Cadwallon, King of Gwynedd

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Cadwallon ap Cadfan, Brenin Gwynedd

Latin: Catguollaun ap Cadfan, Brenin Gwynedd
Birthdate: (34)
Birthplace: Gwynedd, Wales
Death: 634 (30-38)
Denis's Brook (now the Rowley Burn), 4 miles north of Hexham, near Hadrian's Wall (Killed by Oswald's forces at the Battle of Heavenfield)
Place of Burial: Llancadwalladr, Wales
Immediate Family:

Son of Cadfan ap Iago, King of Gwynedd and Tandreg Ddu verch Cynan Garwyn
Husband of Elen
Father of Cadwallon, King of Gwynedd; Hywel ap Cadwallon and Cadwaladr "The Blessed" ap Cadwallon, King
Brother of Efeilian verch Cadfan and N.N. verch Cadfan

Occupation: King of Gwynedd 625-634 AD
Managed by: James Fred Patin, Jr.
Last Updated:

About Cadwallon, King of Gwynedd

Please see Peter Bartrum, http://cadair.aber.ac.uk/dspace/bitstream/handle/2160/6516/TABLES%20-%20EARLY%20SERIES_03.png?sequence=43&isAllowed=y (April 30, 2018; Anne Brannen, curator)

http://www.earlybritishkingdoms.com/archaeology/llangadwaladrch.html

ID: I104152

Name: CADWALLON II AP CADFAN

Prefix: KING OF GWYNEDD

Sex: M

Birth: 591 CE in , , Wales

Death: 634 CE in DENISE'S BURN, YORKSHIRE OR NORÞHUMBERLAND, ENGLAND of KILLED IN BATTLE 1

Event: KING OF GWYNEDD Coronation 620

Event: IN EXILE Resided BETWEEN 620 AND 627 CE

Event: ALLIED WITH PENDA OF MERCIA TO DEFEAT SAXON KING Politics 633 CE

Change Date: 13 Jan 2009 at 01:52

Father: CADFAN AP IAGO b: 569 CE

Mother: Tandreg Ddu ferch Cynan b: 569 CE in Powys, Montgomery, Wales

Marriage 1 HELEN MIERCNA b: 594 CE in , Mercia, England

Married:

Change Date: 13 Jan 2009

Children

CADWALADR FENDIGAID AP CADWALLON b: 615 CE in , , Wales

Sources:

Abbrev: Sutton Folk Family Tree 3175463.ged

Title: Sutton Folk Family Tree

Sutton Folk Family Tree 3175463.ged

Author: Folk, Linda Sutton

Publication: www.worldconnect.rootsweb.com


Cadwallon ap Cadfan (died 634[1]) was the King of Gwynedd from around 625 until his death in battle. The son and successor of Cadfan ap Iago, he is best remembered as the King of the Britons who devastated Northumbria, defeating and killing its king, Edwin, prior to his own death in battle against Oswald of Bernicia.

The historian Bede, writing about a century after Cadwallon's death, mentions that Edwin, the most powerful king in Britain, extended his rule to the Isle of Man and Anglesey.[2] The Annales Cambriae says that Cadwallon was besieged at Glannauc (Priestholm, or Puffin Island), a small island off eastern Anglesey, and dates this to 629.[3] Surviving Welsh poetry portrays Cadwallon as a heroic leader against Edwin. It refers to a battle at Digoll (Long Mountain) and mentions that Cadwallon spent time in Ireland before returning to Britain to defeat Edwin.[4]

According to Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (which includes a fairly extensive account of Cadwallon's life but is largely legendary—for example, Geoffrey has Cadwallon surviving until after the Battle of the Winwaed in 654 or 655), Cadwallon went to Ireland and then to the island of Guernsey. From there, according to Geoffrey, Cadwallon led an army into Dumnonia, where he encountered and defeated the Mercians besieging Exeter, and forced their king, Penda, into an alliance. Geoffrey also reports that Cadwallon married a half-sister of Penda.[5] However, his history is, on this as well as all matters, suspect, and it should be treated with caution.

In any case, Penda and Cadwallon together made war against the Northumbrians. A battle was fought at Hatfield Chase on October 12, 633[1] which ended in the defeat and death of Edwin and his son Osfrith.[6] After this, the Kingdom of Northumbria fell into disarray, divided between its sub-kingdoms of Deira and Bernicia,[7] but the war continued: according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, "Cadwallon and Penda went and did for the whole land of Northumbria".[8] Bede says that Cadwallon was besieged by the new king of Deira, Osric, "in a strong town"; Cadwallon, however, "sallied out on a sudden with all his forces, by surprise, and destroyed him [Osric] and all his army." After this, according to Bede, Cadwallon ruled over the "provinces of the Northumbrians" for a year, "not like a victorious king, but like a rapacious and bloody tyrant."[7] Furthermore, Bede tells us that Cadwallon, "though he bore the name and professed himself a Christian, was so barbarous in his disposition and behaviour, that he neither spared the female sex, nor the innocent age of children, but with savage cruelty put them to tormenting deaths, ravaging all their country for a long time, and resolving to cut off all the race of the English within the borders of Britain."[6]

The new king of Bernicia, Eanfrith, was also killed by Cadwallon when the former went to him in an attempt to negotiate peace. However, Cadwallon was defeated by an army under Eanfrith's brother, Oswald, at the Battle of Heavenfield, "though he had most numerous forces, which he boasted nothing could withstand". Cadwallon was killed at a place called "Denis's-brook".[7]

[edit]


Cadwallon ap Cadfan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cadwallon ap Cadfan (died 634[1]) was the King of Gwynedd from around 625 until his death in battle. The son and successor of Cadfan ap Iago, he is best remembered as the King of the Britons who devastated Northumbria, defeating and killing its king, Edwin, prior to his own death in battle against Oswald of Bernicia.

The historian Bede, writing about a century after Cadwallon's death, mentions that Edwin, the most powerful king in Britain, extended his rule to the Isle of Man and Anglesey.[2] The Annales Cambriae says that Cadwallon was besieged at Glannauc (Priestholm, or Puffin Island), a small island off eastern Anglesey, and dates this to 629.[3] Surviving Welsh poetry portrays Cadwallon as a heroic leader against Edwin. It refers to a battle at Digoll (Long Mountain) and mentions that Cadwallon spent time in Ireland before returning to Britain to defeat Edwin.[4]

According to Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (which includes a fairly extensive account of Cadwallon's life but is largely legendary—for example, Geoffrey has Cadwallon surviving until after the Battle of the Winwaed in 654 or 655), Cadwallon went to Ireland and then to the island of Guernsey. From there, according to Geoffrey, Cadwallon led an army into Dumnonia, where he encountered and defeated the Mercians besieging Exeter, and forced their king, Penda, into an alliance. Geoffrey also reports that Cadwallon married a half-sister of Penda.[5] However, his history is, on this as well as all matters, suspect, and it should be treated with caution.

In any case, Penda and Cadwallon together made war against the Northumbrians. A battle was fought at Hatfield Chase on October 12, 633[1] which ended in the defeat and death of Edwin and his son Osfrith.[6] After this, the Kingdom of Northumbria fell into disarray, divided between its sub-kingdoms of Deira and Bernicia,[7] but the war continued: according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, "Cadwallon and Penda went and did for the whole land of Northumbria".[8] Bede says that Cadwallon was besieged by the new king of Deira, Osric, "in a strong town"; Cadwallon, however, "sallied out on a sudden with all his forces, by surprise, and destroyed him [Osric] and all his army." After this, according to Bede, Cadwallon ruled over the "provinces of the Northumbrians" for a year, "not like a victorious king, but like a rapacious and bloody tyrant."[7] Furthermore, Bede tells us that Cadwallon, "though he bore the name and professed himself a Christian, was so barbarous in his disposition and behaviour, that he neither spared the female sex, nor the innocent age of children, but with savage cruelty put them to tormenting deaths, ravaging all their country for a long time, and resolving to cut off all the race of the English within the borders of Britain."[6]

The new king of Bernicia, Eanfrith, was also killed by Cadwallon when the former went to him in an attempt to negotiate peace. However, Cadwallon was defeated by an army under Eanfrith's brother, Oswald, at the Battle of Heavenfield, "though he had most numerous forces, which he boasted nothing could withstand". Cadwallon was killed at a place called "Denis's-brook".[7]

Notes and references

^ a b A difference in the interpretation of Bede's dates has led to the question of whether Cadwallon was killed in 634 or the year earlier, 633. Cadwallon died in the year after Hatfield Chase, which Bede reports as occurring in October 633; but if Bede's years are believed to have actually started in September, as some historians have argued, then Hatfield Chase would have occurred in 632, and therefore Cadwallon would have died in 633. Other historians have argued against this view of Bede's chronology, however, favoring the dates as he gives them.

^ Bede, H. E., Book II, chapter 9. Bede calls these two islands the Mevanian Islands.

^ Annales Cambriae, 629.

^ D. P. Kirby, The Earliest English Kings (1991, 2000), pages 71–72.

^ Geoffrey of Monmouth, The History of the Kings of Britain, Part Eight: "The Saxon Domination."

^ a b Bede, H. E., Book II, chapter 20.

^ a b c Bede, H. E., Book III, chapter 1.

^ Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, manuscript E, year 633. Translated by Michael Swanton (1996, 1998).

Further reading

Alex Woolf, "Caedualla Rex Brittonum and the Passing of the Old North", in Northern History, Vol. 41, Issue 1, March 2004, pages 5–24. Woolf presents a case against the identification of the Cadwallon mentioned in Bede's history with a son of Cadfan.


Cadwallon ap Cadfan (died 634) was the King of Gwynedd from around 625 until his death in battle. The son and successor of Cadfan ap Iago, he is best remembered as the King of the Britons who devastated Northumbria, defeating and killing its king, Edwin, prior to his own death in battle against Oswald of Bernicia.

The historian Bede, writing about a century after Cadwallon's death, mentions that Edwin, the most powerful king in Britain, extended his rule to the Isle of Man and Anglesey.[2] The Annales Cambriae says that Cadwallon was besieged at Glannauc (Priestholm, or Puffin Island), a small island off eastern Anglesey, and dates this to 629.[3] Surviving Welsh poetry portrays Cadwallon as a heroic leader against Edwin. It refers to a battle at Digoll (Long Mountain) and mentions that Cadwallon spent time in Ireland before returning to Britain to defeat Edwin.

According to Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (which includes a fairly extensive account of Cadwallon's life but is largely legendary—for example, Geoffrey has Cadwallon surviving until after the Battle of the Winwaed in 654 or 655), Cadwallon went to Ireland and then to the island of Guernsey. From there, according to Geoffrey, Cadwallon led an army into Dumnonia, where he encountered and defeated the Mercians besieging Exeter, and forced their king, Penda, into an alliance. Geoffrey also reports that Cadwallon married a half-sister of Penda.[5] However, his history is, on this as well as all matters, suspect, and it should be treated with caution.

In any case, Penda and Cadwallon together made war against the Northumbrians. A battle was fought at Hatfield Chase on October 12, 633[1] which ended in the defeat and death of Edwin and his son Osfrith.[6] After this, the Kingdom of Northumbria fell into disarray, divided between its sub-kingdoms of Deira and Bernicia,[7] but the war continued: according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, "Cadwallon and Penda went and did for the whole land of Northumbria".[8] Bede says that Cadwallon was besieged by the new king of Deira, Osric, "in a strong town"; Cadwallon, however, "sallied out on a sudden with all his forces, by surprise, and destroyed him [Osric] and all his army." After this, according to Bede, Cadwallon ruled over the "provinces of the Northumbrians" for a year, "not like a victorious king, but like a rapacious and bloody tyrant."[7] Furthermore, Bede tells us that Cadwallon, "though he bore the name and professed himself a Christian, was so barbarous in his disposition and behaviour, that he neither spared the female sex, nor the innocent age of children, but with savage cruelty put them to tormenting deaths, ravaging all their country for a long time, and resolving to cut off all the race of the English within the borders of Britain."

The new king of Bernicia, Eanfrith, was also killed by Cadwallon when the former went to him in an attempt to negotiate peace. However, Cadwallon was defeated by an army under Eanfrith's brother, Oswald, at the Battle of Heavenfield, "though he had most numerous forces, which he boasted nothing could withstand". Cadwallon was killed at a place called "Denis's-brook".


Cadwallon ap Cadfan (died 634[1]) was the King of Gwynedd from around 625 until his death in battle. The son and successor of Cadfan ap Iago, he is best remembered as the King of the Britons who devastated Northumbria, defeating and killing its king, Edwin, prior to his own death in battle against Oswald of Bernicia.

The historian Bede, writing about a century after Cadwallon's death, mentions that Edwin, the most powerful king in Britain, extended his rule to the Isle of Man and Anglesey.[2] The Annales Cambriae says that Cadwallon was besieged at Glannauc (Priestholm, or Puffin Island), a small island off eastern Anglesey, and dates this to 629.[3] Surviving Welsh poetry portrays Cadwallon as a heroic leader against Edwin. It refers to a battle at Digoll (Long Mountain) and mentions that Cadwallon spent time in Ireland before returning to Britain to defeat Edwin.[4]

According to Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (which includes a fairly extensive account of Cadwallon's life but is largely legendary—for example, Geoffrey has Cadwallon surviving until after the Battle of the Winwaed in 654 or 655), Cadwallon went to Ireland and then to the island of Guernsey. From there, according to Geoffrey, Cadwallon led an army into Dumnonia, where he encountered and defeated the Mercians besieging Exeter, and forced their king, Penda, into an alliance. Geoffrey also reports that Cadwallon married a half-sister of Penda.[5] However, his history is, on this as well as all matters, suspect, and it should be treated with caution.

In any case, Penda and Cadwallon together made war against the Northumbrians. A battle was fought at Hatfield Chase on October 12, 633[1] which ended in the defeat and death of Edwin and his son Osfrith.[6] After this, the Kingdom of Northumbria fell into disarray, divided between its sub-kingdoms of Deira and Bernicia,[7] but the war continued: according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, "Cadwallon and Penda went and did for the whole land of Northumbria".[8] Bede says that Cadwallon was besieged by the new king of Deira, Osric, "in a strong town"; Cadwallon, however, "sallied out on a sudden with all his forces, by surprise, and destroyed him [Osric] and all his army." After this, according to Bede, Cadwallon ruled over the "provinces of the Northumbrians" for a year, "not like a victorious king, but like a rapacious and bloody tyrant."[7] Furthermore, Bede tells us that Cadwallon, "though he bore the name and professed himself a Christian, was so barbarous in his disposition and behaviour, that he neither spared the female sex, nor the innocent age of children, but with savage cruelty put them to tormenting deaths, ravaging all their country for a long time, and resolving to cut off all the race of the English within the borders of Britain."[6]

The new king of Bernicia, Eanfrith, was also killed by Cadwallon when the former went to him in an attempt to negotiate peace. However, Cadwallon was defeated by an army under Eanfrith's brother, Oswald, at the Battle of Heavenfield, "though he had most numerous forces, which he boasted nothing could withstand". Cadwallon was killed at a place called "Denis's-brook".[7]

[edit]


Cadwallon ap Cadfan (died 634[1]) was the King of Gwynedd from around 625 until his death in battle. The son and successor of Cadfan ap Iago, he is best remembered as the King of the Britons who devastated Northumbria, defeating and killing its king, Edwin, prior to his own death in battle against Oswald of Bernicia.

The historian Bede, writing about a century after Cadwallon's death, mentions that Edwin, the most powerful king in Britain, extended his rule to the Isle of Man and Anglesey.[2] The Annales Cambriae says that Cadwallon was besieged at Glannauc (Priestholm, or Puffin Island), a small island off eastern Anglesey, and dates this to 629.[3] Surviving Welsh poetry portrays Cadwallon as a heroic leader against Edwin. It refers to a battle at Digoll (Long Mountain) and mentions that Cadwallon spent time in Ireland before returning to Britain to defeat Edwin.[4]

According to Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (which includes a fairly extensive account of Cadwallon's life but is largely legendary—for example, Geoffrey has Cadwallon surviving until after the Battle of the Winwaed in 654 or 655), Cadwallon went to Ireland and then to the island of Guernsey. From there, according to Geoffrey, Cadwallon led an army into Dumnonia, where he encountered and defeated the Mercians besieging Exeter, and forced their king, Penda, into an alliance. Geoffrey also reports that Cadwallon married a half-sister of Penda.[5] However, his history is, on this as well as all matters, suspect, and it should be treated with caution.

In any case, Penda and Cadwallon together made war against the Northumbrians. A battle was fought at Hatfield Chase on October 12, 633[1] which ended in the defeat and death of Edwin and his son Osfrith.[6] After this, the Kingdom of Northumbria fell into disarray, divided between its sub-kingdoms of Deira and Bernicia,[7] but the war continued: according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, "Cadwallon and Penda went and did for the whole land of Northumbria".[8] Bede says that Cadwallon was besieged by the new king of Deira, Osric, "in a strong town"; Cadwallon, however, "sallied out on a sudden with all his forces, by surprise, and destroyed him [Osric] and all his army." After this, according to Bede, Cadwallon ruled over the "provinces of the Northumbrians" for a year, "not like a victorious king, but like a rapacious and bloody tyrant."[7] Furthermore, Bede tells us that Cadwallon, "though he bore the name and professed himself a Christian, was so barbarous in his disposition and behaviour, that he neither spared the female sex, nor the innocent age of children, but with savage cruelty put them to tormenting deaths, ravaging all their country for a long time, and resolving to cut off all the race of the English within the borders of Britain."[6]

The new king of Bernicia, Eanfrith, was also killed by Cadwallon when the former went to him in an attempt to negotiate peace. However, Cadwallon was defeated by an army under Eanfrith's brother, Oswald, at the Battle of Heavenfield, "though he had most numerous forces, which he boasted nothing could withstand". Cadwallon was killed at a place called "Denis's-brook".[7]

[edit]


Cadwallon ap Cadfan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cadwallon ap Cadfan (died 634[1]) was the King of Gwynedd from around 625 until his death in battle. The son and successor of Cadfan ap Iago, he is best remembered as the King of the Britons who devastated Northumbria, defeating and killing its king, Edwin, prior to his own death in battle against Oswald of Bernicia.

The historian Bede, writing about a century after Cadwallon's death, mentions that Edwin, the most powerful king in Britain, extended his rule to the Isle of Man and Anglesey.[2] The Annales Cambriae says that Cadwallon was besieged at Glannauc (Priestholm, or Puffin Island), a small island off eastern Anglesey, and dates this to 629.[3] Surviving Welsh poetry portrays Cadwallon as a heroic leader against Edwin. It refers to a battle at Digoll (Long Mountain) and mentions that Cadwallon spent time in Ireland before returning to Britain to defeat Edwin.[4]

According to Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (which includes a fairly extensive account of Cadwallon's life but is largely legendary—for example, Geoffrey has Cadwallon surviving until after the Battle of the Winwaed in 654 or 655), Cadwallon went to Ireland and then to the island of Guernsey. From there, according to Geoffrey, Cadwallon led an army into Dumnonia, where he encountered and defeated the Mercians besieging Exeter, and forced their king, Penda, into an alliance. Geoffrey also reports that Cadwallon married a half-sister of Penda.[5] However, his history is, on this as well as all matters, suspect, and it should be treated with caution.

His son was Cadwaladr "Fendigaid" ap Cadwallon.

In any case, Penda and Cadwallon together made war against the Northumbrians. A battle was fought at Hatfield Chase on October 12, 633[1] which ended in the defeat and death of Edwin and his son Osfrith.[6] After this, the Kingdom of Northumbria fell into disarray, divided between its sub-kingdoms of Deira and Bernicia,[7] but the war continued: according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, "Cadwallon and Penda went and did for the whole land of Northumbria".[8] Bede says that Cadwallon was besieged by the new king of Deira, Osric, "in a strong town"; Cadwallon, however, "sallied out on a sudden with all his forces, by surprise, and destroyed him [Osric] and all his army." After this, according to Bede, Cadwallon ruled over the "provinces of the Northumbrians" for a year, "not like a victorious king, but like a rapacious and bloody tyrant."[7] Furthermore, Bede tells us that Cadwallon, "though he bore the name and professed himself a Christian, was so barbarous in his disposition and behaviour, that he neither spared the female sex, nor the innocent age of children, but with savage cruelty put them to tormenting deaths, ravaging all their country for a long time, and resolving to cut off all the race of the English within the borders of Britain."[6]

The new king of Bernicia, Eanfrith, was also killed by Cadwallon when the former went to him in an attempt to negotiate peace. However, Cadwallon was defeated by an army under Eanfrith's brother, Oswald, at the Battle of Heavenfield, "though he had most numerous forces, which he boasted nothing could withstand". Cadwallon was killed at a place called "Denis's-brook".[7]

[edit]Notes and references

^ a b A difference in the interpretation of Bede's dates has led to the question of whether Cadwallon was killed in 634 or the year earlier, 633. Cadwallon died in the year after Hatfield Chase, which Bede reports as occurring in October 633; but if Bede's years are believed to have actually started in September, as some historians have argued, then Hatfield Chase would have occurred in 632, and therefore Cadwallon would have died in 633. Other historians have argued against this view of Bede's chronology, however, favoring the dates as he gives them.

^ Bede, H. E., Book II, chapter 9. Bede calls these two islands the Mevanian Islands.

^ Annales Cambriae, 629.

^ D. P. Kirby, The Earliest English Kings (1991, 2000), pages 71–72.

^ Geoffrey of Monmouth, The History of the Kings of Britain, Part Eight: "The Saxon Domination."

^ a b Bede, H. E., Book II, chapter 20.

^ a b c Bede, H. E., Book III, chapter 1.

^ Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, manuscript E, year 633. Translated by Michael Swanton (1996, 1998).

[edit]Further reading

Alex Woolf, "Caedualla Rex Brittonum and the Passing of the Old North", in Northern History, Vol. 41, Issue 1, March 2004, pages 5–24. Woolf presents a case that later genealogists have erroneously inserted Bede's Cadwallon into the pedigree of the unrelated Kings of Gwynedd as son of Cadfan. Instead, he suggests that Bede's Cadwallon was the "Catguallaun liu" found in genealogies as son of "Guitcun" and grandson of Sawyl Penuchel.

  • Cadwallon Ap Cadfan King of Gwynedd and Prince of North Wales

born about 0591 Wales

father:

  • Cadfan Ap Iago King of Gwynedd

born about 0569 Wales

died 0613

mother:

  • Tandreg "Ddu" Verch Cynan

born about 0569 Powys, Wales

siblings:

Efeilian Verch Cadfan born about 0589 Wales

Miss Verch Cadfan born about 0593 Wales

spouse:

  • wife of Cadwallon Ap Cadfan

born about 0594 Wales

children:

  • Cadwaladr "Fendigaid" Ap Cadwallon

born about 0615 Wales

died 0664

biographical and/or anecdotal:

notes or source:

LDS


Best remembered as the King of the Britons. Killed by the army of Oswald of Bernicia at the Battle of Heavenfield.

Source:

The book, 'Kings & Queens of Great Britain'


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cadwallon_ap_Cadfan
Cadwallon ap Cadfan was the King of Gwynedd from around 625 until his death in battle. He is best remembered as the King of the Britons who devastated North Umbria, defeating and killing its King, Edwin, prior to his own death in battle against Oswald of Bernicia.

The historian Bede, writing about a century after Cadwallon's death, mentions that Edwin, the most powerful King in Britain, extended his rule to the Isle of Man and Anglesey. The Annales Cambriae says that Cadwallon was besieged at Glannauc (Priestholm, or Puffin Island), a small island off eastern Anglesey, and dates this to 629. Surviving Welsh poetry portrays Cadwallon as a heroic leader against Edwin. It refers to a battle at Digoll (Long Mountain) and mentions that Cadwallon spent time in Ireland before returning to Britain to defeat Edwin.

According to Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain (which includes a fairly extensive account of Cadwallon's life but is largely legendary—for example, Geoffrey has Cadwallon surviving until after the Battle of the Winwaed in 654 or 655), Cadwallon went to Ireland and then to the island of Guernsey. From there, according to Geoffrey, Cadwallon led an army into Dumnonia, where he encountered and defeated the Mercians besieging Exeter, and forced their king, Penda, into an alliance. Geoffrey also reports that Cadwallon married a half-sister of Penda. However, his history is, on this as well as all matters, suspect, and it should be treated with caution.

In any case, Penda and Cadwallon together made war against the North Umbrians. A battle was fought at Hatfield Chase on October 12, 633, which ended in the defeat and death of Edwin and his son Osfrith. After this, the Kingdom of North Umbria fell into disarray, divided between its sub-kingdoms of Deira and Bernicia, but the war continued: according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, "Cadwallon and Penda went and did for the whole land of North Umbria."

Bede says that Cadwallon was besieged by the new King of Deira, Osric, "in a strong town"; Cadwallon, however, "sallied out on a sudden with all his forces, by surprise, and destroyed him [Osric] and all his army." After this, according to Bede, Cadwallon ruled over the "provinces of the North Umbrians" for a year, "not like a victorious King, but like a rapacious and bloody tyrant."

Furthermore, Bede tells us that Cadwallon, "though he bore the name and professed himself a Christian, was so barbarous in his disposition and behavior, that he neither spared the female sex, nor the innocent age of children, but with savage cruelty put them to tormenting deaths, ravaging all their country for a long time, and resolving to cut off all the race of the English within the borders of Britain."

The new King of Bernicia, Eanfrith, was also killed by Cadwallon when the former went to him in an attempt to negotiate peace. However, Cadwallon was defeated by an army under Eanfrith's brother, Oswald, at the Battle of Heavenfield, "though he had most numerous forces, which he boasted nothing could withstand." Cadwallon was killed at a place called "Denis's-brook."

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cadwallon_ap_Cadfan for more information.


Cadwallon ap Cadfan (died 634) was the King of Gwynedd from around 625 until his death in battle. The son and successor of Cadfan ap Iago, he is best remembered as the King of the Britons who devastated Northumbria, defeating and killing its king, Edwin, prior to his own death in battle against Oswald of Bernicia.

Please see Darrell Wolcott: The Royal Family of Gwynedd - Ancestry of Cynan Tyndaethwy; http://www.ancientwalesstudies.org/id16.html. (Steven Ferry, March 27, 2017.)

Please see Darrell Wolcott: The Composite Lives of St Beuno; http://www.ancientwalesstudies.org/id23.html. (Steven Ferry, April 5, 2017.)

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Cadwallon, King of Gwynedd's Timeline

600
600
Gwynedd, Wales
615
615
Age 15
CAERNARVONSHIRE, GWYNEDD, Wales
630
630
Age 30
Wales
634
634
Age 34
Denis's Brook (now the Rowley Burn), 4 miles north of Hexham, near Hadrian's Wall
634
Age 34
Llancadwalladr, Wales
682
682
Age 34