Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore

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Cecilius Calvert

Also Known As: "Cecil", "Cæcilius"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Bexley, Kent, England
Death: Died in Bexley, Kent, England
Place of Burial: St. Giles-in-the-Fields, Middlesex, England
Immediate Family:

Son of George Calvert and Anne Calvert
Husband of Anne Calvert
Father of George Calvert; Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore; Mary Blakiston (Calvert); Ann Calvert and Leonard Calvert
Brother of Leonard Calvert, 1st Proprietary Governor of Maryland; Anne Peasley; Dorothy Talbot; Elizabeth Matthews; Francis Calvert and 5 others
Half brother of Philip Calvert, 5th Proprietary Governor of Maryland

Occupation: Colonist
Managed by: Kevin Lawrence Hanit
Last Updated:

About Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore

Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore was baptised on 2 March 1605/6 at Bexley, Kent, England. [2] He died circa December 1675. [3] He was buried on 7 December 1675 at St. Gile's-in-the-Fields Church, London, England.[3] His will (dated 22 November 1675 and 28 November 1675) was probated on 3 February 1675/76.[3]

Parents: son of George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore and Anne Mynne. [2]

Married:

  1. A settlement for the marriage between him and Hon. Anne Arundell was made on 20 March 1627/28. [1,3]

Events

  • He was heavily fined (or 'mulcted') by the Parliamentary party, though he is not known to have actually fought for the King. [3]
  • He succeeded to the title of 2nd Baron Baltimore, of Baltimore [I., 1625] on 15 April 1632. [2]
  • He has an extensive biographical entry in the Dictionary of National Biography. [4]
    

Children of Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore and Hon. Anne Arundell

  1. Mary Calvert [5]
  2. Hon. George Calvert [3] b. 15 Sep 1634, d. Jun 1636
  3. Maj.-Gen. Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore [3] b. 27 Aug 1637, d. 21 Feb 1714/15

Citations

  1. [S21] L. G. Pine, The New Extinct Peerage 1884-1971: Containing Extinct, Abeyant, Dormant and Suspended Peerages With Genealogies and Arms (London, U.K.: Heraldry Today, 1972), page 9. Hereinafter cited as The New Extinct Peerage.
  2. [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume I, page 393. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
  3. [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume I, page 394.
  4. [S18] Matthew H.C.G., editor, Dictionary of National Biography on CD-ROM (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1995), Calvert, Cecil. Hereinafter cited as Dictionary of National Biography.
  5. [S15] George Edward Cokayne, editor, The Complete Baronetage, 5 volumes (no date (c. 1900); reprint, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 1983), volume II, page 188. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Baronetage.

Links

  1. ThePeerage: Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore
  2. Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore
  3. Archives of Maryland (Biographical Series) Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore (1605-1675) Retrieved June 2011
  4. Archives of Maryland (Biographical Series) Leonard Calvert (ca. 1606-1647) Retrieved June 2011
  5. Find A Grave Memorial# 8262

Sources

  1. William Hand Browne, George Calvert and Cecilius Calvert, 1890
  2. David B. Quinn (ed.), Early Maryland in a Wider World, 1982
  3. David W. Jordon, Foundations of Representative Government in Maryland, 1632-1715, 1987.

_________________________________


Cecilius Calvert, Second Baron Baltimore (August 8, 1605 – November 30, 1675), was an English peer who was the first Proprietor and Proprietary Governor of the Province of Maryland, and ninth Proprietary Governor of the Colony of Newfoundland and the colony of Avalon (in the southeast). His title was "Cecilius Calvert, Second Baron Baltimore, First Lord Proprietary, Earl - Palatine of the Provinces of Maryland and Avalon in America". He received the proprietorship after the death of his father, George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, (April 15, 1632), for whom it was intended. "Cecil Calvert" (as he was known) established and managed the Province of Maryland from his home "Kiplin Hall" in North Yorkshire, England; as a Roman Catholic, he continued the legacy of his father by promoting religious tolerance in the colony.

Maryland became known as a haven for Catholics in the New World, particularly important at a time of religious persecution in England. Calvert governed Maryland for forty-two years.[2] He also continued to be Lord Proprietor and Governor of Newfoundland for the colony of Avalon. He died in England on November 30, 1675, aged 70 years. He is buried at St. Giles-in-the-Fields Church, London, UK.[3][4]The exact location of his grave on church grounds is unknown, church records state he is buried there.[5] A plaque commemorating Cecilius Calvert was placed in St. Giles in 1996 by the Governor of Maryland.

Early life and education[edit]

[icon] This section requires expansion. (June 2008) Cecilius Calvert, whose first name was sometimes spelled "Cæcilius", or "Caecilius", was born on August 8, 1605, in Kent, England to George Calvert, the First Lord Baltimore and Anne Mynne (or Mayne).[6] He was generally known as Cecil Calvert, and was the first of several sons of the couple. At the time, his father was under pressure for conformity, and all ten children were baptized as Christians in the Anglican (Protestant) tradition.[7]

Calvert entered Trinity College at the University of Oxford in 1621. His mother Anne Mynne (or Mayne) died the following year.[7] His father George Calvert, First Lord Baltimore converted to Roman Catholicism in 1625, and it is likely that his children followed him; at least his sons did.

On August 8, 1633, Calvert was admitted to Gray's Inn as a barrister.[6]

Settlement of the Maryland colony[edit]

Maryland Charter[edit] Calvert received a Charter from Charles I of England for the new colony of Maryland, to be named for the Queen Consort Henrietta Maria (wife of King Charles). This was shortly after the death of his father, the First Baron Baltimore, who had long sought the charter to found a colony in the mid-Atlantic area to serve as a refuge for English Catholics. The "Original Grant" would have included the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay as far south as the Potomac River and the entirety of the eastern shore (future "Delmarva" peninsula). When the Crown realized that settlers from Virginia had already crossed the Bay to begin settling the southern tip of their eastern shore, the grant was revised to include the eastern shore only as far south as a line drawn east from the mouth of the Potomac River (including the future State of Delaware). Once that alteration was made, the final charter was confirmed on June 20, 1632.

Baltimore's fee for the Charter, which was legally a rental of the land from the King, was one-fifth of all gold and silver found and the delivery of two Native American arrows to the royal castle at Windsor every Easter.[8] The Charter established Maryland as a palatinate, giving Baltimore and his descendants rights nearly equal to those of an independent state, including the rights to wage war, collect taxes, and establish a colonial nobility.[9] In questions of interpretation of rights, the Charter would be interpreted in favor of the proprietor.[10] Supporters in England of the Virginia colony opposed the Charter, as they had little interest in having a competing colony to the north.[11] Rather than going to the colony himself, Baltimore stayed behind in England to deal with the political threat and sent his next younger brother Leonard in his stead. He never traveled to Maryland.[11]

While the expedition was being prepared, Baltimore was busy in England defending the 1632 Charter from former members of the Virginia Company. They were trying to regain their original Charter, including the entirety of the new Maryland colony, which had previously been included within the domains described as a part of Virginia.[12] They had informally tried to thwart the founding of another colony for years, but their first formal complaint was lodged with the "Lords of Foreign Plantations" (Lords of Trade and Plantations) in July 1633.[12] The complaint claimed that Maryland had not truly been unsettled, as stated in its charter, because William Claiborne had previously run a trading station on Kent Island in the middle of Chesapeake Bay off the eastern shore.[12] It also claimed that the Charter was so broad as to constitute a violation of the liberties of the colony's subjects. At this point there were few Marylanders yet in residence.[13]

"Ark" and "Dove"[edit]

Modern reconstruction of "Dove", one of the two ships that carried settlers to plant Lord Baltimore's first settlement in Maryland in 1634. 
Leonard Calvert, Lord Baltimore's younger brother and the first governor of the Maryland colony. The first expedition consisted of two ships that had formerly belonged to Baltimore's father George, "Ark" and "Dove".[14] They departed from Gravesend in Kent with 128 settlers on board. They were chased and forced to return by the British Royal Navy so that the settlers would take an oath of allegiance to the King as required by law. They then sailed in October 1632, for the Isle of Wight to pick up more settlers.[14] There, two Jesuit priests (including Father Andrew White) and nearly 200 more settlers boarded before the ships set out across the Atlantic Ocean.[15] 

Baltimore sent detailed instructions for the governance of the colony. He directed his brother to seek information about those who had tried to thwart the colony and to contact William Claiborne to determine his intentions for the trading station on Kent Island.[16] He also emphasized the importance of religious toleration among the colonists, who numbered nearly equally Catholic and Protestant.[16] With these last instructions, the expedition crossed the Atlantic and sailed through the capes of Charles and Henry into the large harbor and lower bay called Hampton Roads at the mouths of the Chesapeake Bay and the James River. After meeting with the Virginians at their colony and capital of Jamestown, they continued up the Bay to the Potomac River, then further upstream and landed on March 25, 1634, at Blakistone Island (later called St. Clement's Island). There they erected a cross and celebrated their first Mass with Father White. Several days later, they returned downstream and founded the first settlement at St. Mary's City (in the future St. Mary's County), on March 27, 1634, on land purchased from the native Yaocomico tribe, a branch of the Piscataway Indians.[17] From England, Baltimore tried to manage the political relations with the Crown and other parts of government. Claiborne, the trader on Kent Island, resisted the new settlement and conducted some naval skirmishes against it.[18]

Lord Baltimore attempted to stay closely involved in the governance of the colony, though he never visited it. During his long tenure, he governed through deputies: the first was his younger brother Leonard Calvert (1606–1647), [19] and the last was his only son Charles.

Crisis during the English civil war[edit]

Main article: Battle of the Severn The enterprise took place in the context of serious unrest in England.[11] In 1629, King Charles I had dissolved Parliament and governed for the next eleven years without consultation from any representative body.[11] The Church of England, led by the Star Chamber, intensified its campaign against both Puritans and Catholics.[11] The former left England for the Netherlands and then a colony in New England colony. Catholics began to see Maryland as their sole English-speaking place of refuge.[11]

Lord Baltimore, a Catholic, struggled to maintain possession of Maryland during the English Civil War by trying to convince Parliament of his loyalty; he appointed a Protestant, William Stone, as his governor. It's accepted he did this exclusively to maintain possession of the colony during the civil war, as his loyalties were with King Charles.

Religious toleration[edit]

The Maryland Toleration Act, passed in 1649. In 1649, Maryland passed the Maryland Toleration Act, also known as the "Act Concerning Religion", mandating religious tolerance for Trinitarian Christians only (those who profess faith in the "Holy Trinity" - Father, Son and Holy Spirit, excluding Nontrinitarian faiths). Passed on September 21, 1649, by the General Assembly of the Maryland colony, it was the first law establishing religious tolerance in the British North American colonies. The Calvert family sought enactment of the law to protect Catholic settlers and Nonconformist Protestants who did not conform to the established state Church of England of Britain and her colonies.

Baltimore's colony in Newfoundland[edit]

[icon] This section requires expansion. (June 2008) Lord Baltimore's family also had title to Ferryland and the Province of Avalon in Newfoundland. Sir George Calvert, (1579-1632), the First Lord Baltimore, administered the colony between 1629 and 1632 when he left for the Colony of Virginia and later visited the northern reaches along the Chesapeake Bay (which included the future Maryland). In 1637 however, Sir David Kirke acquired a charter giving Cecil, the Second Lord Baltimore, title to the entire island of Newfoundland superseding the charter granted to his father George, the First Baron. Baltimore fought against the new Charter. Although in 1661, he gained official recognition of the old Charter of Avalon, he never attempted to retake the Avalon colony.

Cecilius's son and heir, Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore. Marriage and family[edit]

He married Anne Arundell, daughter of the 1st Baron Arundell of Wardour, in 1627 or 1628. They had nine children. Of the nine, only three, including Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore, survived to adulthood. Later, her name became the inspiration for the naming of one of the earliest counties to be "erected" (founded) as "Anne Arundel County", with a quaint old English spelling of her name "Ann Arundell" and that of the old county which is maintained in the title of the local historical society, centered in Glen Burnie and Linthicum [1]

Cecilius Calvert died in Middlesex, England on November 30, 1675.[1] He was succeeded to the Baronetcy of Baltimore and to his other titles by his son and heir, Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore.

Legacy and honors[edit]

Maryland[edit]

In 1904, the arms were adopted as the official state Flag of Maryland. It is the only US state flag to be based on English heraldry.[20][21] Numerous place names honor the Barons Baltimore, including the counties of Baltimore, Calvert, Cecil, Charles, and Frederick.

Cities which include variations of the Calvert and Lord Baltimore's name

Baltimore City Leonardtown St. Leonard Calvert Cliffs Anne Arundel County (Anne Arundel's original spelling of her name is preserved in the name of the county's heritage organization - "Ann Arundell County Historical Society")[1] Street names

Cecil Avenue Calvert Street Charles Street in Baltimore Calvert Street in Brooklyn neighborhood of South Baltimore Calvert Street in Washington, DC Baltimore Street in Cumberland, Maryland Baltimore Street in La Plata, Maryland, Baltimore-Annapolis Boulevard (Maryland Route 648) Baltimore–Washington Parkway A 1908 statue of Cecilius Calvert stands on the steps at the west entrance of the Circuit Courthouse of Baltimore City (built 1896-1900 - renamed the Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr. Courthouse in the 1980s) facing Saint Paul Street and a small Court Plaza with a fountain. It is the site of annual "Maryland Day" (March 25) ceremonies which continue inside the elaborate Lobby and ceremonial courtrooms.

Harford County is named for Henry Harford, the illegitimate son of Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore. Although precluded by his birth status from inheriting the peerage, he inherited the Lord Proprietorship, only to lose it later during the American Revolution.

The Flag of Maryland uses the arms of the 2nd Baron with the Calvert (father's family) black and gold paly (6 vertical bars), with a bend dexter counterchanged, and the Crossland (mother's family) red and white bottony (tre-foiled) counterchanged cross. The flag first flew October 11, 1880, in Baltimore by the newly reorganized Maryland National Guard (state militia) at a parade marking the 150th anniversary of the founding of Baltimore Town (1729-1730). It also flew October 25, 1888, at Gettysburg Battlefield for ceremonies dedicating monuments to the Maryland regiments of the Army of the Potomac and of the Confederate States Army. During the Civil War, the black and gold chevrons were used as a symbol on uniforms and flags by the Northern (Union) Maryland soldiers and units and the bottonee cross from the Crosslands by the Southern (Confederate) regiments from Maryland. The later reunification of the two squares of the colonial seal and proprietary family's coat-of-arms in the increased use of a "Maryland Flag" in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries, symbolized the post-war reconciliation of the two sides of the bitterly divided border state. Officially, it was adopted as the State flag in 1904.[22]

The Great Seal of Maryland, which was stolen in 1645, was replaced by a similar seal by Cecil. The seal features the Calvert arms and motto which is still used in the Government of Maryland.

Newfoundland[edit]

On the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland is the settlement of Calvert Baltimore School is in nearby Ferryland. Coat of arms[edit]

The Arms of the Barons Baltimore which were granted to the 2nd Baron. The black and gold quarters were the arms of the Calverts themselves, while the red and silver were for the Crosslands, the family of the 1st Baron's mother, Alice.[22]

Quarterly, 1st and 4th Paly of six Or and Sable a bend counterchanged (Calvert), 2nd and 3rd Quarterly Argent and Gules over all a cross bottony counterchanged (Crosslands). Motto: Italian one, Fatti maschii, parole femine, meaning, "Manly deeds, womanly words."

 Sources 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cecilius_Calvert • WikiTree profile Calvert-490 created through the import of perry and plumb tree.ged on Aug 18, 2012 by Merry Kennedy. See the Changes page for the details of edits by Merry and others.

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Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore's Timeline

1605
March 2, 1605
Bexley, Kent, England
March 2, 1605
Bexley, Kent, England
March 2, 1605
Bexley, Kent, England
March 2, 1605
Bexley, Kent, England
August 8, 1605
Bexley, Kent, England

Cecilius Calvert is born in Kent, southeast of London (note: normally reliable secondary sources indicate that this is a birth date, and not a baptismal date - though a large number of dates recorded are taken from baptismal records, this is not true 100 percent of the time - records should be identified that corrects this, if it is actually a baptismal date). He is named for Robert Cecil, recently elevated to the title of Earl of Salisbury, and the boy is baptized in an (unspecified) Protestant church. As Robert Cecil rises in power, so too does George Calvert (age 25). Around the same time, George receives an honorary Master of Arts degree at Oxford from King James himself.

(Wikipedia: George Calvert, referencing two works: (1) English and Catholic: The Lords Baltimore in the Seventeenth Century, by John D. Krugler; (2) George Calvert and Cecilius Calvert: Barons Baltimore of Baltimore, by William Hand Browne; History of Parliament: George Calvert, referencing Al. Ox.)

August 8, 1605
Leyburn, Yorkshire, England, UK
1606
March 2, 1606
Bexley, Kent, England
1632
April 15, 1632
Age 26
London, Middlesex, England

George Calvert, the First Baron Baltimore, died at age 52 at his lodging at Lincoln Inn’s Fields. Negotiations for the establishment of Maryland were continued and finalized with the Crown by his eldest son, Cecil Calvert (age 27), who becomes the Second Baron Baltimore.

(History of Parliament: George Calvert, referencing CP, PROB 11/161, ff. 305v-6; C66/2594/5)