in 885[77]. Bernhard became the focus of opposition in Alemannia to the rule of his cousin King Arnulf and in 891 led a rebellion, together with Ulrich Graf der Linzgau and Bernhard Abbot of St Gallen[78]. The Annales Laubacenses record that "Perenhart filius Karoli" escaped "de Retia" in 890[79]. He was murdered by Rudolf Count of Rhetia[80]. The Annales Alamannicorum record that "Perenhart filius Karoli" was killed by "Ruodulfo" in 891[81].

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Berta of Bavaria, Abbess of Schwarzach-am-Main's Timeline

836
836
perhaps Bavaria, currently, Germany
877
March 26, 877
Age 41
Cleve or Kleve, present day, Germany
877
Kleve, Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
880
880
Cleves, Kleve, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany
????