Boleslaw II the Horned

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Bolesław II Rogatka Liegnitz, Duke

Polish: Bolesław II Rogatka, książę, German: Boleslaw II., Herzog
Also Known As: "Bolesław Łysy", "Bolesław Cudaczny"
Birthplace: Wrocław, Dolnośląskie, Polska (Poland)
Death: December 26, 1278 (53-62)
Legnica, Dolnośląskie, Polska (Poland)
Place of Burial: Legnica, Dolnośląskie, Polska
Immediate Family:

Son of Henry II "the Pious" high duke of Poland and Anna of Bohemia
Husband of Hedwig of Anhalt-Zerbst and Eufemia Samborówna
Partner of Zofia? ?
Father of Agnes v. Schlesien.Liegnitz; Henry V, Duke of Legnica; Jadwiga Bolesławówna; Anna Bolesławówna; Duke Bolko I the Strict and 5 others
Brother of Gertruda wrocławska; Mieszko lubuski, książę; Konstancja wrocławska Vroclavietė; Elżbieta wrocławska ks. śląska; Konrad I von Schlesien-Glogau and 5 others

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About Boleslaw II the Horned

Bolesław II Rogatka, także Łysy i Cudaczny (ur. między 1220 a 1225, zm. 26 grudnia 1278) – książę krakowski w 1241, w latach 1241-1247 książę południowo-zachodniej Wielkopolski, książę śląski w latach 1241-1248, legnicko-głogowski w latach 1248-1249/1251, w 1249 strata Lubusza, od 1249 tylko w Legnicy, od 1277 także w Środzie Śląskiej.

Bolesław II the Bald

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bolesław II the Bald known also as the Horned (Polish: Bolesław II Łysy or Rogatka; b. ca. 1220/5 - d. 26/31 December 1278), was a Duke of Krakow briefly in 1241, of Southern Greater Poland during 1241 - 1247, and Duke of all Silesia-Wroclaw since 1241 until 1248, when was divided between him and his brothers. He was Duke of Neumarkt in Silesia (Środa Śląska) from 1277 and during his reign the second Mongol raid against Poland, led by Nogai Khan occured.

He was the eldest son of Henry II the Pious, Duke of Wroclaw, by his wife Anna, daughter of King Ottokar I of Bohemia.


[edit]Beginning of his Reign and Fight over the Greater Poland Inheritance (1241-47)

Bolesław, in contrast to his father, doesn't have to wait too much for reign, because on 9 April 1241, during the Battle of Legnica against the Mongols, Duke Henry II was killed after only three years of government. At the time of these tragic events, of the five sons of the Silesian Duke, only Bolesław and his inmediate younger brother Mieszko could be considered adults and capables to ruled without a regency. However, during the first and difficult months of government, their mother Anna would help them. Some sources even speak directly to her regency. Whatever was the case, this "regency" wasn't to too long and even in the same year Bolesław formally began his personal reign, whose beginning wasn't successful. Although the Mongols, after conquest considerable areas of Silesia soon withdrew to Hungary, with any intention to retain that lands permanently, for Bolesław the situation wasn't too easiest. The paternal inheritance included the Southern Greater Poland and Krakow, but soon erupted the revolts from others Piast Dukes who wanted these lands. In Lesser Poland, by July 1241 appeared to eternal pretender to Krakow: Konrad I of Masovia. The war was not yet a defeat, thanks to the effective resistance against the Masovians organized by the Governor of Krakow, Clement of Ruszczy; however, the complete inaction of Bolesław dissapointed the nobility, who quickly found a new candidate for the Krakow throne in Bolesław V the Chaste. In Greater Poland, the situation was not very different. After hear the news of the defeat of Henry II in Legnica, Przemysł I and Bolesław the Pious, decided to retaken the district once belonging to their father Władysław Odonic. The Greater Poland nobility and knighthood strongly supported them, because under their eyes, as a chronicler stated, they were the true heirs of that lands. This time, Bolesław decided to avoid any fight and renounce to all his Greater Poland lands, but obtained in exchange some district as Santok and Międzyrzecz. But the uncompromising attitude of the Greater Poland Dukes and the increasing problems who this caused in the family, ultimately forced Bolesław to resign the lands and with this all his pretentions over Greater Poland, in 1247.

The First Division of Lower Silesia (1248)

Bolesław initially didn't any intended to made a division of his father's Silesian Duchy, and wanted to concentrate all the power in his hands. In 1242, after the unexpectedly death of his next brother Mieszko (who had received Lubusz as a Duchy) without issue, his lands reverted to him. Bolesław's resistance to share the government with his younger brothers only caused revolts against him; shortly after the young Silesian princes were able to imprison his older brother. These incidents caused in Bolesław, until the end of his life very suspicious to his environment and a further difficults to deal with the government. As an interim of the revolts, Bolesław made an agreement with his brother Henry III the White in 1247, when he was declared co-ruler of Silesia. The cooperation between the brothers wasn't too good and a year later, they decided to made a division of the districts Legnica-Głogów-Lubusz and Wrocław. In addition, the brothers have pledged to offer hospitality to the younger brothers, Bolesław to Konrad, and Henry to Władysław. Bolesław, as the older brother, had the opportunity to choose his district; he decided to Legnica, because there was found gold in the Kaczawa and Wierzbiak Rivers.

The choice of Legnica can also be dictated by the growing conflict between Bolesław and the powerful Wrocław nobility, a problem who Henry III didn't had; shortly after he could took control over the duchy. But now Bolesław began to regret his choice and tried to recover Wroclaw. Henry III, of course, refused to voluntarily give up his new duchy. The war was only a matter of time.

[edit]War against Henry III the White and Sale of Lubusz (1248-49)

Henry and Bolesław began his preparations for the war, but, didn't have adequate funds. In these circumstances, there was a most common practices during the period of regional divisions. Bolesław had married in 1242 with Hedwig of Anhalt, daughter of Count Henry I and niece of the Landgraves of Thuringia, and now he decided to use this family connections to find allies in his fight against his brother. The price for troops was putting by the Archbishop of Magdeburg: half of Lubusz, who passed then to the hands of Brandenburg, because at that time, Magdeburg was part of them.

[edit]Bolesław II, Duke of Legnica (1249-51)

The German aid only give to Bolesław a temporary advantage in the war against his brother. In 1249 unexpectedly returned to the country (after concluded his studies in Paris) his younger brother Konrad, whose Bolesław unsuccessfully tried to convince to entered to the Church. He proposed him as Bishop of Passau but Konrad refused and began his own claims over Silesia. Bolesław obviously refused his consent, so that the young prince took refuge at the court of Bolesław's long-time enemies, the Dukes of Greater Poland. Shortly after, Konrad reforced his bonds with Duke Przemysł I after a double marriage: the Greater Poland Duke with Konrad's sister Elizabeth, and himself with Duke Przemysł's sister, Salome. The final crash occurred two years later, when the Legnica Duke was defeated by the combined forces of Przemysł I and Henry III the White, who supported the pretentions of his brother. Bolesław was finally forced to agree on the division of his own lands and give Głogów to Konrad. After this, the elder Duke of the Silesian branch only retained the small district of Legnica.

[edit]Agreement with Henry III the White (1252-56)

However, Bolesław needed other two years and the help of Henry III (who in this difficult situation he eventually decided to give him his support) to recover in 1253 the full authority over his Principality. Finally the brotherly cooperation was imposed and for the next years was quite specific. With Henry III wasn't the case, and the eventual struggles for the main power led to a major clashes. But during this time, Bolesław made some agreements with the others Piast Dukes, especially with the princes of Greater Poland and with Thomas I, Bishop of Wroclaw, althought Bolesław never forgive the Bishop that in the disputes with his brothers he always supported the younger princes.

[edit]Conflict with Bishop Thomas of Wrocław (1257-61)

Bolesław's conflict with the Bishop of Wrocław reached his point more critical in 1257, when the Duke of Legnica decided to desposed and incarcerate him at the Castle Wleń. It is unknown if Bolesław wanted to this act take control over the local Church, but the inmediate and direct consecuence of his behavior was the excommunication to him (Bolesław was already excommunicated twice, in 1248 and 1249, but was later forgive by the Bishop. Both excomnications were removed only after approval of the Church) and the call to all his neighbors to a crusade against him. In an unexpected way, were only his brothers who quickly intervene and who began to work in a settlement between both parties. The price for Bolesław's return to the Church was high: the Duke was finally forced in 1261 to pay a huge monetary compensation and made a public penitance at the gates of the Cathedral in Wroclaw. The victory of Bishop Thomas was complete.

[edit]Relations with Konrad of Głogów (1262-71)

Bolesław, who was finally able to mantain an agreement with Henry III until his death, remained in the hostile relations with his Konrad of Głogów, thanks in great part to the rebellious and obstinate character of the young Duke. Thanks to the absence of sources, is only know two specifics events of the conflict. In 1257 Konrad made an dangerous move and kidnaped Bolesław from his castle in Legnica. The Duke regained his freedom after a few months, but is unknown for what price. It can therefore say that since them the Duke never left a moment of happiness to Bolesław, but in 1271 the Duke of Legnica managed to taken the town of Bolesławiec near Bóbr.

[edit]Abduction of Henry IV and Battle of Stolec (1272-77)

In the decade of 1270 was clear the political decline of Bolesław. He began to give more and more power to his adolescent sons. In 1273 he granted Jawor (Jauer) as a Duchy to his oldest son Henry V and it seemed that Bolesław resigned definitively to adventurous politics. But in 1277, he surprised everyone. Bolesław signed an alliance with the King Rudolph I of Germany (who with this tried to break the alliance of the other Piast Dukes with the King Ottokar II of Bohemia) and for Rudolph's insistence, he decided to kidnap Ottokar's ally, Henry IV -who also was Bolesław's nephew-. The pretext of this was the young prince's requests of one third of Wroclaw after the death in 1270 of his uncle Władysław, Bolesław's youngest brother. Henry IV was an important prisoner and shortly after was imprisoned in a castle in Legnica. In order to obtain his freedom, was made a coalition between the Bohemian King and the Dukes Henry III of Głogów and Przemysł II of Greater Poland; however, they soon failed. Although Bolesław's forces were notoriously smaller than the coalition's army in the Battle of Stolec and seemingly start to lost,, his son Henry V unexpectedly began to win and finally defeated the allied dukes. The dispute ended with a settlement; Henry IV obtain his freedom in exchange for 1/3 of the Duchy of Środa Śląska (German: Neumarkt), which was granted to Bolesław.

[edit]Death and Succession (1278)

This was last the success of the Duke of Legnica. Bolesław II died on 26/31 December 1278 and was buried in the Dominican monastery of Legnica. His three sons, Henry V the Fat, Bolko I and Bernhard, inherited their lands and divided between them.

[edit]Marriage and Issue

Around 8 May 1242, Bolesław married firstly with Hedwig (d. 21 December 1259), daughter of Henry I, Count of Anhalt. They had ten children:

Agnes (b. ca. 1243/50 - d. 13 March 1265), married ca. 1260/64 to Count Ulrich I of Württemberg.

Henry V the Fat (b. ca. 1248 - d. 22 February 1296).

Hedwig (b. ca. 1250/55 - d. aft. 1280), married ca. 1265/70 to Duke Konrad II of Masovia.

Bolko I the Strict (b. ca. 1252/56 - d. Grissow, 9 November 1301).

Bernard the Lightsome (b. ca. 1253/57 - d. 25 April 1286).

Konrad (d. young).

Jarosław (d. young).

Katharina (b. ca. 1255 - d. aft. 1270), Abbess of Trebnicz.

Elizabeth (b. ca. 1259 - d. aft. 1268), married in 1268 to Louis of Hakeborn.

After 1260, Bolesław married secondly with Eufemia (also called Alenta or Iolanta) (b. ca. 1245 - d. ca. 15 February 1309), daughter of Sambor II, Duke of Pomerania. This union was unsuccessfully, thanks to the infidelities and scandals of Eufemia, who even fled to Gdansk with her lover. However, she appears in Silesia after the death of her husband, who was maybe an indication that they were reconcilied shortly after. They had no children.


Complete Genealogy of the House of Piast




Boleslaw II. (Schlesien)

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Boleslaw II. (auch Boleslaus II., Boleslaw/Boleslaus der Wilde; polnisch Bolesław II Rogatka, tschechisch Boleslav II. Lysý Rohatka (Calvus); * um 1217; † 1278) war von 1242 bis 1248 Herzog von Schlesien und ab 1248 bis zu seinem Tod 1278 erster Herzog von Liegnitz.



   * 1 Herkunft und Familie
   * 2 Leben
   * 3 Literatur
   * 4 Weblinks

Herkunft und Familie [Bearbeiten]

Boleslaw entstammte der schlesischen Linie der Dynastie der Piasten. Seine Eltern waren Herzog Heinrich II. und Anna von Böhmen, Tochter des böhmischen Königs Ottokar I. Přemysl. Seine Geschwister waren u. a.:

   * Mieszko († 1242), Herzog von Lebus
   * Heinrich III. († 1266), Herzog von Breslau
   * Konrad II., erwählter Bischof von Passau (resignierte 1249), Herzog von Schlesien, ab 1251 Herzog von Glogau
   * Wladislaw von Schlesien, Kanzler des böhmischen Königs Ottokar II. Přemysl, Erzbischof von Salzburg, Administrator von Breslau
   * Elisabeth, verheiratet mit dem polnischen König Przemysław I.

1242 vermählte sich Boleslaw mit Hedwig († 1259), Tochter des Grafen Heinrich von Anhalt. Dieser Ehe entstammten die Kinder

   * Heinrich V. († 1296), Herzog von Liegnitz
   * Bolko I. († 1301), Herzog von Jauer und Schweidnitz
   * Bernhard I. (1253/57–1286), Herzog von Jauer und Löwenberg
   * Agnes (1253/57– 1265), seit 1259/60 verheiratet mit Ulrich I. von Württemberg († 1265)
   * Hedwig (* vor 1259, † nach 1280), seit 1265/70 verheiratet mit Konrad II., Herzog von Masowien († 1294)
   * Elisabeth, seit 1268 verheiratet mit Ludwig von Hakeborn

Nach Hedwigs Tod vermählte sich Boleslaw um 1261 in zweiter Ehe mit Alenta (Euphemia), Tochter des Herzogs Sambor von Pommerellen. Dieser Ehe entstammte die Tochter

   * Katharina († nach 1270), beigesetzt in Trebnitz

Leben [Bearbeiten]

Nach dem Tod seines Vaters Heinrich 1241 übernahm Boleslaw die Regentschaft über das Herzogtum Schlesien zugleich für seine minderjährigen Brüder. Bei der Teilung von 1248 erhielt Boleslaw das Herzogtum Liegnitz, sein Bruder Heinrich das Herzogtum Breslau. Nach Streitigkeiten mit seinem Bruder Konrad, der 1249 auf das Passauer Bischofsamt resignierte, erhielt Konrad das Herzogtum Glogau. Weitere Auseinandersetzungen führte Boleslaw mit dem Breslauer Bischof Thomas um die kirchlichen Immunitätsrechte. Dabei geriet er in Gefangenschaft und wurde mit dem Interdikt belegt. 1252 bestimmte er Liegnitz zu seiner Residenzstadt, die er mit deutschem Recht ausstattete. 1274 kam er mit seinem Neffen Heinrich IV. von Breslau in Streit, warf diesen ins Gefängnis und wurde durch den böhmischen König Ottokar II. zu dessen Freilassung gezwungen.

Literatur [Bearbeiten]

   * Colmar Grünhagen: Boleslaw II., Herzog von Schlesien, der Kahle. In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Bd. 3, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1876, S. 100 f.
   * Hans Jürgen Rieckenberg: Boleslaw II., der Kahle. In: Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB). Band 2, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1955, S. 430 f.
   * Hugo Weczerka (Hrsg.): Handbuch der historischen Stätten. Schlesien. Kröner, Stuttgart 1977, ISBN 3-520-31601-3, Stammtafeln auf S. 590 und 593.

Weblinks [Bearbeiten]

   * Genealogie

Normdaten: PND: 120032430 (PICA) | WP-Personeninfo

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Boleslaw II the Horned's Timeline

Wrocław, Dolnośląskie, Polska
Legnica, Wroclaw, Poland
Silesia, Poland
Legnica, Legnica, Dolnośląskie, Poland
Silesia, Poland
Silesia, Poland